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C. U. C. A. 

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YOLS. II., lY., AND Y. 

In the name of my fellow-translators and myself, I desire to thank 
the literary and religious public for the favourable reception which 
^ they have given to the two volumes of the Translation of Bengel's 
Gnomon already published. In sending forth to the world the three 
remaining volumes, it is only necessary to repeat, that' no pains have 
been spared to make the Translation throughout worthy of the well- 
deserved reputation of the original. 

Of course it is not possible to reproduce in our more diffuse 
English language the terse brevity of Bengel's Latin ; but this loss 
is in some measure counterbalanced by the greater gain in clearness, 
which the Translation in many passages will be found to possess, 
when compared with the original Latin. Many readers of ordinary 
scholarship, often meet in the Latin Gnomon sentences, which, in 
order to be understood, require more patience and thought than they 
have time to bestow. They will be tempted to pass by such passages, 
and say, " Si non vis intelligi, debes negligi." Bengel's friend 
Marthius warned him of this tendency to obscurity through the ex- 
cessive brevity of his style ; " Let me beg of you," wrote Marthius 
to Bengel, " not to give your critical annotations too concisely, under 
the idea that your readers will take the trouble to think out all the 
meaning, which you intend to convey in some two or three words." 
I have tried to make such passages intelhgible to the reader by brief 
explanations, sometimes inserted in the text in brackets, sometimes 
appended as footnotes. There are also explained in the notes of this 
Translation allusions of Bengel to remote facts, usages, and persons, 
which to many readers would otherwise be obscure. The quotations 
from the Hebrew and lxx. Old Testament have been carefuUy col- 
lated, and corrected where it was necessary. 

^i editor's pkeface. 

Bengel, in the main, laid hold of the true principle for the 
restoration of the genuine text, namely, that the preference should 
be given to the oldest MSS. and Versions, though few, rather than 
to the more recent ones, however numerous. But those oldest 
!MSS. and Versions had not been so weU collated as they have 
been more recently : and we have the advantage of other ancient 
authorities, lately brought to light, which Bengel had not. The 
results of modem textual criticism are briefly, but folly, given in 
my notes ; so that the reader can at a glance see the authorities 
for, and those against, every important reading. This, I venture to 
think, much enhances the value of this Translation. 

iSTo subject is of more importance as regards exegetical criticism, 
than to rightly distinguish synonyms, so as to mark exactly the 
deHcate shades of meaning. I have therefore supplied the reader 
with many helps in this department, for which I am indebted chiefly 
to Tittmann, TVahl, and Trench. 

Occasionally, typographical mistakes occur in the Latin of modem 
editions of the Grnomon. These must perplex the reader, as they 
did myself for a time. In this Translation no such difl5culty will 

Some reviewers have objected to the retention of the technical 
terms. Bengel, in his Preface, has by anticipation answered these 
objectors : these technical terms of figures of speech, often recurrine, 
are not a pedantic display of leammg, calculated to confuse the 
English reader, but are in fact abbreviated notes, thrown into this 
form to save frequent repetition, and clearly intelligible, partly fix)m 
the context, and the brief explanations which I have inserted in 
brackets or footnotes, and more folly from the Appendix. 

In many cases the convenience of the reader is consulted by texts 
being given in fall, which are only referred to by Bengel ; and the 
emphatic part of each such text is marked in such a way that the 
intention of Bengel in referring to it, which might not be at once 
obvious, is made apparent. 

May the great Head of the Church bless this work to His own 
glory and the extension of His kingdom ! IMay it be the means, 
under Him, of leading many in this country, as it has already on the 
Continent, to an accurate, devout, and reverential study of the Sacred 



April 1858. 





John Albert Bengel was born at Winnenden, in Wiirtemberg, 
on the 24th of June 1687. His father, Albert Bengel, assistant 
parochial minister of that town, was his first instructor ; and the son 
gratefully makes mention, in after life, of his father's " easy and 
pleasant manner of instructing him." This parent died in the year 
1693 : but the providence of God raised him up, in D. W. Spindler, 
one who acted to him as a second father, and who, as tutor in the 
High School of Stuttgart, along with Seb. Kneer, completed the 
boy's first elementary education. The French invasion in Suabia, 
under Louis XIV., had caused him the loss of his father's library ; 
but even this was made by him into a subject of thankfulness in 
after hfe, that the providence of God had removed fi:om him the 
temptation of reading too great a variety of books. At the age of 
thirteen he was promoted into the Upper School, where, under Hoch- 
stetter, Erhard, and others, he made considerable proficiency in an- 
cient and modern branches of knowledge. His mother, in 1703, 
married J. Alb. Glockler, steward of the Theological Seminary of 
Maulbronn ; and it was by the kindness of this excellent man that 
he was enabled to become a member of the Theological College of 
Tiibingen. Besides his other studies here, he chose for more private 
study Aristotle and Spinoza, in which latter author's metaphysics he 
attained to such proficiency, that Professor Jager set him to arrange 
materials for a treatise, " De Spinocismo," which the Professor after- 
wards published. He also made researches preparatory to a Church 
History, about to be composed by the same author : and to Jager's 
employment of him at this time in such works, Bengel was no doubt 
indebted for that clearness of arrangement and expression, so observ- 
able in the writings of both. His attention to metaphysics and 
mathematics also tended to give him perspicuity of thought for 
analyzing the language of Scripture. Professor Hochstetter was 
another who was of great service to Bengel during his University 


career aijd subsequently. On the occasion of the latter taking 
deOTce of M.A., and the former of D.D., it was Bengels privilege, 
as respondent, to defend Hochstetter's final disputation, i?e pretio 
Eedemptionis." He, with Hochstetter, subsequently ^^penntendea 
the correction of a new edition of the ■German Bible, ^^^^^.^ °°°f™ 
to the accentuated Hebrew, as far*as could be done, ^^^^^f ^tf^ntty with 
not altering Luther's own renderings This formed a useful pre 
parative to^his critical labours in the New Testament, and also led 
to his writing an essay on the Hebrew accents wherein he wishes to 
show, that, though there is a general uniformity in the accentuation 
of all the prophe'tical books, yet each book has besides a distinct ac- 
centuation of its own, and that therefore the Hebrew accents, though 
not of equal authority with the text, are closely connected with its 
true interpretation. 

After leaving the University, Bengel, immediately upon ordina- 
tion in 1706, became curate in the City Church of Tiibingen, under 
Hochstetter. He next entered on the parochial charge of Metzingen- 
under-Urach. In his own memoir he observes, " My first fortnight's 
residence, as curate of Metzingen, convinced ine at once what a 
variety of qualifications a young clergyman ought to have for such 
an office. How totally different is it from the notions one had 
formed of it at the University !" 

Before a year had passed he was called to the office of junior 
divinity tutor at Tubingen. This was not without its benefit to him. 
He observes, " After one has spent some time among people out of 
doors, and acquired a gustum pleheium et popularem, it is useful to 
return for a while to College again, to undergo a second theological 
education. Thus, upon afterwards coming out, one is hkely to labour 
with more experience and success." 

From 1711 to 1713 he served a curacy at Stuttgart. It was about 
this period he composed a Latin treatise, " Syntagma de Sanctitate 
Dei," in which he shows, by parallel passages of Scripture, that all 
the attributes of God are implied in the Hebrew C'inp holT/, rendered 
ciyiog or Saiog in the Lxx. : in fact, that the Divine holiness compre- 
hends all His supreme excellence. 

In 1713 he was promoted to the head- tutorship of a theological 
seminary newly set up by Government at Denkendorf. Before 
entering on it, he took a tour, at the expense of Government, to 
qualify him the better for his important post. This literary journey 
was of much use to him as to his future labours. At Heidelberc he 
became acquainted with the critical Canons of Gerhardt of iSas- 
tricht, which he refutes in the Preface of the Gnomon. In Halle 
too, his attention was drawn by Lang to Vitringa's " Anacrisis ad 
Apocalypsin," which, as well as his conversations with Lang, who 
was a disciple of Spener, led his mind into that train of thouo-ht, the 
fruit of which appears in his Expositions of the Apocalypse. 

From his eai'liest years Bengel had felt the dawnings of spiritual 


life ; and lie mentions that the texts inscribed on the church walls of 
his native town, concerning death, sin, righteousness, the crucifixion, 
etc., produced in him, as a mere child, " emotions of great joy and 
peace, and left on him profitable and lasting impressions." The work 
of the Spirit of God within him was cherished by the religious ad- 
vantages which he enjoyed externally, in the pious lessons of his 
parents. His favourite books in his early life were such works as 
Arndt's "True Christianity," Southon's " Golden Jewel," Gerhard t's 
"Sacred Meditations" (in Latin), "Franke's and Schade's "Intro- 
duction to the Holy Scriptures." But the Bible was the book he 
loved above every other. Not that he was exempt from the sugges- 
tions of youthful levity at times, as he confesses himself, but he was 
mercifully preserved from any serious wandering from his Heavenly 
Father. Like most earnest thinkers, he was not without doubts as- 
sailing his understanding, but they only drove him to draw the closer 
to God in child-like prayer ; and, on his first attendance at the Lord's 
table, he experienced such inward peace, that he felt " a hearty de- 
sire of departing to be with Christ." His doubts, too, gave him the 
greater power to sympathize with others in doubt, instead of repelling 
them by harshness. A remark of his own is well worthy of note, 
though a seeming paradox : " Conversion easily leads to heterodoxy." 
The unconverted man finds no difficulties, for he is indifferent to the 
whole question. But he who has found the pearl of great price 
examines it with anxious care ; and, as truth is not to be reached 
without struggles, in the course of " proving all things," doubts will 
start up, never thought of before : but care and prayer -n ill at last 
prevail, and faith will be only the more firmly rooted by the storms 
which agitated it in its early growth. 

The variations in the Oxford Edition of the Greek Testament, 
which at first caused him scruples, were overruled to good, in 
leading him to prayer, and to the more careful pondering over 
every nice peculiarity of the Word of God. " The most important 
of all controversies," says he, " are those which we experience within 
us ; of which there is no end, till the whole man has undergone a 
change, and struggled into renovation. When this is done, a host 
of casuistical scruples disappear at once." In writing subsequently 
to his pupil Reuss, he remarks, as to the various readings of the Greek 
Testament, " Take and eat in simplicity the bread as you have it 
before you, and be not disturbed if you find in it now and then a grit 
from the millstone. If the sacred volume, considering the fallibility 
of its many transcribers, had been preserved from every seeming 
defect, this preservation would have been so great a miracle, that 
faith in the Written Word could be no longer faith. I only wonder 
that there are not more of these readings than there are, and that 
none in the least affect the foundation of our faith."' 

^ Twenty thousand various readings, for example, have been noticed in the six 
comedies of Terence. 


On the subject of inspiration he writes, " The apostles themselves 
have drawn the most important inferences from Scripture tenns of the 
utmost brevity, as in Heb. ii. 8, xii. 17, vii. 3, 14; Gal. iii. 16. As to 
the general inspiration of all Scripture, I am satisfied with this position. 
The whole Sacred Volume is in most beautiful harmony with itsetj 
(omnia se quadrant). As we cannot contemplate a globe withoiit 
observing how round and complete it is, so to an attentive observRr 
are the Scriptures." 

His spiritual life was benefited too by his connection with a society 
formed of Christian students in Tubingen, for the promotion of vital 
godliness among themselves and their friends. A severe sickness, 
which he had in 1705, brought him to the verge of death: but 
in the height of it he felt the secret assurance of the Psalmist, Ps. 
cxviii. 17, "I shall not die, but live, and declare the works of the 
Lord." The effect of this discipline was to lead him to resolve, 
through God's help, " to devote entirely to God's service this renewed 
grant of temporal life." His tour through Germany, by bringing 
him in contact with pious men of very different views, gave his re- 
ligious character a catholicity of spirit, aUke removed from cold for- 
malism and sectarian fanaticism. 

In opening the institution atDenkendorf, Hochstetter, as president, 
delivered the inauguration speech : Zeller, as senior tutor, delivered 
a similar speech ; and Bengel, as junior tutor, took, as the subject of 
his Latin speech, which was the third delivered, " The diligent pur- 
suit of piety the surest method of attaining true learning :" adopting 
Aristotle's position, that the three chief requisites for sound learning 
are natural abilities, instruction, and application, he proceeded to 
show that fervent piety is the life and soul of these requisites. He 
drew up for the pupils a plan raisonn^ of study, entitled "The 
Denkendorf ' Die cur hie,' " in which he stedfastly kept in view the 
ONE OBJECT which in EVERY thing should be our influencing motive, 
the glory of God, a good conscience, and the public good ; that the 
object of education should be, not so much to inform, as to form, the 
pupil. So successful was he in winning the aft'ections of the pupils, 
whilst directing them towards the highest aims, that many of them 
corresponded with him during the rest of their lives and his : for in- 
stance, J. F. Eeuss, afterwards Chancellor of the University; C. F. 
CEtinger, afterwards prelate of Murrhardt, etc. From his twenty- 
sixth to his fifty-fourth year he continued his arduous duties as a 
tutor. Being called to the dignity of Prelate of Herbrechtingen, on 
the 24th of April 1741 he closed his duties, as he had begun them 
twenty-eight years before, with a Latin speech on " The beneficial 
influence of piety upon the studies of the rising generation." 

As a preacher he soon became very ready : his maxim was to 
" think much and write little ;" yet to the end of his life he composed 
a sketch of every sermon. He held it as an axiom, that " grace 
begins where natural means can go no farther ;" " that it was only 


for extraordinary, not for common occasions, that the apostles them- 
selves were told, ' Be not careful what ye shall speak ;' and that, 
when a preacher forbears to do that for which he has natural ability, 
becauses he wishes to preach Christ more clearly, such a man will find 
an abundant blessing in his work." He took great pains about the 
close of a sermon ; for he considered that a preacher who can come 
to a close when and how he pleases, is able to preach the whole ser- 
mon with much greater ease. Khetorical flourishes, and aiming at 
popularity, he regarded as sinful, and quaint low sayings objection- 
able. He desired throughout to maintain that gravity {(SiiMvoTrig) 
which Holy Scripture enjoins. He advises the young minister to 
" make a beginnmg for preaching the next sermon immediately after 
preaching the last, whilst your spirit is still warm and stirred 
within you." As to spiritual qualification, he remarks, that " every 
candidate for the ministry ought to be able to exhibit the credentials 
of his spiritual bu-th, because an unconverted minister, being not a 
man of prayer, must be as inefficient as a bird with one wing." 

As to the need of a duly ordained ministry he says, " The awaken- 
ing which is wrought by the power of the Divine Word in individuals, 
without the instrumentality of the regular ministry, is one thing , 
but whether, without such instrumentality, we ai'e to expect a whole 
church to be planted, is another. To be ever so true a believer, is 
insufficient of itself to confer a right to all the offices of the Church 
of God. Ordination is needed. Tliis is the declared will of the 
Lord, and the practice of His apostles in all the churches. Our 
separatists consider themselves experienced Christians, and we must 
put up with it. There is, hovvever, in the greater part of them, 
much self-will and pugnacity. If, as a body, they had some good 
thing among them at first, the good was intermixed with so much 
alloy, as gradually to have disappeared. The righteous among them 
are chiefly to be sought m the first generation : children and children's 
children commonly degenerate. God, however, uses separation as a 
standing protest against the corruptions in om* Church. Still 
ministers and people may serve God with a pm'e conscience in the 
very heart of our degenerate Church ; and I find a larger number of 
such pious persons in it than among our sepai-atists. At the same 
time, as a minister of a parish, I would live and teach so as to give 
none any occasion of stumbling ; I would warn my people to use no 
harsh language against them, and not to judge them ; I would tiy 
to show them that blameless persons can still be found in the Church, 
and can conscientiously remain in it." 

In his latter years honours were conferred on him, which he had 
never ambitiously sought. His chief cai'e had always been to do 
faithfully whatever his hand found to do. " We may, and ought," 
said he, " to offer ourselves to God for any commission, with which 
He may be pleased to entrust us ; only we must wait, until He smd 
us : the less we mingle with His work what is merely ours — i.e. 


the more immediately we depend for our sufficiency upon God Him- 
self—the more direct is our progress towards its fulfilment.^ If even 
a converted man act merely by a will of his own, if he vainly ima- 
gine it is himself that must support the ark of God, he mars nis 
undertaking at once." . 

His appointment to the prelacy of Herbrechtingen brought 
with it a change from a life of incessant toil and action, inter- 
course with students and scholars, to a life of ease and compara- 
tive quiet. His literary labours were almost completed : the 
Gnomon had received its imprimatur on the very day of his new 
appointment. However, he soon found in his new sphere fresh fields 
of usefiilness. He commenced regular meetings for edification, like 
those which he had held at Denkendorf, and he now expounded 
throughout the four Gospels, and subsequently the Apocalypse: 
and it was from notes of his expositions of the latter, taken by his 
hearers, and afterwards corrected by himself, that his well-known 
" Sixty Practical Addresses" on Eevelation were put together. In 
1749 he was elected Councillor of Consistory and Prelate of 
Alpirsbach, which obliged him to leave Herbrechtingen, and reside 
at Stuttgart. " I enter on my new and unsought office," said he, 
" trusting in the Divine mercy. My call to it gives me joy in one 
respect, but shames me in another, as knowing what I am in my- 
self, and how hard it is to answer even the moderate expectations 
which men may form of me. However I shall thus become less 
and less in my own eyes, and more desirous of attaining the ever- 
lasting rest." Henceforth it became his official business to assist 
in directing the public affairs of the Church. 

" To form a proper notion of the Church (says he), we must not 
set before us the primitive Church as a model. The apostles, in 
speaking of the Church, intend not so much the Church as it then 
existed, but rather the Church in the abstract, or what it was de- 
signed of God to become hereafter. Christianity has never yet 
attained that perfect form which it is to have by virtvie of the Old 
Testament promises." " The Israelites, with all their corruption, 
were still the people of God, and were called such, because God had 
His own ordinances among them. We must not then be too eager 
to adopt every objection brought against our mother Church, 
worldly as hei* children so generally are ; neither must we forget 
the privileges we retain in those common public prayers and songs 
of praise, which she gives us so many opportunities of enjoying. It 
is to her, under God, that we owe the preservation of the Scrip- 
tures, and our familiarity with their contents : without her, the 
whole history of Christ would long ago have been regarded as 

On forms of prayer he observes, " Good forms are valuable ; but 
when the heart has been put in tune by them, it is better they 
should give place to extemporaneous petition. Still prescribed 


forms may be prayed with the heart, so as to come out from the 
heart. Persons who are for praying always from ' the heart/ as 
they call it, may, and do, come insensibly to use what amounts to 
forms." As to church music, he says, " When not plain and 
simple, it may delight the ear and imagination, but it obstructs the 
true melody of the heart." 

On the divisions between Lutherans and Calvinists he writes, 
" Were Paul himself to descend from Paradise upon a mission to 
Protestant Christendom, he would find far other work to do, than 
that of effecting a civil coalescence between them. A unity of the 
Spirit cannot be wrought out among so many, while so few of them 
have the Spirit. The division itself I regard as a fatherly rebuke, 
not without its beneficial effects. For whereas we Lutherans reject 
the notion of absolute, unconditional decrees, we constrain its advo- 
cates to hold out representations more moderate, and more con- 
ducive to their own experimental piety ; but, on the other hand, if 
ever the doctrine of decrees in general should fall into disregard 
among ourselves, the majority of us will decline into what is no 
better than mere rationalism, having by and by lost all belief in 
God's universal grace." 

As A WRITER, his works were numerous, including, besides his 
Editions of various ancient authors, about thirty original publica- 
tions of his own. Yet he held it as a principle, that " we ought 
to be very careful about composing new books ;" for that " every 
book should add something to the reader's information, or at least to 
the improvement of his heart." He had a remarkable power of con- 
densation, which was by no means characteristic of writers of his day 
or his nation. " It has long been my rule (he said) to write nothing, 
which at my dying hour I might have to repent of." What most pained 
him was, that in the case of some of his works, he had to endure not 
only the attacks of the worldly, but also the suspicions of the really 
spiritual. " It is well (said he) to be conscious on such occasions, that 
the countenance of fallible men was not the thing we had reckoned 
on, and to be able to say, ' All is under God's direction.' " 

The earliest of his larger publications was a new Edition of 
Cicero's Epistles ad Familiares (Stuttgart, 1719). Conscientious 
attendance to apparent minutiae, as leading to most important exegeti- 
cal results, characterized him in his classical, as in his theological writ- 
ings. He closed his Ed. of Cic. Epistles with an Appendix on the 
advantages of studying this work, and the right uses to be made of it. 
In this he warns against the danger to personal Christianity of undue 
devotedness to philological study. " Even Scriptural researches may, 
without needful discretion, occasion in learned men indifference to 
true godliness, instead of nourishing it. Mercury is as much op- 
posed to Christ, as is Plutus or Mammon. The spirit of heathen 
wisdom ever was, and ever must be, a spirit of presumption, vanity, 
worldliness, selfishness, and sensuality ; yet there is in it something 


uncommonly catching to intellectual persons, who are not esta 
blished in personal religion." He had prepared materials for editing 
Ovid's Tristia and Persius, but was prevented publishing them by 
being called to undertake works of a more congenial kind. " Daily 
relish (said he) for the sweet language of Divine inspiration had now 
superseded with me that of all other dainties, though I was not in- 
sensible of their charms." In the midst of his classical occupations 
in 1717 he confessed, that he often " found his spiritual strength at 
a very low ebb among the dead heathen." 

His next work was an Edition of Gregory's Panegyric on 
Origen, for the use of his pupils (Greek and Latin), 1772. His 
reason for selecting it was because Gregory has shown, by his own 
example, that an inquiring youth can find no solid satisfaction in all 
the heathen philosophical systems, but is compelled, by a sense of 
his needs, to seek refuge in the substantial truths of Christianity. 

In 1725 he pubhshed his Edition of Chrysostom de Sacerdotio, 
Gr. and Lat., at Stuttgart. He pronounces that work decidedly the 
best production of Chrysostom's pen. To it he added a Prodeomus 
Nov. Test. Gr^CI rect^ cautique adomandi, i.e. a prospectus of 
a new critical edition of the Greek Testament. Besides, he wrote 
" Annotations upon Macaeius ;" also on " Epheem Syrus." 

Bengel, as has been already said, even whilst yet a student, had 
felt an intense interest about the various readings of the New Tes- 
tament. Before the publication of Mill, the believer had to con- 
tent himself with the axiom, that the Providence of God would not 
have allowed any such corruptions of the Sacred Record, as would 
endanger the essential truths of our faith. Bengel now desired to 
put the question on such a footing, that the Christian henceforth 
might not only believe, but see, that such was the case. After hav- 
ing collated numerous printed editions and MSS. (24 in all, besides 
Latin ones) and versions, he published, in 1734, as he had pre- 
viously announced in his Prodromus, his Greek New Testament, 
in two forms, the one quarto, and the other octavo subsequently ;^ 
and simultaneously with the former, his Apparatus Ceiticus, 
in which he unfolds the true principles of criticism, the value 
of his authorities, and the various readings in order. In the read- 
ings of his Greek text he did not admit a single expression that 
had not been embodied in the existing printed editions, excepting a 
few readings in the Apocalypse, a book peculiarly circumstanced ; 
but in the margin he inserted some readings heretofore confined to 
MSS. Eesearch had convinced him, that any reading not found 
in any former printed Edition was of minor importance, and if 
introduced, might only cause oftence to the weak. His cardinal 
four-worded canon was, " Proclivi lectioni prsestat ardua," the die- 

• The Quarto Ed., which came first, was published at Tubingen, 1734; the 
octavo later in the same year, at Stuttgart. The former is called in this transl. 
notes, "the Larger Ed. ;" the latter, "the Smaller Ed." 


FiCULT IS PREFERABLE TO THE EAST RE-'VDNG ; for the obvious rea- 
son, that the interpolator or transcrilier would be much more likely to 
substitute an easy reading for the more difficult one, than vice versa. 
In the Preface of the Smaller Greek Text, he gives this admirable 
rule for searching Scripture with profit, — 

" Te totum applica ad Textum ; 

Bern totam applica ad te." 
Apply thyself wliolly to the TeH ; 
Apply the subject wholly/ to thyself. 

Among the passages especially discussed in the Apparatus, as to 
the true reading, are Matt. vi. 13 ; John i. 1, viii. 1-11 ; 1 Tim. iii. 
16 ; 1 John v. 7. Lastly, in the same work is given an Introduc- 
tion to the Apocalypse, a book subjected to more various readings 
than any book of the New Testament, though it exists in fewer 
MSS. Bengel's exertions had brought to light several MSS. in 
which it is found. 

These critical works of his were warmly received by many ; but 
others, both Protestants and Eoman Catholics, assailed him as a 
dangerous innovator. Among these opponents, the most promi- 
nent were the authors of a publication, named " Early Gathered 
Fruits" (No. 4 of the year 1738) : J. G. Hager, M.A., probably 
wrote the article in which Bengel is accused of " unprecedented 
audacity." An opposite kind of objection was raised in an article 
of the Bihliotheque Raisonn6e of Amsterdam, known to have been 
written by Wetstein, viz. that Bengel had not gone far enough ; 
that he was too timid in not inserting in the text, and not merely 
in the margin, readings supported by the best MSS., though never 
before 'printed in the Editions ; that the right of using our critical 
resources was an undoubted one ; that cautious as Editors had been, 
they could not escape persecution : that Erasmus had been rewarded 
with the reputation of an Arian, and Robert Stephens was obliged 
to fly to Geneva to escape burning at the stake ; that Bengel him- 
self had been obliged to abandon his favourite caution in editing 
the Apocalypse ; that therefore it would have been better had he 
adopted in the text, whether firom print or MS., whatever reading 
he thought the best ; but he ends with confessing that BengeVs Edi- 
tion of the New Testament was the best ever yet published. 

Bengel in reply wrote " A Defence of the Greek Testament," 
edited at Tubingen, in 1784. This he inserted in his " Harmony 
of the Four Gospels," published in 1736. Besides the answers im- 
plied in what has been written above, he notices what is most im- 
portant, namely, that the notion (Wetstein's), that the correctness 
of the reading should be determined by a majority of MSS., is an 
unsound one : To ascertain the authority of a MS., we must con- 
sider its origin, a thing which often gives preponderance to one be- 
yond a hundred others. 

He also replied to the " Early Gathered Fruits," through a jour- 


nal called " New Literary Notices from Tiibingen." As to the 
changes made by him in the Received Text of the Apocalypse, on 
which his reviewer had dwelt most severely, Bengel showed that 
Erasmus so hurried it to press, that he had actually substituted for 
the original Greek of the concluding part, a translation of his own 
into Greek from the Latin Vulgate ! As to his Greek text supply- 
ing infidels with weapons, he shows that, on the contrary, if we 
restrict the liberty of proper revision, we leave the sacred text exposed 
to every presumptuous judgment ; that infidels cannot be ignorant 
of the existence of various readings, which, instead of finding in- 
creased by his revision, they would find fewer for objecting against 
than ever ; that whereas one party accused him of undue caution, 
but the other of temerity, it was evident he had kept the middle, 
and therefore the right way. 

The Romanist party, headed by Rev. T. A. Berghauer, at- 
tacked Bengel, in a publication entitled Bibliomachia, in which 
the writer threatens such " heretics, who have their flaming pride 
lighted up by the Bible, with the strong arm and spiritual and tem- 
poral sword of the Catholic Church." Bengel, in his " Practical 
Addresses" on the Apocalypse, Append, on 58th— 60th of his " Prac- 
tical Addresses on the Apocalypse" (to be found also in Ed. 2 of the 
Appar. Crit., p. 748), replied, meekly showing that he had done no 
more than what Cardinal Ximenes and the Editors of the Complu- 
tensian Bible, with their patron Leo X., had done, \'iz. set a high 
value upon sonnd criticism : that the author had appropriately en- 
titled his pamphlet " Bibliomachia," War with the Bible; for that it 
was a congeries of blasphemy against the word of God in all Bibles, 
Catholic and Protestant : that the threat of persecution only showed 
that many prophecies in the Apocalypse must now be on the point of 
fulfilment, and " well may we arm ourselves with the patience and 
faith of the saints. The children of peace cannot love contention : it 
is painful to them to be obliged to contend even for the truth itself." 

J. L. Hug, in his Introduction to New Testament, 2d Ed., vol. i. 
p. 313, remarks, that Bengel was the first who classified MSS. 
according to the incidental agreements in their general features, 
and in their particular lections. He marked two classes, the African 
and the Asiatic ; and the general principles, elicited by this simplifi- 
cation of the question, set in motion the present march of criticism, 
which will now proceed, even supposing his own editorial works 
could ever be forgotten. 

In 1742, J. Gambold published Bengel's Greek Testament at 
Oxford ; and, in 1745, Bengel's text was" taken as the standard for 
revising the authorized Danish Version. A second edition of the 
"Appar. Criticus" was published in 1763 by P. D. Burk, contain- 
ing later corrections of the Author, supplementary criticism on the 
New Testament, and collations of another MS. of the Apocalypse, 
of which a copy was given him by J. L. Mosheim. 


Bengel had announced in his Prodromus, in Chrysostom de Sacer- 
dotio, his intention to follow up liis critical works with a Commen- 
tary on the New Testament. His labours at Denkendorf had 
thoroughly prepared him for this task. Accordingly it appeared 
under the title, Gnomon Novi Testamenti, at Tiibingen in 1742, 
4to (New Ed. 1759, 1773 : Ed. Steudel, 1835). The designation was 
meant to imply that the work is an Index or Pointer, " to indicate 
what lies within the compass of the sacred text ; for Scripture is 
its own best and safest interpreter;" less for the purpose of exhausting 
the text for the reader, than to give suggestive hints. The title- 
page expresses at full his design, to set forth the majestic simplicity 
of the Word of God ; its unsearchable depth ; its felicitous concinnity ; 
and its adaptation to all practical uses. " My annotations," says he, 
" are so far from being intended to preclude the reader from increased 
research, that I wish rather to put him upon investigation of the text 
itself, by merely showing him how to set about it. My design is also 
to refute those expositors who put upon isolated passages of Scrip- 
ture their own forced (mystical) construction, in order to grasp at 
impressiveness. Instead of this, I mean to insist upon the full and 
comprehensive force of Scripture in its whole connection." 

Separate thoughts of each writer must be determined as to 
their sense according to grammatical and historical laws, but 
this in constant reference to the totality of the faith, and to reve- 
lation as a whole. " Put nothing into the Scriptures, but draw 
everything from them, and suffer nothing to remain hidden, that 
is really in them." " Though each inspired writer has his own 
manner and style, one and th« same Spirit breathes through all, 
one grand idea pervades all." " Every Divine communication 
carries (like the diamond) its own light with it, thus showing 
whence it comes ; no touchstone is required to discriminate it." 
" The true commentator will fasten his primary attention on the 
letter (literal meaning), 'but never forget that the Spirit must 
equally accompany him ; at the same time we must never devise a 
more spiritual meaning for Scripture passages than the Holy Spirit 
intended." " The historical matters of Scripture, both narrative 
and prophecy, constitute as it were the bones of its system ; whereas 
the spiritual matters are as its muscles, blood-vessels, and nerves. 
As the bones are necessary to the human system, so Scripture must 
have its historical matters. The expositor who nullifies the Jiistorical 
ground-work of Scripture for the sake of finding only spiritual 
truths everywhere, brings death on all correct interpretation. Those 
expositions are the safest which keep closest to the text." 

Such are Bengel's principles of interpretation, as stated in his 
''■ Essay on the Eight Way of Handling Divine Subjects," prefixed 
to a volume of sermons by J. C. Storr, 1750. Luther and Hed- 
inger were his favourite expositors ; but dearer to him than either 
was Scripture itself. " The Word of God," says he, " is always 

VOL. V. b 


savoury in its own pure form ; but when saturated with human 
explanations, it is apt to cloy." He used frequent prayer to fit him 
for»the work : and when the Gnomon was sent him completed from 
the Tiibingen press, the 28th of March 1742, he sang that evening'- 
the well-known hymn : — 

" O Thou, who our best works hast wrought, 

And thus far helped me to success, 
Attune my soul to grateful thought, 

Thy great and holy Name to bless ; 
That I to Thee anew may live, 
And to Thy grace the glory give," etc. 

Not to mention Kosenmiiller in his Sclioliae, Michaelis in his New 
Testament, and other German borrowers from the Gnomon, in our 
own country Johii Wesley, in his " Expository Notes on the New 
Testament," Lond. 1755, largely draws from it, acknowledging 
that he should "much better serve the interests of religion by 
translating from the Gnomon of that great luminary of the Christian 
world, than by writing many volumes of his own notes." 

As early as 1706 Bengel had begun collecting Annotations upon 
Hedinger's Greek Testament. Since 1713 he had gone every two 
years with his pupils through the Greek Testament. At length, in 
1722, he determined on publishing a Commentary on it: he completed 
it within two years : yet he kept it by him eighteen years more be- 
fore he gave it to the public. So also as to the German Translation 
or Version ; he could not bring himself to undertake the translation 
at all until December 1741, after he had just finished his preface to 
the Gnomon ; and he wrote the preface to it only a few days before 
his death. His reason for delay as to the Gnomon was, that he 
considered sound criticism what was most wanted, and therefore 
wished previously to send out his Apparatus Criticus. His reason 
as to the German Version, was his desire not to offend the strong 
prejudices which existed against the publication of any new ver- 
nacular translation ; especially as the Lutheran Version was in the 
main correct : He moreover hoped some one else, better qualified 
than himself, might undertake the task ; but as none did so, and as 
he felt convinced of the erroneousness of many of Luther's render- 
ings, he at last thought it his duty to publish it. 

The Evangelical Church Chronicle (vol. ii. p. 228), edited by 
Hengstenberg, well says of the Gnomon, " It is a rare performance, 
concise, original, vigorous, eloquent, and sprightly : it is an erudite 
exposition dehvered in the spirit of fervent Christian love. It 
evinces the deepest reverence for the sacred text, and a most pro- 
found acquaintance with its contents. With remarkable simplicity 
and humility, it follows the drift of the inspired meaning, and in- 
duces the soul to open itself, even to the softest of those breatlnnCTs 
of the Holy Ghost, which pervade the written word." Haman 
(vol. iii. p. 15) likewise remarks, "It is an Exegesis altogether sui 


generis. No expositors, or very few, have caught the full import, 
impressiveness, and spirit of Holy Scripture. In this respect 
Bengel's Commentary is one of the best." The Second Edition 
was published, 1759, under the revision of his son-in-law, the Eev. 
P. D. Burk, Dean of Kircheim. This Edition contained numerous 
exegetical and critical additions, from notes left by Bengel, never 
before published. E. Bengel, in the Third Edition, 1773, retained 
the exegetical portion of these additional notes, but transferred the 
critical portion of them to the " Apparatus," a Second Edition of 
which was now called for. 

In the preface to his Germ. Version, he states it not to be his 
wish to prejudice Luther's Version ; that the Church has need of 
multiplied versions, and that their multiplication is sanctioned by 
the practice of the earliest times ; that he had been sparing of re- 
marks exclusively pracrical, because the Scriptures themselves 
supply every want of that kind. Should any one feel disappointed 
at not meeting with more edifying matter in the preface, he would 
observe, that " a servant waiting upon guests at a great supper, 
who duly trims the lamps furnished by the master of the house, that 
they may burn the brighter, performs a more acceptable service to 
the guests, than if he kindled any single taper of his own to add to 
the light." Even to the present time, Bengel's Version continues 
to be used in many private devotional circles throughout the king- 
dom of Wiirtemberg. 

His first expository publications were his Tracts on the Apoc- 
alypse, in various theological journals : next, in 1736, his " Har- 
mony of the Gospels :" in 1740, his "Exposition of the Revelation 
of S. John :" his " Ordo Temporum," in 1741 : his Gnomon, in 
1742 : his Cyclus, in 1745 : his " Age of the World," in 1746 : 
his " Sixty Practical Addresses on the Apocalypse," in 1747 : his 
" Testimony of Truth," in 1748 : his " German New Testament," at 
Stuttgart, in 1753 ; and his "Vindication of the Holy Scriptures," 
in 1755. 

The object of his "Ordo Temporum" was "to exhibit the whole 
line of chronology which pervades the historical and prophetic books 
of the Old and New Testament, from its commencement to its ter- 
mination ; and thus to cumulate proof that the Scriptures form one 
beautifully connected and credible whole." He showed, that as the 
many numerical specifications in Scripture have a claim to our at- 
tention, because they belong to Divine revelation, so they have a 
mutual connection, which conducts us on to the great final point— 
the day of Christ's appearing : that he presumed not to foretell the 
last day, though many of his investigations seemed to touch upon it : 
that we ought not to think it is useless and dangerous to attempt 
determining anything about futurity, for that such a notion savoured 
too much of judging Holy Scripture by our own presumptions : 
that the reader should discriminate between what he stated as 


possible, and what as certain : and that he should not spend too much 
time in endeavouring to digest the tough corticating threads ot the 
chronology, but should enjoy the delicious kernel enveloped in them. 
He thinks the commencement of time answered to our autumn : the 
pre-Adamite theory is refuted by Gen. i. 26, ii. 7, v. 1 : Man's state 
of innocence lasted for but a short time : the Israelitish day ot 
atonement (the tenth of the seventh month) is probably the anniver- 
sary of the fall of man. 

By Gen. v. he reckons from the creation to the flood, 1656 years. 
„ Gen. xi. from the flood to the birth of Abraham, 290 „ 
„ Gen. xxi. 5, from the birth of Abraham to that of 

Isaac, ..... 100 „ 

„ Gen. XXV. 26, from that to the birth of Jacob, . 60 „ 
„ Gen. xh. 46, xlv. 6, xlvii. 28. From that to the 

birth of Joseph, . . . . . 90 „ 

„ Gen. 1. 26, from the birth of Joseph to his death, 110 „ 
Thence to the Exodus : comp. Gen. xv. 13 with 

Judith V. 8, and Acts vii. 8, . . 1 40 „ 

From Adam to the Exodus, . . . 2446 „ 

From the Exodus to the completion of the temple, . 487 „ 

Conclusion of Solomon's reign of forty years, . 2963 A. M. 

(See 1 Kings xi. 42, and 2 Chron. ix. 30.) 
The years of the kings of Judah to the burning of 

Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, . . 393 years. 

Thence to the Christian Era, . . . 587 „ 

From Adam to the vulgar Christian Era, . . 3943 „ 

But the Lord's nativity really took place three full years before this : 
probably on the 25th of December. 

Bengel refutes the notion, that we are forbidden in Scripture to at- 
tempt fixing future dates. In Mark xiii. 32, Matt. xxiv. 36, the stress 
is on the 2?resent tense, " No man hnoweili the day nor the hour." 
In those days NO man did know, not even the Son ; but He after- 
wards knew it, for He revealed it in the Apocalypse. So in Acts i. 
6, 7, the stress lies on you ; but further disclosures would be made 
subsequently to others : we are not moreover in it precluded from 
all knowledge of the future, but only from knowing those seasons, 
which the Father hath reserved in His own power. Noah was 
forewarned of the very year in which the flood came. The four 
hundred years of sojourn of Abraham and his seed in a strange land 
,/';re revealed beforehand to him. Surely then the twenty prophetic 
periods of time in the Apocalypse have not been specified for nothing. 
God gives a promise for believers to depend upon, and they are to 
persevere through all difficulties until its fulfilment. The glorious 
issue of Christ's coming has ever been Revelation's grand object • 


but intermediate events were to the patriarchs a mass of confused 
imagery. The succeedine prophets saw them more clearly ; still 
more so the apostles, and most of all the last of them, S. John. 
From Heb. ix. 26, 1 Cor. x. 11, 1 Pet. i. 20, iv. 7, Habak, iii. 2, 
Bengel thought the New Testament will not be so long as that of 
the Old. Being then less than 3943 years, the whole period of the 
world at farthest will be not more than 7880 years : and in his time 
(1740) 5690 years had elapsed ; and still the 2000 years of Eev. xx. 
were yet to come ; there could be only 200 years before the prophecy 
of that chapter begins to be fulfilled. Now, supposing, by a common 
analogy, the duration of the world is involved in the number seven, 
i.e. that it is 7777 years, there can be only 97 years left before the 
2000 years, and these would transpire by the year 1837. With 
this agreed the interpretation of the Apocalypse, based on the 
number of the Beast 666, synchronous with the 42 months. 

The most important point maintained in his " Harmony of the 
Gospels" is, that there could have been but three Passovers between the 
Lor(Ss baptism and crucifixion. The Lord adapted His discourses to 
the portions of Scripture read publicly on the Sabbaths and festivals. 
Whilst keeping aloof from arbitrary ways of reconciling discrepancies, 
he established the important principle, that each Evangelist did not 
intend to relate every event in chronological order. In 1765, "A 
History of the Life, etc., of our Lord, compiled from Bengel's Har- 
mony," was published anonymously at Leipsic. G-. C. Storr added 
Bengel's Table of the Harmony to an Ed. of the Lutheran Bible, 
published in 1793. 

B. remarks, that an Expositor of the Apocalypse, who concerns 
himself only with the events, and not also with the dates, is a useless 
one : for that God has connected the two together, and " what God 
hath joined together, let not man put asunder." In pi-eparing a 
sermon for the first Sunday in Advent 1724, his thoughts were led 
to the 21st ch. of Revelation. Suddenly the idea forcibly struck 
him, that the 42 months of the Beast's blasphemy (ch. xiii. 5, 6), 
and likewise the number of his name 666, denote a precise period of 
TIME, and that these two denote one and the same period. From 
that moment he set about tracing the line of Scripture chronology 
both backwards and forwards. As to the prophetic day, he makes 
it a mean between the literal day and the year (the length assigned 
by most expositors to the prophetic day), i.e. about half a common 
year. In ch. xiii. 8, -vj/JijB/ffarw, " let him calculate," implies, there 
must be at least two numbers for our calculation. That other num- 
ber besides the 666 (ver. 18), is the 42 months (ver. 5). Thus 
42 : 666 :: 1 : x : giving a period of 15f years for one prophetical 
month ; and thus each prophetic day is about half a year. He makes 
a -/.aipig 222f years; a %povoj, 1111^ years (ch. vi. 11)-: an aiun. 
2222| years (ch. xiv. 6). The 666 years were between 1074 and 
1740, the beginning of the reign of Hildebrand to the death of 


Clement XII. ; or else from Celestine II., elected without the voice 
of the people, to a time when the Pope's relation to Eome_ shall be 
changed [Napoleon's decree abolishing the Pope's jurisdiction, 17th 
of May 1809], 1143 to 1809. This last conjecture has proved 
in the event to be strikingly correct. His assigning 1836 as the 
year of the conflict of the Beast out of the Bottomless pit with the 
ipeople of God (ch. xix. 11-21), has proved a mistake. But he has 
made some remarkable fore-announcements of facts. For instance, 
having from ch. x. 6, 11, fixed the rise of the Germanic Roman 
Empire under Charlemagne in 800 a.d. {letting, 2 Thess. n. 6, 7, 
i.e. standing in the way of Antichrist), he anticipated its fall shortly 
after 1800 (an event which came to pass in 1806) : also the increase 
of the Russian power, which we have already seen in our age partly 
fulfilled. " See whether the King of France does not yet become 
Emperor (the very letters of the Greek number of the Beast form 
the words, VaXXoi Kaieap, a Gallic Emperor) ; an anticipation re- 
markably fulfilled in the person of Napoleon. 

B. observes that the Beast in ch. xiii. has a twofold rise ; first out 
of the sea ; then out of the bottomless pit. In the former he is a 
secular power with spiritual pretensions, rising not very long after 
the end of the second woe, evidently the Papal Hierarchy: But his 
last form, which is out of the bottomless pit, will survive the desolation 
of the city of the seven hills, The Beast, considered as to his seven 
heads, is the papal power transmitted through a succession of Popes :' 
bu*- when " the last head," and the Beast himself as " the eighth," 
shall rage, he is become a personal individual. The horns are ten 
kings of this last period : At the time of Antichrist's coming, five 
heads are fallen, the sixth stands, but in weakness. The seventh 
when he comes proves to be the eighth, on account of the additional 
character he acquires by rising out of the bottomless pit as "the Man 
of Sin," the very Antichrist, and as such continues 3| years : he 
will be an individual, and perhaps, as tradition represents, a Jew. 
The Dragon opposes the special glory of God the Father ; the Beast, 
that of the Lord Jesus ; the False Prophet, that of the Holy Ghost. 
Bengel's warning against Popery was seasonable ; for even in his 
age a dangerous latitudinarianism as to it had begun to show itself 
in the Protestant Church. 

B. supposes a double thousand years to be implied in Rev. xx.: the 
first thousand, on earth, during Satan's imprisonment, in which there 
will be much happiness, but wherein the saints will still have to walk 
by faith, not by sight : the second, a distinct thousand, of the risen 
saints in heaven, extending to the general resurrection. 

Many of his descriptions of the characteristic features of the age, 
which he anticipated, have been accurately verified in the state of 
morals and religion which prevailed during the French Revolution 
and subsequently : that sins against the sixth commandment would 
be prevalent ; that the spirit of the age, as expressed in the journals. 


would Le scepticism and naturalism; that the powers of nature and 
reason would be so exalted, as to make it difScult to know what was 
really supernatural : that hooks of thrilling adventure, whether truth 
or fiction, would be most sought after, — those containing anything of 
religion would have to present it in a lively form, more to amuse the 
fancy, than to improve the heart : the doctrine of the inner word 
will yet produce great mischief; for philosophers will require a kernel 
without a shell, a Christ without a Bible, and from the most refined 
subtilties pass into the coarsest materialism : that it need not sur- 
prise any if men devoid of the truth take refuge in Popery : Socinian- 
ism and the Papacy, now seemingly widely apart, will bye and bye 
flow together, and bring everything to a crisis. " When events have 
arrived just at the finishing of the mystery of God, we shall hear the 
striking of that clock, which has so long been silent. One important 
advantage of contemplating God's general economy in all ages is, 
that hereby we lose sight of our own petty self-interests : for we are 
occupied with things of superior interest, observing how God's uni- 
versal purposes are advancing to their accomplishment. It also 
helps against the natural dread we have of death. Moreover, whilst 
careering in thought over the billows of departed ages, borne in 
thought on the current of time fi-om century to century, the doings 
not only of private individuals, but even of the greatest monarchs, 
have seemed to me as the mere passing of a wave in the great ocean 
scene." " God has often given a promise for His believing people to 
feed upon, and yet interposed many circumstances apparently adverse 
to its fulfilment ; the fulfilment has nevertheless been brought to pass, 
suddenlj;^, and when least expected. So now as to the coming of 
Christ : Our business is to go on, living upon the promise of His 
coming. Upon our so doing depends the exercise of every Christian 
virtue." " All the prophecies, even of the Old Testament, had Christ 
for their chief object ; and contained some points of reference to 
events mpre remote than that o{ His Jii'st coming." 

Dr John Robertson, an English physician, iDublished a valuable 
volume of Extracts from Bengel's Exposition of^the Apocalypse, and 
from the Notes of the Gnomon upon it, London, 1757. Bengel in 
his Cyclus attempted to show that there was a real coherence in his 
]n'ogressive scale of Apocalyptical periods. However it was based on 
the erroneous opinion of astronomers in his day, that the mean 
tropical year consisted of 365 days, 5 hours, 49 minutes, and 12 
seconds; from which he inferred, that after 252 ATpoca\j-ptical periods, 
i.e. 252 times 111-^ years, or 280,000 years, a cycle of the solar 
system would be completed, and the planets would have returned to 
the same relative positions to one another and to the fixed stars, from 
•«'hich they set out at creation. But recent astronomers have found 
the mean "tropical year is 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, and 44 
seconds [but Herschel, 49-7 seconds] : so that Bengel's cycle can 
be no longer maintained. It was however only a subsidiary argu- 


ment for his Apocalyptical chronology, by no means iiecessari/ 
to it. 

His " Age of the World" is a following up of the argument of the 
"Ordo Temporum." The dates in Scripture, looked at merely 
apart, may seem at first sight like something we could dispense with: 
but, if we trace them by the clew which Scripture famishes, we find 
a connected series of proportionate periods, conducting us towards 
their ultimate object, the day of Christ. It is thus only thatwe per- 
ceive why many an important event has no date affixed to it, while 
others of less importance are accurately dated. All this was from 
design, viz. to continue the line of chronology. The pervading ap- 
pearance of this line is one noble proof of the internal and indivisible 
connection of the Old and New Testaments, — a proof which especi- 
ally may be adduced in refutation of Jewish infidelity. He also m 
it distinguishes true from false millennarianism : and replies to the 
strictures of Dean Kohlreiff. 

His "Confirmed Testimony to the Truth" was a rejoinder to 
KohlreiflF's reply. He in it also answers objections of Baumgarten 
to his view of Daniel's 70 weeks, as, according to his Apocalyptical 
Key, equal to 555| years : Ezek. xl. 5 affords an analogous case of 
a measure somewhat larger than the ordinary one being used for 
prophetic notation. 

Many of his thoughts on Scriptural subjects, set down in the 
course of his expository researches, are worthy of note, and can only 
be glanced at cursorily in this sketch. " The Apostles' Creed," says 
he, " consists of two parts : the Jirst treats of the Trinity; the second, 
of the Church." " Godhead and Divinity have not the same meaning : 
Godhead signifies the Divine essence; Divinity, the glory and dignity 
belonging to it. The word 'holy' means separated or set apart: 
when applied to God, it denotes his incommunicable essence : His 
holiness is therefore synonymous with His majesty. When holiness 
and glory are joined together, then the former expresses God's hidden 
and unsearchable excellence; the latter, the revelation of His holiness 
to His rational creatures." " The word Person answers to D''JB 
Painm, and the Greek irposwTirov. Even the Jews called the Messiah, 
Maldch Panim, the Angel of the Presence. In speaking of the 
Trinity we must use some such term. Defective as it is, we have 
none more suitable, and we have no reason to think that God is dis- 
pleased at our using it. In what condescending language God ad- 
dresses Himself to our capacities ! The very Scriptures'" themselves 
will in the heavenly world appear to have been worded to our com 
prehension after the manner of a little child's first book." 

" The expression, ' The Son of man,' always denotes the visible 
condition of Christ, whether in His humiliation or exaltation : So 
St Stephen, in Acts vii. 56." " The faith which apprehends the grace 
of God in Christ saves and mal<;es us happy : the faith which appi-e- 
hends only the eternal power of the Godhead does not." 


_" The types of the Messiah were not for human nse alone. God 
Himself did as it were ' rest' in the gracious purpose, that His Son 
should 7-estore all things. Hence, in "the midst of awful prophecies of 
destruction, we abruptly meet with some promise of the Messiah." 
" The prophecies and types mutually compose a perfect system of 
promise ; a system in which the prophecies, from the beginning of 
(.icnesis to the close of Malachi, swell in number and particularity, 
and in which the body of types apart may be regarded as a chamber 
of imagery." 

" The promises grew more definite and full as time advanced. 
The manner of prophetic foreshowing in the Old Testament is 
like a landscape, in which objects in the foreground are distinctly 
delineated, but in its background you descry long ridges of hills, 
and beyond them chains of mountains all diminutive, so that many 
objects appear grouped narrowly together which, in the reality of 
nature, are widely distant from each other ; so by the prophets 
things immediate are described clearly and definitely, but those far 
distant in futurity are adumbrated briefly and in perspective masses." 

" j\Iuch has been said about the word satisfaction not occurring in 
Scripture, relative to Christ's atonement. But in the 40th Psalm, 
Messiah testifies what surely can mean nothing less, ' In sacrifice 
and oflFering for sin Thou hast Ixad no pleasure : then said I, Lo, I 
come to do Thy will, O God.'" 

" We derive from the death of Christ iwt only deliverance from 
the guilt of sin, but also a communication of new vital jpoivers ; which 
evince their efficacy by good works. The former is called justifica- 
tion by His blood : the latter is obtained by those who eat the flesh 
of Christ and drink His blood (John vi.). Hereby all believers be- 
come most intimately one with Him. The life-blood shed at His 
death as a satisfaction for sin, vras spiritually carried by Him into 
tiie Holy of Holies at His Ascension ; that it might warrant and 
impart cleansing and perfection to every true believer's conscience, 
and that such might enjoy the application of these benefits, especi- 
ally in the Eucharist" (See Gnomon on Heb. xii.). 

" In the parable of the ten virgins, the fire of the lamps represents 
the light, warmth, and purification which we passively receive of the 
Spirit of God ; but the oil is what must be obtained by diligent 
prayer, and in faithful obedience, in the way of nourishing and in- 
creasing this light, warmth, and purification : 2 Pet. i. 3, 4 corre- 
sponds to the fire of the lamps ; and verses 5, 6 express what the 
recipient of that preventing grace is expected to add to it." 

" As from every point in the circumference of a circle we may 
imagine straight lines converging to the centre, not one of which is 
exactly coincident with another, so is each individual drawn towards 
God in communion, by a way more or less peculiar to that individual." 

" Sin, as plaintiff, is defeated by the advocacy of Christ ; but this 
hinders not its continuing to act against us as defendant." " Our 


conflicU with sin are preferable to the carnal security of those wlio 
dream that they have overcome all ; especially as such conflicts do 
not shake our confidence in the grace of God." 

" Good works are such as a believer practises in the order of God'' 
(our will being in harmony with the will of God). " It becomes us 
to present ourselves before God as empty vessels, that require to be 
continually replenished, and put to use by the indwelling power of 
Christ. A soul, possessed of true feith, learns to care so supremely 
for Him, as to be ever seci'etly longing to depart and be with Him." 

" To pray is to be engaged in a kind of audience, as well as con- 
verse with God, 1 John v. 1 5. It is more than an utterance of our 
requeste ; it includes a waiting for His answers. Let us be inwardly 
retired, self-observant, and waiting upon Him ; and though we hear 
no voice, we shall experience a plain, certain, and consoling reply. 
God makes this reply not vocally, but by those acts of His provid- 
ence and influences of His grace, whereby He relieves our necessities. 
When we listen to the petitions of the needy, we do it, not for the sake 
of hearing them talk, but for the sake of rendering them some help." 

"I consider it to be more than a mere permission that a pastor 
should ' be the husband of one wife :' to me it seems all but a matter 
of necessity. God often teaches us more by our domestic experiences, 
family illnesses, deaths of children, and the like, than we can learn by 
any independent speculations, however spiritual they seem. A pious 
family may be compared to a cheerful hive of bees ; but a monastery 
or nunnery full of unmarried persons, to a gloomy nest of wasps." 

" Worsliip more consists in affiance than affection. Affiance in 
uncertain riches, rather tlian in the living God, characterizes the 
lover of money. He who commits other sins, commits them chiefly 
in single acts ; but covetousness engages the ivliole man. Therefore 
covetousness is peculiarly called idolatry." 

" Friendship is not a topic of practical divinity, but brotlierly love 
is ; which both includes friendship and gives it additional charms." 

" Traces of sacred history occurring in pagan writers as to the 
Deluge, Joshua, and other incidents, are far less 2oure than the ac- 
counts of the inspired historians. Otherwise it might have been 
suggested, that these pagan writers had bon'oived from Scripture ; 
whereas now it is plain, that the facts reached them by independent 
and very ancient traditions, which in process of time had become 
more corrupt and fabulous." 

" The day of atonement was not a festival. It was a day for call- 
ing sin to remembrance, and was perhaps the anniversary of the 
fall of man ; for no particular national sin of Israel is expressly 
named upon it : it was therefore a day of solemn remembrance for 
sin in general, the sin of mankind." 

" God's general treatment of His people was that of a Father. 
He led them step by step. He might ha^e announced to them the 
manna befoi-e they fell a murmuring, but that their J.eart was to be 


made manifest. Their first ofFences were rebuked gently with words 
alone ; but after the delivery of the law on Sinai, where they had 
sworn allegiance, their transgressions no longer were, nor could be, 
so mildly dealt with. Deuteronomy, addressed to the new genera^ 
tion, treats much of the kindness and love of God, whose righteous 
severity had been manifested towards their fathers." 

" Israel possessed Canaan under Jehovah as His feudatories; hence 
they were annually to present to Him of their cattle and fruits, by 
way of homage and quit-rent." 

" Balaam was a sort of civil prophet, and not sent to the children of 
Israel. Samuel offered sacrifice, though he was no priest, but only a 
Levite. Moses did the same ; for they both, because of their extraor- 
dinary commission from God, ranked above the priests. With Samuel 
begins a new period. Before him, the nation had no prophet except 
Moses ; but after him, there was a numerous succession of prophets." 

" Nadab and Abihu offered strange fire (Lev. x. 2), probably 
under the influence of wine. Therefore, ver. 9, wine was instantly 
prohibited to officiating priests." 

" One would have thought David's errors much greater than those 
of Saul, but his heart was stedfast to the Lord. Saul's great guilt 
was not his persecution of David, but his unbelief towards God. As 
a swan, plying equally both feet, gains upon the water, however 
turbulent, so David's spirit, with all his faults, struggled through 
every difficulty in one general direction. This consoles me about 
many a disaster, yea, and fault of God's true servants at present." 

" 1 Sam. xvii. 36. — Upon sectarian principles. Old Testament be- 
lievers ought not to have acted as they did. They ought to have 
said, 'What is all this multitude of unconverted people to me? Goliath 
is serving them right. They are an ungodly mass. Their very 
king is a worthless character. Shall God work a miracle to save 
such a people as this ? '" 

"The Hebrew miri, todah {praise, literally acknowledgment or con- 
fession), is beautifully emphatic. In praising a fellow-creature, we 
may easily surpass the truth ; but in praising God, we have only to 
go on confessing what He really is to us. Here it is impossible to 
exceed the truth, and here is genuine praise." 

" It is good to have to pass through humiliations and a lowly condi- 
tion, and that our course in life should be like that of a homeward 
])ound ship, direct for the haven, and leaving behind it no track of 
its pathway in the waves." 

1 John iv. 2, 3, 15. — " Confessing (Christ) means a decided and 
entire abandonment of ourselves to that which we have made tip our 
minds to ; that therein rests our total complacency and delight." 

As Scripture was given principally for behevers, it speaks of their 
resurrection expressly, and of the resurrection of the unjust only hy 
the way. 

Bengel's "Sketch of the Church of the United Brethren" appeared 


in 1751, Stuttgart. Count N. L. von Zinzendorf in 1722 granted 
a settlement on his estate at Berthelsdorf to a few pious refugees 
from the persecuted church of Moravia. The settlement was named 
Herrnhut, The watch of the Lord ; and from it, as the parent scion, 
have emanated the various branches of Moravianism, which have 
proved such a blessing in different parts of the world. Z. desired 
that his community should be considered in union with the Evan- 
gelical Church at Wlirtemberg, though still retaining its own discip- 
line, as it had existed for three centuries among them. The Theo- 
logical Faculty of Wlirtemberg gave a favourable reply to his 
application in 1733, being not at the time aware, that the Herrnhut 
community varied at the time from the doctrinal system of the Pro- 
testant Church. But subsequently, having learnt from the Moravian 
publications (their Hymn-book, and " The present form of the king- 
dom of the cross"), that the Brethren represented the doctrine of the 
Trinity in a form offensive to orthodox Lutherans, they (including 
Bengel) requested Z. in 1747 to furnish a full account of the doctrine 
and discipline of the Brethren, so as to do away the offence taken at 
their questionable mode and form of Christian teaching. 

Z. considered the Lutheran Church to be past recovery, and that 
it was the duty of her few pious members to withdraw from her and 
form themselves into a new community. B., on the contrary, looked 
for no perfect community in the present dispensation ; and rather 
anticipated that God would, in His own good time, out of the sur- 
viving remnant of true behevers, constitute a renovated Church. B. 
also intimated, that as it was insufficient to strengthen the Church 
against the grand apostasy, singly to hold forth that chief essential 
doctrine, the atonement by the blood of the cross, so to invest it 
with an isolated favouritism, to the neglect of other truths, comes 
short of the respect due to the whole tenor of Scripture : we there- 
by rob ourselves of many other helps to godliness. B. at the same 
time said, " There is a precious thing among them, it is their love to 
one another and to all men : as individuals, they are excellent, they 
only want to be conducted right as a community. The sickly wish 
of seceders has always been to adjust every single hair. It offends 
me, that the Brethren so frequently omit the name of the Father as 
our Creator and God, and insist too little on Christ's resurrection, 
the moral law, and the value of Biblical knowledge. Z. thinks no 
part of a clock so useful as the dial-hand : the kingdom of heaven is 
not so limited to them., that every one who has been converted by 
others must be deemed behind-hand, until he is incorporated with 
themselves : Their enterprise is like a forcing of plants in a hot-house, 
where a few certainly may be brought to perfection before their 
season ; but it is the open garden that yields the abundance and the 
sweetest of them, only a little later : Only in proportion to their 
abiding in humility would the Brethren prove a blessing to the Pro- 
testant Church and heathen world, whereby it might serve as an 


oasis to many, tliougli it might not be able to diffuse just its own 
verdure through the whole of Christendom." The result of Bengel's 
" Sketch " was gratifying. Zinz. gave no answer to it : gradually 
he modified many of his objectionable expressions ; and in course of 
time the Church of the Brethren gave in its adherence to the Augs- 
burg Confession. 

Among Bengel's lesser writings were, in 172 1, Contributions for the 
" Life of Flacius ;" Hymns for S. Urlsperger's " Instructions for the 
Sick ;" Contributions to the Notes of the Berlenburg Bible; Notices 
of Gmelin ; " Christ's manner of conversing with His disciples." 
' Amidst all his labours his feeling was, " All I do, appears to me more 
and more poor and defective ; and it becomes the settled desire of my 
mind, entirely to sink into the free mercy of God." One of his last 
works was his Preface' to his son-in-law Burk's Gnomon on the Twelve 
Minor Prophets. In it he remarks, " The Scriptures support the 
Church : the Church guards the Scriptures. When the Church flour- 
ishes, the Scriptures are had in honour; and when the Church be- 
comes sickly, the Scriptures suffer by it. Whatever be the condition 
of the Church at any period, the Scriptures are treated accordingly.' 

His correspondence with his friends is interesting. Marthius of 
Presburg candidly told him as. to his Apocalyptic System, " Periods 
thus defined have no effect in increasing my spiritual vigilance ; 
they are either too obscure for me, or too remote. The cry in Matt. 
XXV. 6 arouses me more. Surely, my dear friend, your own pre- 
cious time may be far more advantageously employed in what is 
of greater certainty and importance. Let me also beg of you not 
to give your critical annotations too concisely, under the idea that 
your readers will take the trouble to think out all the meaning 
which you intend to convey in some two or three words." Bengel 
replied, " What I have set down will partly, I think, turn out to be 
correct, and partly serve to prepai'e the way for further manifes- 
tation of the truth, when everything in Providence shall by and 
by be matured for that purpose. We ought not to pursue such in- 
quiries further than as the written word gives us data ; but is it not 
equally wrong to let any such data remain unexamined 1" 

Bengel had twelve children born to him, half of whom died in 
infancy. His daughtei', Sophia Elisabeth, married Dr Keuss, after- 
wards physician to the Duke of Wiirtemberg : Joanna Eosina mar- 
ried C. G. Williardts, counsellor to the Emperor Francis I. : Maria 
Barbara married Eev. P. D. Burk, afterwards Dean of Kirchheim : 
Catharine Margaret married Eev. E. F. Helwag, afterwards Dean 
of Giippingen. Victor, his eldest son, a student in medicine, sur- 
vived his father only seven years. The younger, Ernest, became 
Dean of Tiibingen. He felt keenly the loss of those who died in 
infancy, but comforted himself with the thought, that " if a vacancy 
had been made in his family circle, another vacancy had been filled 
up in heaven." 


His manner with children was decided, but kind : " Much patience 
and forbearance," says he, " are necessary, lest we prune our young 
nursery trees too closely, which would only injure them." In writ- 
ing to Ernest, he says, " Pray diligently : give to no one just cause 
to oppose you : learn to yield obligingly to others, but not so as^ to 
be a partaker of other men's sins. Never utter anything which 
might not be safely repeated after you." To his daughter on a 
sick-bed, he writes, " We belong to God, and His Son Jesus Christ. 
Had we the power to choose concerning things future in this world, 
we ought to be willing to give it back into His hands : for even 
with our eyes shut, we may safely trust Him, that He will do all 
things well. It is good to be thoroughly convinced what a poor 
scheme of happiness it must be at the best, which we are eager 
enough to form, in a variety of ways, out of our earthly allotments." 

His remarks of a personal kind are characteristic: "If my usual 
style has any peculiarity, it is that of omitting all needless words 
and things. Here I have somewhat imitated the ancients. Con- 
stant reading of the classics has given me quite a liking of their 
simplicity." " Retirement secures me from too much of this world's 
din. Thus I get leisure for building myself up in a recollected con- 
sciousness of God ; without which we are liable to pass away our 
term of life we know not how." " All I am and have, both in 
principle and practice, is to be summed up in this one expression — 
the Lord's property." " If it be said to me, ' Surely you too, as one 
of God's children, must have had your share of trial,' I reply. My 
chief suffering was of a spiritual and secret kind. It came on 
slowly, and continued long. An unaccountable pang would sur- 
prise me at tlie thought of an approaching eternity : not that I had 
any perplexing dread of misery, though I was not able cheerfully " 
to look forward to the happiness of a future state. God's great de- 
sign is at present not to delight us with pleasant experiences, but to 
exercise us as His faithfiil people. Let me, therefore, trust God for 
the pleasant things as realities laid up in reversion : for I know they 
will come in all their fulness by and by, with eternity. As little 
children give their sweetmeats tc their parents to keep for them, so 
my pleasant things are safer in God's keeping than in that of my 
own treacherous heart. Forgetting the past, and not taking thought 
for the morrow, I stand before God to-day as His daily pensioner." 
1 Kings xviii. 1 5. " Busy memory often gives me disquietude. If I 
have uttered an unbefitting woVd, or taken an unadvised step, 
though many years ago, the thing recurs to me, and by little and 
little gains within a troublesome ascendancy. But this makes me 
better acquainted with myself, and humbles me often into such sub- 
mission to God, as to be willing that my most secret faults should 
be published by Him in the presence of all His creatures." 

He said, " That if he desired the most perfect intimacy with real 
Christians on one account rather than another, it was for the sake 


of learning how they manage in secret to keep up their communion 
with God." _ 

Bengel did not consider theology to be a mere knowledge of the 
itrt of dying : " The Christian's most important business is to emerge 
from a state of sin to a confirmed state of grace, and herein to wait, 
not for death, but for the appearing of our Lord Jesus Christ." 
For he regarded " death as only a thing by the way, and not pro- 
perly a part of God's arrangement for man, because not originally 
such." When seriously ill in 1735 he said, " Neither bliss nor per- 
dition are in my thoughts, and yet the impression grows so awful 
that my mind is At length pained by it." " I commit myself to my 
faithful Creator, my intimate Kedeemer, my tried and approved 
Comforter. I know not where to find anything comparable to my 
Saviour. Only let me be made no account of, when I am gone.: I 
wish my spiritual experience no more obtruded upon the world after 
my death, than it has been during my life. As ' man's judgment' 
can nefther benefit nor hurt me, so things will appear in quite a 
different light at the great, day. ' Judge nothing before the time.' 
Is it not better that it should be said to me in that day, ' Art tliou 
also here ?' than that it should be said, ' Where is such and such a 
renowned saint?' Let nothing be made of my expressions that I 
may happen to utter upon mydeath-bed. Jesus, with His apostles and 
martyrs, is light sufficient for all that survive me. I am no light." 

He prayed that God would not permit him to continue in the 
world out of season. He said to CEtinger, " Illnesses serve to quicken 
and enlarge us in spirit, after we have been dwindling, as a bud slow 
in bursting into blossom-. When our spiritual lamp burns dimly, it 
is often because its wick needs retrenching." On recovery, he said, 
" I find myself awakened to circumspection much more by consider- 
ing that 1 may have a little longer to live, than by thinking I may 
be just going to have done with this life. For what have I to do in 
the latter case, except to fall at once into the arms of Divine mercy ? 
But in the former case, I have still the duties of a steward." 

During one illness he sent for a student in the Institution, and 
requested him to impart a woi'd of consolation. The youth replied, 
" Sir, I am but a pupil, a mere learner ; I don't know what to say 
to a teacher like you." " What !" said Bengel, " a divinity student, 
and not able to communicate a word of Scriptural comfort !" The 
student, abashed, contrived to utter the text, " The blood of Christ, 
the Son of God, cleanseth us from all sin." " That is the very word I 
want," said Bengel, " it is quite enough ;" and taking him affec- 
tionately by the hand, dismissed him. 

In 1746 he said, " I feel in a manner satiated of this life. O 
if my faithful God grant me only with this feeling a spirit of entire 
self-renunciation, all will be well. Probably I shall soon be ripe." 
And in 1749, "The nearer my advancing years bring me to the 
gate of eternity, the more gladly do I turn away from the exterior 


to the central matter. The presence of God is to me more than all 
the learned world." 

His final illness began with his sixty-sixth year, June 24, 1752. 
Calm, serene, and siknt, his soul reposed on God. Though he felt 
bound to utter from his heart whatever might occur to it, as likely 
to be of service to his friends around, yet he desired to use brevity, 
that there might be less room for anything objectionable mingling 
with that quietness of spirit which is in the sight of God of great 
price. On the day before his death he partook of the Lord's Supper 
with twelve of his nearest relatives, his children, grandchildren, 
and sons-in-law. When all were assembled, Bengel, who at other 
times could scarcely speak, to the surprise of all, poured forth such 
a full confession of his faith, accompanied with expressions of humi- 
liation and prayer, as occupied halt an hour ; and all present were 
deeply moved, and repeated a fervent Amen at the close. Then the 
hymn was sung which begins, " O Jesu Christ, my purest light," 
etc. (Wiirtemb. Church Hymn B. No. l&l,.) He then '-became 
silent again as before, except that hei'i'emarked, " We have not 
earned a stock of grace, but it is given out for our use as we want 
it. As for those who think they earn it, God is able to make them 
often feel very empty ; and He means them no harm by it." At 
the point of his departure, these words were pronounced over him, 
" Lord Jesus, to Thee I live ; to Thee I siffifer ; to Thee I die : 
Thine I am, in death and in life ; save and bless me O Saviour, for 
ever and ever. Amen." Upon hearing the words. Thine I ain, he 
laid his right hand upon his heart, to signify his full assent ; and so 
fell asleep in Jesus on Thursday, the 2d of November 1752. 

OEtinger remarks, " Bengel did not wish to die in spiritual parade, 
but in the ordinary way ; like a person called out to the street door 
from the midst of business : so mvich so, that he was occupied with 
the correction of his proof-sheets at his dying season, as at other 
times. What he said of himself was, ' that he should for a while be 
forgotten, but afterwards come into remembrance.' " The funeral 
sermon was preached by Tafinger, from Heb. vii. 24, 25, " This 
man, because He continueth ever, hath an unchangeable priest- 
hood : Wherefore He is able also to save them to the uttermost that 
come unto God by Plim, seeing He ever liveth to make intercession 
for them." This text was selected because Bengel on his death-bed 
had said, " The ground I feel under me is this, that by the power of 
the Holy Ghost, I confide in Jesus as an everlasting High Priest, 
in Whom I have all and abound." 

For further particulars of Bengel's life and writings, the compiler 
of this Sketch refers the reader to the full and interesting " Memoir" 
by the Eev. J. C. F. Burk, translated from the German by R. F. 
Walker. London : W. Ball, 1837. See also for autobiographical 
notices given by his son Ernest, the Ed. of Steudel, 1835. 

A. R. F. 




1. 'laxu^og, James) Peter, John, and James were the apostles of 
the circumcision ; Gal. ii. James was especially employed at Jeru- 
salem and in Palestine and Syria ; Peter, at Babylon and in other 
parts of the East ; John, at Ephesus and in Asia. Of the twelve 
apostles, these and Jude have left us seven Epistles, which are called 
General Epistles, a title given to them all in ancient times, though 
not adapted to aU aHke, since some of them are addressed to indivi- 
duals ; they are also called the Seven Canonical Epistles, to distin- 
guish them from the Canonical Epistles of St Paxil. John wrote 
from Ephesus to the Parthians, as ancient tradition affirms ; Peter, 
from Babylon to the dispersed Jews of Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, 
Asia, and Bithynia ; Jude (from what place is unknown), to the same 
persons as his brother James ; Jarries wrote from Jerusalem to the 
twelve tribes scattered abroad. This James is an apostle : respecting 
him, see on Acts xv. 23. 

The Epistle has three parts. 

I. The Inscription, ch. i. ver. L 

II. An Exhortation, 

1. To Patience, that the brethren endure outward, ver. 2-12, 
overcome inward temptations, ver. 13-15, 

VOL. V, A. 

2 JAMES I. 1. 

2. That, having regard to the goodness of God, ver. 16-18 ; 
Every one be swift to HEAE, slow to SPEAK, slow to 

And these three subjects 

a) Are proposed, ver. 19-21 ; 

b) Are discussed : 

I. That HEARING be joined with doing, ver. 
22-25 ; 
(And in particular with bridling the tongue, 

ver. 26 5 
With compassion and purity, ver. 27 ; 
Without respect of persons, ch. ii. ver. 1-13.) 
^Vnd, moreover, that faith be joined in all cases 

with works, ver. 14-26. 

H. That the SPEECH be modest, ch. iii. ver. 1-12. 

TTT . That WRATH, together with the other proud 
(inflated) passions, be restrained, ver. 13- 
iv. 10, 11, 12, 13-17. 
3. A second exhortation to Patience, which 

a) Derives weight from the COMING of the Judge, in 

which draws near — 

I. The calamity of the wicked, ch. v. ver. 1-6 ; 
II. The deliverance of the righteous, ver. 7-12. 

b) Is nourished by PRAYER, ver. 13-18. 

III. The Conclusion, by Apodioxis,^ ver. 19, 20. 

• — Kvpiov 'irjaou XpiaroZ, of the Lord Jesus Christ) The apostle does not 
again introduce the name of Jesus Christ in this Epistle, except ch. 
ii. 1 ; nor at all in his speeches. Acts xv. 14, 15, and xxi. 20, 21. 
If he had often used the name of Jesus, it might have been sup- 
posed that he was influenced by vanity, because he was the brother 
of the Lord ; and therefore he less knew Christ after the flesh : 2 
Cor. V. 1 6. He makes no mention of Abraham, of Isaac (except 
incidentally, ch. ii. 21), of Jacob, or Moses ; he says nothing about 
Judea, Jerusalem, and the temple. Christianity, so recently intro- 
diiced, is the source from which the whole Epistle is derived. — 

' See Append, on Apodioxis. 

JAMES I. 2, 8. 3 

Buiiixa (pvXati, to the twelve tribes) of Israel. — iiagmfi^, in their disper- 
sion) 1 Pet. i. 1 ; Acts viii, 1 ; (Septuagint) Deut. xxviii. 25, xxx. 4. 
— Xo^lpiiv, to rejoice) A word of frequent use in salutations, and espe- 
cially adapted to this passage. Xapav, "joy," in the next verse. 
The design of the apostle is, amidst the distress of those times, to 
exhort to patience, {u'Tro/^ovrii), and to check their Jewish pride (infla- 
tion), which was aggravated by the abuse of Christian faith : in 
fewer words, to commend moderation, or, if the expression is pre- 
ferred, a spiritual calmness of soul. See notes on ver. 19 : comp. 
Heb. xii. 1. For in many particulars the ippistle of James corre- 
sponds with the Epistle to the Hebrews, and also with the First 
Epistle of Peter. We will point out the agreement at the passages 
in question. Oft-times have prophets and apostles, apart from each 
other, used the same sentiments and expressions, to confirm the 
minds of their hearers.^ 

2. Ilatrai' %apai', all joy) The meaning is, Every trial ought to be 
esteemed a joy. Hence the word " all" is transferred from the sub- 
ject to the predicate, while this meaning is. retained. A trial 
ought not to be esteemed otherwise than a joy.^ Comp. Heb. xii. 
11. So 1 Pet. V. 10, 'Trdurig ^dpiroc, of all grace; Is. Ix. 21, 6 Xaoc 
ffov Tag ^Ixaiog, " TTiy people (shall be) all righteous." So Num. 
xiii. 2, 3 ; Dan. xii. 1, compared with the Apocalypse, xx. 1 5. The 
other degrees of patience are contained in joy, which is the highest. 
— adsX^o!, brethren) James frequently uses this address, especially 
at the beginning of a new section. — vupaa/ioTg 'rroixlXoig, various temp- 
tations) So ver. 12 ; 1 Pet. i. 6 ; various of soul and body ; for in- 
stance, diseases: ch. v. 16. — -Trepmiariri, ye fall into) The same word 
is used Luke x. 30, compared with 36. 

3. Th doxlfibiov \i/u,Zv) your proving, or trial. So ri doxlfnov vfjjuiv 
T~i\g 'Kieriag, the trial of your faith, 1 Pet. i. 7 ; Prov. xxvii. 21 (Sep- 
tuagint), S()X/,!i;ov apyvplifi, xai %pM6!f> ithpasig' at/rip ds Soxifidl^iTai did 

1 St James makes frequent use of the figure Anadiplosis, which properly 
signifies the use of the same word at the end of one sentence and at the beginning 
of the next. When used, as here, in a wider sense, it denotes the using of cognate 
words in the same way ; for instance, xxiptiv at the end of this verse, and x^^P^" 
at the beginning of the next verse: and so in the word iTro^ov^j/jVer. 3,4;7ie(vro>£*o;, 
ver. 4, 5; Siax^Ki/o'iKEi/of.twice, ver. 6. Add ver. 13, etc., 19, 20, 21, 22,23, 26,27. 

2 Thus Luther : eitel Preude {all joy, nothing but joy) ; and ch. iii. 16, eitel 
bbse Ding, a completely bad thing. (Thus also omnis is sometimes used for 
nerus. See note on ver. 17. — T.) 

" Every evil work," for " every work flowing from thence is evil ;" the eve-iy 
being transferred from the subject to the predicate.— E. 

4 JAMES I. i, 5. 

ffrS/iaTo; \y%aiiiaXJii7m a'jTOi, " The fining-pot for silver, and the fur- 
nace for gold; and so a man has his character tested by the mouth of 
those who praise him." Herodian, SokI/hov arpariuruv (a'dde y^pieriavuv) 
xd/iarog, dxx' ou rpufn, " The test of {Christian) soldiers is not luxury, 
but toil." Zosimus, luvolag Sox!/j,ia irapae^ou^ivo;, " Affording proofs 
of good-will." The meaning of the word ^okI/j^iov is therefore trial 
patiently undergone. Were I not withheld by the parallelism in 
Peter/ I should more readily embrace in James the reading Trjg 
Tienug, of your faith, supported as it is by so many witnesses.^ As 
it is, trial, spoken of in general terms, embraces the trial of faith, 
love, and hope. And though there is no special mention oi faith in 
this verse, yet James, as well as other apostles, esteems /ai'^A as all 
in all. See ver. 6, and v. 15. And the trial of faith, in particular, 
is firmly established, on the authority of Peter. — zanpyaZiTai v-tto/mv^ii, 
worheth patience) The same expression is used, Rom. v. 3, with the 
addition, i} 8e umf/.ov^ doxi/iriv, and patience (worheth) experience. See 
below, ver. 12. — h-Trojj.ovnv, patience) See ver. 12, and the note on Lulse 
viii. 15. So Psalm Ixii. 6 (Septuagint), 6V; irap' avroij jj iiTo.aoi/jj /j,ou, 
" for my patient expectation is from Him." 

4. "Epyov r'eXiiov, perfect work) This is followed by TiXnog, "a 
perfect man." The man himself is characterised (as r'sXnog, perfect) 
from his actions, and the work in which he is engaged. For the 
attainment of this character, there is need of joy. TiXuog is equiva- 
lent to h6-A.ifj.oc in ver. 12. Compare the note on 2 Tim. ii. 15. — 
'syjroi, let it have) He uses exhortation as in ver. 2, " count it all joy." 
The patience which rejoices is perfect. — rfXs/o; xa/ o\6%\npoi, perfect 
and entire) This expression denotes something absolute : h /si^Sivi 
Xsmu,£m, " wanting nothing," is a relative expression ; for the word 
AE/Vgff^a;, " to he in want," is opposed to -rrXion-ATiTv, " to abound." ' 

5. E/, if) The connection of the subjects mentioned in the first 
and following verses, and in the first and following verses of ch. 

^ From whom it may have been interpolated here. — E. 

' And indeed Beng. preferred this fuller reading afterwards in the margin of 
the Ed. 2 ; and it is expressly given in the Germ. Vers. E. B. 

B and later Syr. support the omission of rjj? Trta-zsa;; and so Tisch. But AC 
Vulg. support the words ; and so Lachm. and Rec. Text. — E. 

3 Men of the world, or even men of letters, if at any time they desire to 
honour any one with the greatest praise, adorn him with the praise of a perfect 
(^omnibus numeris absoluti) or accompUshed man. We may see from the passage 
itself with what sort of characters this description truly corresponds : probation 
is required, and perfect work. That which is complete in the eyes of the world is 
KQthing in the sight of God, in the absence oi faith.— German Version. 

JAMES I. 6-8. 5 

iv., will be evident to him, who, while he suffers wrongfully, directs 
his attention to this passage. For the good and the bad affections 
are alternately and variously brought forward according as the 
train of thought suggests. — di, but) There is an antithesis between 
the preceding clause and this : " wanting nothing," and " if any man 
lack" (want). — ao<piai, wisdom) by means of which we understand 
whence and why temptation comes, and how it is to be borne, and 
how, for example, sickness (ch. v. 14) is to be met. Patience is 
more in the power of a good man than wisdom ; the former is to 
be exercised, the latter to be asked for. The highest wisdom, which 
governs patience in the trial of poverty and riches, is described in 
ver. 9 and 10. — ahsira, let Mm ask) James stronglj' urges the prayer 
of faith. Comp. ch. v. 13, and following verses. — iraaiv, to all) who 
ask aright. — a.'ffXug, simply) To be taken with the sentence " who 
gives to all." Divine simplicity is an admirable excellence. He 
gives simply, to the more and the less worthy, whether they are 
about to make a good or a bad use of His gift. To this simplicity 
that of the faithful answers, not that ot the double-minded (di-^vx"')- 
— firi oviidll^ovroc, who upbraideth not) He gives no repulse : when He 
gives good things. He neither upbraids us with our past folly and 
unworthiness, nor with future abuse of His goodness. 

6. nlnTii, in faith) James also begins and ends with "faith." 
Comp. ch. V. 15. In the middle of the Epistle he merely removes the 
hindrances to faith, [and shows its true character. — ^V. g.] — 'ioixi, 
is like) The same word occurs in ver. 23. —Kkhhmi daXdaern, a wave 
of the sea) Such is the man who is destitute of wisdom, not obtained 
by prayer. — ai/s^/^o^Evw, which is driven by the wind) from without. 
■ — pmZ^oiihu), which is tossed) from within, by its own instability. 

7. Mn yap o'lis^a, for let not that man think) Faith does not enter- 
tain mere opinions.^ He who thinks as the double-minded man 
(hi-^u-Xpi), thinks in vain. 

8. 'Ak))^ bl-^uxoi, o, double-minded man) The same word {bi-i^u-^^^oi) 
is applied, ch. iv. 8, to those who have not a heart pure and simply 
given up to God. The word does not occur elsewhere in the New 
Testament, or in the Septuagint. It may be translated "having 
two souls," as we speak of "a double-tongued"^ man. Hesychius, 
di-^yuxta, avopla, " a state of doubt or perplexity. It is therefore con- 
nected in meaning with the word oiaxpivofiivo;, "the wavering." 

' ot'iiriai, as the Latin opinari, denotes the mere holding of an opinion or sup- 
position, and expresses a condition of doubt as opposed to faith.— T. 
* Both these meanings are contained in the German /aiscA 

6 JAMES I. 9-11. 

Such a man has/ as it were, two souls, of which the one holds one 
opinion, the other holds another. Ecclesiasticus ii. 12, ohai xapdlaig 
diiXaTg, %al xipei irapii/Jjimii, %ai at^apru'ka siri^aimri i-Jri dvo rpSpovg : 
" Woe be to fearful hearts, and faint hands, and the sinner that 
goeth two ways !"—a.->i.oi.ra.e-arog, unstable) ¥01 he does not obtain 
Divine direction by prayer : and being destitute of wisdom, he is 
at variance with himself and with others. Comp. oh. iii. 16. 

9. KauxdaSco 3s, but let him glory) The best remedy against double- 
mindedness (S/^ux''"') °^ * divided soul. The word "glorying" 
occurs also, ch. ii. 13, iii. 14, iv. 16.— adiXfog, the brother) James 
thinks it befitting to apply this title to the lowly rather than the 
rich. — ra'jrsDihg, of low degree) poor and tempted. — 'ii-]^si, in his ex- 
altation) The apostle proposes to speak of the lowly and the rich : 
he shortly afterwards treats of the rich, ver. 11 ; and then of the 
lowly, ver. 12 : being about to treat of each subject more fully in 
ch. V. The design of the whole Epistle is, to reduce all things 
to an equable footing. Comp. ch. ii. 1, v. 13. "T-^og, blessedness, 
the crown of life, that fadeth not away. 

10. TiXoiiisiog, the rich) A Synecdoche for every one that is flourish- 
ing and gay. — h rii ra.'Kuviiieu, in that he is brought low) This is 
strictly construed with /tau%affdM, let the rich man rejoice. Compare 
2 Cor. xii. 9 ; 2 Sam. vi. 22. Tanlmeig does not denote \h.Q fading 
away of the rich man, but the lowliness of mind which arises .from 
the sight of that fading away. — on iig, because as) "As the flower of 
^^e field — the fashion of it perisheth ; the Protasis: "so shall the 
rich man fade away," ver. 11 ; the Apodosis. — av^os xofrou, the flower 
of the grass) That part of the grass which is most pleasant to the 
sight, the flower, 1 Pet. i. 24. 

11. 'AvsTciXi — ci'iriiXiro, the sun is risen — it perisheth) Here are 
four circumstances (turning points) : the first is the cause of the 
second, the third of the fourth.^ — xavauvi) the mid-day " heat" and 
parching wind, which follows the " rising" of the sun. A grada- 
tion. — i] ilvpi'Tnia, the comeliness) which is in the flower. — ■?ropsiaig, his 
goings) In other places euvopla, " abundance of resources" [success in 
one's ways or goings'], is attributed to the rich ; but the apostle uses 
the simple word, and that too in the plural number, on account of 
the burdensome greatness (extent) of his undertakings. Uopila, a 
journey, from vopivofiai, " I go," as ^agiXila from PamXeuci. I attri- 
bute no weight to the reading mop'iaig} — ihapa.v^i\aiTai, shall fade 
away) in death, , 

' It was necessary to bring forward this reading in the Appar. p. 728, because 

JAMES I. 12-15. 7 

12. Maxdpios, blessed) fiaxapios is derived from //^fi, and, " immor- 
tal." This word, and the crown of life, are opposed to the word 
IMapavifiairai, " shall fade away" — hmi/.mT, shall endure) See ver. 3 
and 4 ; 1 Pet. ii. 20. See App. Crit./ 2d Edition, on this passage. 
— evriyyilXaro, promised) See ch. ii. 5. — aya'TrZaiv, who love Him) 
Love produces patience. [He knows how to account all tempta- 
tions in the light in which it is right to account them : Eom. viii. 
28.-V. g.] 

13. MrjSslg ■7riipal^6//,svog, no man, who is tempted) Now there follows 
another section on the subject of temptations. The strength of 
patience mainly consists in our knowing the source of the evil which 
tries us. — XiyiTu, say) either in heart, or by word. — aurhg. He) The 
meaning is, Neither do any sins of ours tempt God from without, to 
entice us to worse things ; nor in truth does He tempt any man of 
His own accord. This very thing is also characteristic of the Divine 
simplicity, ver. 5. The word aurog often gives the idea of something 
spontaneous ; wherefore the word jBouXriklg, " of His own will," in 
the opposite part of the antithesis (ver. 18), agrees with this. 

14. "EnagTog, every man) Antithetical to ovdha, "no man," ver. 13. 
— wo, by) Lust is, as it were, the harlot ; human nature, the man. — 
Idiag, his oivn) We ought therefore to seek the cause of sin in our- 
selves, and not without us. Even the suggestions of the devil do 
not occasion danger, before they are made our own (j'Sia). Every 
one has his own peculiar- lust, arising from his own peculiar disposi- 
tion, habit, and temperament. — i^eXxo/^evo;, drawn away) in the be- 
ginning of the temptation, which draws him away from truth and 
virtue. A passive participle. — deXea^6/ji,evog, enticed) in its further 
progress, admitting the allurement to evil (allowing himself to be 
enticed). A middle participle. 

15. 2uXXa/3oDffa, when it hath conceived) Sin arising from man's 
■vvill. — af/}a,pT!av, sin) The act of sin. It does not therefore follow 
that concupiscence of itself is not sin. He that begets man, is 
himself man. — amreXsahTga, when it is finished) having attained its 
full-grown strength : and this quickly comes to pass. — idvarov, death) 
Sin from its birth is big with death. 

Hill speaks obscurely respecting some Manuscripts which have this reading, and 
is silent respecting Estius quoting Onignceus. 

A reads mpUis. But the weight of authorities is for ■Tropuai; ; Vulg. itineri- 
bm — E. 

' More recent MSS. read ivo/^eveT. But the older MSS. AB, etc., and all 
the Versions, read i'x-opihii, Vulg. suffert. So Lachm. and Tisch. — E. 

8 JAMES I. 16, 17. 

16. 'M)] irkavaek, do not err) It is a great error to attribute to 
God the evils ■which we receive, and not the goods. It is the part 
of love, to lead us away from this error. A faithful admonition. 
Comp. eh. v. 19. 

17. nSffa, every^) The connection of the discourse is evident, when 
thus resolved : hoeii, a, "gift" (a. giving), y^hich. is altogether good; 
Supri//,a, a boon, which is altogether perfect. No evil things come 
from above, but only things good and perfect. The words "good" 
and "perfect " form the predicate of the sentence ; " gift" and 
"boon" are the subject.' " Every," in both clauses, if the meaning is 
considered, belongs to the subject.'' Comp. " all," ver. 2, note. — 
bodii, a giving, a gift) A " good gift," as opposed to " sin," denotes 
those things which, from the beginning and by daily increase, tend 
to righteousness and piety. A "perfect boon" as opposed to " when 
it is finished " and " death," denotes those things which relate to 
perfection of character and a happy life : comp. 2 Pet. i. 3.—&m6h 
sffTi KaTa^aiiov) is that which descends from above. Comp. " descend- 
ing," iii. 15. — a.'jrh, from) namely, "from the Father of lights." The 
expression, from above, is hereby explained. — nu narphg rZv (ptirtav, the 
Father of lights) The title of Father is here used with great pro- 
priety. There follows, in the next verse, a-jrexu'/ieiv, "He begat us." He 
stands in the place of father and mother. He is the Father even of 
spiritual lights in the kingdom of grace and glory. Much more then 
is He Himself " Light " 1 John i. 5. Immediately on mention of 
" light," there is added, as usual, mention of life, by regeneration, 
ver. 18. — 'Trap u) oiix. hi 'irapaXKayri ri rpo'jrni a'iros-/.iae[ia, with whom is 
no variableness, or shadow of turning) XiapaXXayn denotes a change 
in the understanding (see 2 Kings ix. 20,= Septuagint) ; rpoirn, a 

1 M^ ovti is the reading of the Alexandr. and the Lat. "Vers. This one 
example will show that I do not attribute too much weight to the agreement of 
these two, when unsupported by other evidence ; for I have not wished to indi- 
cate this various reading in the margin of the text. 

Vulg. has "Nolite itaque errare." — B. 

2 5r«<r« seems to be used like the Latin merus, in the sense of nothing hut. 
See Raphelius on the passage. — T. 

» By I6mi, we may understand the gift or act of giving ; by 8i^«^«, the fulness 
of the benefit bestowed. — T. 

AoV/f, the act of giving, the gift in its initiatory act : ll>pnfi», the thing given, 
the boon when perfected. — E. 

•• " The giving and gift that comes from above is all perfect ;" not as Engl. 
Vers. — E. 

' i> ■urctpx'Khayvi iyhsro, is used to denote the violence of Jehu's driving.— T. 

JAMES 1. n. 9 

change in the will. In each word there is a metaphor taken from 
the stars, and used with singular propriety in this passage, where 
mention is madfe of lights. napaWayfi and rpov^ occur in nature 
(see Tfo'jr&s in Job xxxviii. 33), which has a daily vicissitude of dav 
and night, and has at one time a greater length of day, at another 
time a greater length of night ; but there is nothing of this kind in 
God. He is pure, unsullied [nothing but] Light. napaXXayn and 
rpo'Ttri, variation and change, if they take place at all, take place in 
us, and not in the Father of lights. ' A'7rosxiaa//.a sometimes has the 
meaning of 6fioiaf/,a, likeness: for so Hesychius explains it; whence 
Gregory of Nazianzus uses as synonyms, rJ r^; aknhlai 'h8a,\/j,a nal 
amsKias/^a, the appearance and likeness of the truth; and in Cicero, as 
Budasus observes, the outline of an object is opposed to its perfec- 
tion. But in this passage it is opposed to lights, and is' therefore 
used more correctly; so that amsxia,<!//,oi, rpoicru is the first casting of 'a 
shadow, which is accompanied by a revolution. The same Hebraistic 
use of the genitive occurs shortly after in ver. 21, superfluity of 
naughtiness, from which we may infer, that there is an opposition 
between the words variableness and good gift; just as shadow 
of turning is opposed to the expression, perfect boon. JlapaXkayr, 
denotes something greater : hence there is a gradation in the nega- 
tive sentence : not even the shadow of turning. This at length 
[this, and this only] makes up perfection ; the former is good. 
He is more perfect who has not even the shadow of turning. 

18. 'BovXrjhig, of His oivn will) with an inclination most loving, 
most free, most pure, most fruitful. In Hebrew 3K, from nSK, he 
willed: comp. John i. 13. "EXjo;, mercy, 1 Pet. i. 3, corresponds 
with this. There is an antithesis in the words, Lust, when it hath con- 
ceived. — a'TrixhriCiv) begat He. Antithetical to aToxus/, bringeth forth 
(begetteth), ver. 15. — nij^ag, us) who beheve, especially of Israel. A 
twofold generation is spoken of, the one opposed to the other ; and 
that which is in evil is described by abstract terms, that which is in 
good by concrete. — &Xrjkia,g, of truth) the Gospel. — avap^^v rim ruv 
airov xTigfjLaTcov, a kind of first fruits of His creatures) We are of 
God by creation and generation ; His workmanship, Eph. ii. 10 ; 
and offspring, Acts xvii. 29. Of all Plis visible creatures, and 
they are many and great, the faithful are the first fruits, the chief 
and noblest part, more holy than the rest and sanctifying the rest ; 
and it is on this account that they (the faithful) are exercised with 
temptations. A kind of : There is modesty in this expression, tor 
strictly and absolutely Christ alone is the first fruits. 

10 JAMES I. 19-21. 

19. "nan, wherefore) The Summing up^ or Conclusion, and also a 
Statement of those things which follow, in three divisions. Excess 
in words and the affections of the tongue and the heart, ver. 26, is un- 
favourable to hearing with profit. — wa^, every man) This is opposed to 
no man, ver. 13; for this 19th verse has reference to that, and not 
merely to the preceding verse. — rayjji tig to u-Mvaai, swift to hear) 
The true method of hearing (receive ye), together with the obe- 
dience and right disposition of the hearers, is treated of in verses 
21—27, and the whole of ch. ii. — jSpaSiig ils rh Xaknsu,', slow to speak) 
This is treated of in ver. 26, and in ch. iii. Slow to speak; so that 
he speaks nothing against God, ch. i. 13; nor anything improperly 
concerning God, ch. iii. 1-13. — (SpaSvs ils opyriv, slow to wrath) This is 
treated of, ch. iii. 13 and following verse, ch. iv. 5. Slow to wrath, 
or impatience, towards God, and proneness to anger as it respects 
Ms neighbour. He who is slow to anger will readily forbear all 
anger, and assuredly all evil anger. Hastiness drives to sin. 

20. 'Opyn lurath). A most powerful passion. — avhphe, of man) The 
male sex especially cherishes wrath, 1 Tim. ii. 8 ; and its actions, 
whether just or unjust, are more widely exposed to view. The wrath 
here intimated is that of nature, without grace. — hmaioewnv &ioZ,the 
righteousness of God) All duties which are divinely enjoined and 
pleasing to God. — ou nanpydZ^iTai, worketh not) That is, altogether 
hinders the righteousness of God ; although it seems to itself, while 
inflamed, especially to work that (righteousness) ; [and therefore it 
constitutes the principal part of these three-membered sentences. — 
V. g.] Purer effects are produced without anger. 

21. ' A-7rol)l/j,i]ioi T&sav puiraplcx.\i, laying aside all filthiness) A metaphor 
from a garment; ch. ii. 2. 'Fuvapia, defilement, which is cleansed away 
by hearing the word : John xv. 3. — Tipigsilav xaxlag) abundance, 
excess, which is usually faulty, especially in speaking (Matt. v. 37). 
[In thoughts, words, gestures, and works, excess is not without fault. 
— ^- g-] Kan/a does not mean malice or craftiness ; but badness or 
vice (faultiness), as opposed to virtue ; and the genitive xoczla,; has 
here the force of an epithet [faulty excess ; not as Engl. Vers.]— 
■h -irpcfurnri, with meekness) This is opposed to wrath, and is shown 
in all things. Comp. 1 Pet. ii. 1, 2. Anger and sudden impetuo- 
sity of mind is a hindrance to hearing : therefore meekness is 
required.— Ssgacr^E, receive) with your mind, with your ears, and in 
action. [Act the part of ready hearers.— V. g.]— riv 'i/^^urov, en- 

^ See on Sympekasma, Append. 

JAMES I. 22-26 H 

grafted) by regeneration, ver. 18, and by habit \wliich you have 
acquired ft^om your earliest years. — V. g.J, Hob. v. 14; and also by 
custom derived from their ancestors, who were Israelites [namely, the 
people of GOD. — V. g.J, ver. 1. Comp. 2 Tim. i. 5. It is engrafted, 
and therefore most intimately connected with the faithful, and nigh 
unto them ; Rom. x. 8 : therefore it is to be received with meekness. 
— Xoyov, the word) the Gospel : 1 Pet. i. 23, etc. — rhv duvd//,£vov, which 
is able) with great efficacy. — auaai, to save) The hope of salvation 
nourishes meekness ; and this in turn supports that. 

[22. liapa'KoyiZfiiJ.ini iavroiig, deceiving their [" your"] own selves) 
Pleasing themselves in their hearing. — ^V. g.] 

23. "On, because) The false reasoning, self-deceit, of careless 
hearers is explained. — yiv'sasug, of nature) Comp. ch. iii. 6. — sv igoirrptfi, 
in a mirror) The truth of Scripture is proved from this, that it pre- 
sents to a man a most accurate "portrait of his soul. 

24. [Karsvoriai, he hath contemplated himself) It can hardly happen 
that no knowledge whatever of one's self is imparted by the hearing 
of the word : 1 Cor. xiv. 24. — ^V. g.J — luS'siag, straightway) turning 
away to other subjects. The repetition of x.a! has great force in ex- 
pressing this hastiness j oined with levity. Gen. xxv. 34 (Septuagint ) . 
—i-jTsXdhTo, he forgetteth) Forgetfulness is no excuse : ver. 25 ; 2 
Pet. i. 9. 

25. Tlapaxu'^as, whoso looketh into) This answers to ver. 24, he 
beholdeth himself. The word irafaKbiiToi gives the idea of such a 
search after an object which is concealed as does not confine itself to 
the surface of the mirror, but penetrates to that which is within. 
Ecclus. xiv. 23, 'O •KapaxlvToiv dia tuv hp/dciiv rrjg eoipiag, he that prieth 
in at the windows of wisdom. A blessed curiosity, if it is efiicacious 
in bearing fruit. — lig v6/mov t'bXziov rh r^s iXiuSiplag, into the perfect law 
of liberty) He applies this appellation to the law, inasmuch as [in so 
far as] it is established by faith : Rom. iii.' 31. Comp. the notes on 
ch. ii. 12- and 8. St James takes care that no one should abuse 
the pecuhar expressions employed by St Paul respecting the bondage 
and yoke of the law. He who keeps the law is free : John viii. 31 
and 32. Maai ought to agree with the perfection of the law, in the 
perfection of his knowledge and obedience ; otherwise he is, not free, 
but guilty. Comp. ii. 10. — xal '!rapa//.iimg, and continueth) This is 
antithetical to goeth his way, ver. 24. — olrog — olrog) this man — this 
man, I say. The words here inserted express the reason of the 
assertion (of the predicate), and the repetition has weight. 

26. e7 Tig, if any man) He now adds examples of doing the 

13 JAMES I. 27.-II. 1. 


■h—6pne%og, religious) A worshipper of God, in private and in 
public. Hesychius, ^^^ffxo,-, inpoho^oi, ihysm: that is, one who has 
more knowledge than others, and is endued with a nobler mind. 
The commentary of CEcumenius agrees with this ; for with him 
epni-Mg is one who knows the secret things of the law, and diligently 
observes them.^ — /j-r, ^."■Ximya'yZv, not bridling) A most appropriate 
metaphor. Comp. ch. iii. 2, S.^yXaasav, his tongue) and heart also. 
— xapdiav, his heart) and tongue also. The one leads and follows 
the other. The tongue has its faculty of speech, and the heart its 
affections ;^ ver. 19. 

27. eprjsxila, religion) It is only when a man succours the 
wretched, and avoids those plunged in the gaiety of the world, that 
the whole of the worship which he pays to God can be right. — 
■MSapri. xa! afi,!aiiTog, pure and undefiled) proceeding from pure love, 
and removed /rom the defilement of the world. — lirioxi'^Tia^ai, to visit) 
with advice, comfort, kind offices, and of his own accord.^ — hp(pavovg 
xal x'iP«'S, the fatherless and widows) that is, the afflicted, even those 
who are not related to us, who are neglected by many. Synec- 
doche.^ — sv rfi ^X;'4/£;, in their affliction) For if it is done for other 
reasons, that is not religion. — aarnXov lavrhv, himself unspotted) That 
effect is produced, if we abstain from intercourse with those who 
are of no benefit to us, nor we to them. — TripiTv, to guard) with 
anxious care. 


l."ASiXipoi /lov, my brethren) The equality of Christians, as indi- 
cated by the name of brethren, is the basis of this admonition. — 
£v) The phrases, h 'TrpoaavoXri-^laig ix^"; ^nd h kmyvwsii s;^£/v, Rom. i. 
28, are similar. — 'jposcaToXri-^iaig, receivings of persons) The one 

" These two things are joined together in a similar way, Eccles. v. 1, 2 : 
" Be not rash with thy mouth, and let not thy heart be hasty to utter anything 
before God." And that Book of Solomon agrees with this Epistle of James in 
this respect especially, that they both urge moderation in all things. Compare 
Matt. xii. 34, " Out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh." The 
tongue sins in reproaches, perjuries, lying, jesting, false promises, murmuring, 
etc. — V. g. 

' See Append, on Stnecdoohe. 

JAMES II. 2-4. 13 

(manner of receiving) has reference to the rich who are strangers 
to the faith ; the other, which is widely different, has reference to 
the poor who are Christians. — r^v manv, faitli) in which the poor 
abound. — rrn So^ns, of glory) The pronoun our seems to show, 
that this (of glory) does not depend upon the word Lord. It is 
therefore put in apposition, so that Christ Himself is called fi S6^a, 
the Glory. Comp. Luke ii. 32; Is. xl. 5; Eph. i. 17; 1 
Pet. iv. 14. The Glory is Christ Himself. Thus James both de- 
clares Him to be the Son of God, and publishes His resurrection 
from the dead, as it becomes an apostle. Christ is Glory ; and 
therefore faith in Him is glorious, and the faithful are glorious. 
This glory of the faithful is far above all worldly honour ; no re- 
specter of persons acknowledges it. 

2. 'E/BiXSri, shall enter) as an unknown stranger. — guvayaiyn^) 
assembly, and that a sacred one ; for he adds, your. The name 
of synagogue is transferred from Jews to Christians. — annp %pu(ro- 
daxTuXiog, a man with a golden ring) The use of rings was formerly 
much more uncommon than now. The antithesis is simply a 
poor man. — Xafj^vp^, splendid) bright and new, of whatever colour 
it may be. 

3. ' E'TTiSxi-^rire, ye look upon) with admiration. — -rJv (fopouna., him 
that weareth) although you are ignorant who he is ; when perhaps 
he may be a heathen. — eu — si, thou — thou) This has here the 
force of a proper name. — xdhv udi, sit here) The antithesis is, stand 
there. — xaXZg) 2''t2n ; Septuagint, xaKug, honourably. — ixi?; there) at 
a distance from us. 

4. Kal ov, nor) If, of ver. 2, has its Apodosis in this verse : Oil, Hal, " both ye do not discriminate aright, aiid." — ou biaxpiiriTe) 
Though you make that difference {discriminatiorh) between the rich 
and the poor, " you do not discriminate' with just hesitation, con- 
sideration, and weighing, that which should have been given to the 
poor man, rather, or at any rate not less, than to the rich. AnxpUn 
occurs in an active sense also in Rom. iv. 20. Aiccr-plmaSai is used 
in this passage of James in a good sense. [But Engl. Vers, takes 
it in a bad sense, and with an interrogation, " Are ye not partial ? "] 
To this compound word the simple xpirat is opposed, which word 
denotes those who settle any subject definitely. Aidxpimg (discri- 
mination) ought to precede xpigig (judgment) ; whereas you omit 
the former and exercise the latter. — -/.piTa! hiaXoyiejjjuv -jrovripm) 
judges, approvers of evil thoughts : that is, of the rich, who 
have outward splendour, but abound with evil thoughts. They 

' 14 JAMES II. 5. 

who honour the rich man in preference to the poor, do not expressly 
desire to approve of his evil thoughts ; but James puts this interpre- 
tation upon their conduct, and lays it to their charge, because the 
rich man in his pomp is full of evil thoughts. The more common 
sentiment is presupposed as vs^ell known. 

5. 'A-Mbaare, h&arken) By this address he brings to trial and re- 
strains rash judges, showing that the presumption ought to be m 
favour of the poor, rather than the rich. — o ©eJs, God) Our judg- 
ment ought to be in conformity with the judgment of God, even in 
ceremonies and outward gestures. — l^iXi^aro tou; itrt^-^oxii;, chose the 
poor) They who are chosen, are needy. This description does not 
include all the poor, nor is it confined to the poor only; for poverty 
and riches of themselves do not render any man good or evil ; and 
yet the poor are in various places pronounced happy in preference 
to the rich : ch. v. 1. And the terms, wicked and rich, righteous 
and poor, are generally synonymous. Is. liii. 9 ; Amos ii. 6, v. 12. 
The rich man, if he is good, renounces his riches ; the poor man, if 
he is wicked, neglects that which is the advantage of poverty. 
Many Christians were of the poor, few from among the rich ; espe- 
cially at Jerusalem, and among those to whom James writes. 
Comp. the notes on ch. v. 1 and following verses. So also, 1 Cor. 
1. 27, God hath chosen, etc. — 'jr'Koijskvc h "Trlsrsi, xa! x.Xripov6/jjOug, 
rich in faith, and heirs) Beza thus explains it : He chose the poor, 
that they might become rich in faith, and heirs, etc. E. Schmid 
thus takes it : He chose the poor, who are however rich in faith, to 
be also heirs, etc. The latter puts asunder two points which are 
most intimately connected, rich and heirs.. The former, contrary 
to the design of the apostle, places faith and love after election. 
For James treats concerning the order of election, faith, and love, 
just as that order becomes known to us : and moreover he thus fur- 
nishes us with a rule for forming a right judgment respecting the 
poor ; in which point of view not only faith, but also love, precedes 
election in the order of our knowledge. The meaning of the 
apostle is this : God chose the poor, who are rich in faith, and who 
are also heirs, etc. Whence this argument is derived : "Whoever 
are rich in faith and heirs, them we ouglit to acknowledge and treat 
as chosen by God ; but the poor are rich in faith," etc. Thus 
election is so far from preceding faith, that even the inheritance 
precedes election; and if we duly consider the antithesis between 
He chose, and ye have despised, this conclusion presents itself. 
Both God highly esteems, and we ought to have highly esteemed, 

JAMES II. 6-8. 15 

those who are rich in faith, and heirs of the kingdom.^ — h irlgm, in 
faith) which has for its object the Lord of glory. To this faith 
are assigned as a consequence the riches of heaven and of the 
world to come, even as the inheritance is assigned to love. — ?tX?)f oi/o/^ous, 
heirs) because sons. — rrig BamXemg, of the kingdom) The highest 

6. 'HrifidsaTs, ye have despised) while ye held the poor in too 
little esteem. A most expressive word. — oh-x^ ol v'koUioi, do not the 
rich) Not all the rich, but many of them, and none but they ; for 
the poor have not the power, even if they wished. The apostle 
mentions this, not to excite the godly to envy, but to show the un- 
worthiness of the rich. — aurol, these) The demonstrative pronoun, as 
in ver. 7. In Hebrew, Dn. These are they who act both with open 
violence, and yet with the appearance of justice. — iXxovaiv u/jL&g, drag 
you) with unreasonable violence. 

7. BXairpjjittouff;, blaspheme) Prov. xxx. 9. The apostle is speak- 
ing chiefly of rich heathens. Comp. 1 Pet. iv. 14, ii. 12. For 
there were not many rich men among the Jews, at any rate at 
Jerusalem. — rh xaKhv 'ovq/j,a, the good name) DtJTi, the name of God, to 
be praised above all things, 31ti 'a, since it is good, and His good 
name. — rh J«x? riSev i(p' 6/Aag, which is invoked over you) from which ye 
are called the people of God. There is a similar expression, 
Gen. xlviii. 16 ; Is. iv. 1. 

8. No>ov ^adiXinhv, the royal law) which does not allow itself to be 
enslaved at the will of man ; but is itself the law of liberty, ver. 12, 
and the sum of the (ten) commandments, ordering, as it does, that 
all shall love, and be loved — the greatest law of the Supreme King, 
who is Love, with whom there is no accepting of persons, and who 
exalts all His people to liberty and a kingdom, who orders them 
to avoid the accepting of persons, and has power to punish trans- 
gressors. Comp. note on Chrysost. de Sacerdotio, p. 443, respect- 
ing the epithet ^agiXinhi, royal. — tsXiTti, ye fulfil) even by avoiding 
the respecting of persons, — rxar&, according to) This word particu- 
larises : the law is the whole ; that Scripture, thou shalt love, etc., is 
a part. Comp. ver. 10 and 11. — ayairfimig, thou shalt love) even in 
paying honour. The royal law is a law of love :' comp. 2 Cor. ii. 8, 
note. — riv -TrXneiov gov, thy neighbour) even though poor.^zaXSs) 
excellently, rather than in the sense which is noticed in ver. 3 [sit in 
an honourable place] : comp. ver. 19 and 7. 

1 Thus Luther : die Liebe ist Kayserin. — Love is svpreme. 

16 JAMES 11. 9-: I. 

9. UpoeumXri'TrTiTTi, ye have respect to persons) The respecting of 
persons does not love all alike. — a/jjapriav IpyaZ^ish, ye commit sm) 
Your whole proceeding is sin. For, in ver. 10, has reference to 
this. — iXiyyJiixim, convinced, convicted) on account of your having 
respect to persons, and thus incurring conviction. 

10. YiTakii, sliall offend) especiallj in some important matter. 
Urahiv is used of an offence of daily occurrence, ch. iii. 2. 

11. 'o yap iiTcuv, for He who said) It is one and the same Being 
who gave the whole law ; and they who violate His will in one 
point, violate it altogether. 

12. o'irag "KaXitn, SO speak ye) Be such in speech. In this sum- 
ming up,he refers to ch. i. 26. — ha v6/j,ou sXivhplag, by the law of liberty) 
See note at ch. i. 25. The law abhors slavery, and therefore also the 
having respect to persons. 

13. 'h yap xpisig, for the judgment) That judgment of God respect- 
ing us, which no one shall escape, will be such towards every one, as 
every one shall have been : without mercy to him who hath showed 
no mercy. — sXsos, mercy) This is synonymous with love, ver. 8; one 
common misery being presupposed. — %aTa%a\)-/a,rai, rejoiceth against) 
An important word, and a memorable sentence. Judgment itself 
willingly bears this rejoicing. The apostles frequently omit the 
connecting particles. A proof of this is the great variety of particles 
which the copyists supply ; as in this passage, some prefix -/.al, while 
others append bi. The shorter reading, which stands midway be- 
tween the two as their common starting point, is the genuine one. 
See App. Crit., Editio II., on this passage.-^ — 'iXiag, mercy) Divine 
mercy, answering to that on the part of man. 

14. T/, what) From ch. i. 22, the apostle has been using exhorta- 
tion to practice : now he meets the case of those who seek to avoid 
practice, by sheltering themselves under the pretence of faith. More- 
over, St Paul taught to this effect: — Righteousness and salvation 
are of faith, and not of works. But even then pretended Chris- 
tians had abused this doctrine, as the perversity of man is accustomed 
to abuse every thing, and had employed the words of St Paul 
in a sense opposite to that intended by St Paul. Wherefore James 
(repeating in this place [ver. 23, 2J, 25] the same phrases, testi- 
monies, and examples, which St Paul used, Eom. iv. 3 ; Heb. xi. 

1 A, Vulg. and later Syr. read Si. Rec. Text, without any very old authority, 
prefixes koh. C omits both ; and so Lachm. and Tisch. B reads either x«t«- 
xavy^xTi, or xarctx<^vx^ T£, according as the Uncial letters, which flow on with- 
out divisions, are divided. — E. 

JAMES II, 14. 17 

17, 31) refutes, in ver. 24, 14, not the doctrine of St Paul, but the 
error of those who abuse that doctrine, — an error which endeavours to 
escape notice by sheltering itself behind the words of St Paul. 
Sometimes the use of expressions which are good in themselves is 
checked, while many abuse them : comp. Jer. xxiii. 33 with Hab. 
i. 1 and Mai. i. 1. The character of St Paul, as every one will 
admit, was very different to that of St James ; and some traces of 
this difference may be perceived in this very chapter : comp. note 
on Gal. ii. 9. It must not, however, be supposed that they are at 
variance with each other, as any one might suppose, who should 
attach himself either to St Paul or St James, apart from the other. 
We ought rather to receive, with the greatest reverence and simpli- 
city, without any reserve or wresting of words, the doctrine of each 
as apostolical, and as proceeding from Christ and His Spirit. They 
both wrote the truth, and in a suitable manner, but in different 
ways, as those who had to deal with different kinds of men. More- 
over, James himself had maintained the cause of faith on another 
stage. Acts xv. 13—21 ; and subsequently, Paul himself strenuously 
urged works, especially in the Epistles written at the close of his 
life, when men were now abusing the doctrine of faith. But now 
in this instance they both use the same words, though not altogether 
in the same sense, as we shall presently see. Moreover this short 
verse is a summary of three divisions. Ver. 15—17 have reference 
to What doth it profit f Ver. 18 and 19 reply to If any man 
say. Can faith save him'? is explained in ver. 20—26. Faith if 
introduced three times, as being dead without works, viz. at the enc 
of the first part, just before the end of the second, and at the end of the 
third, in ver. 17, 20, 26. — ii.^ ^kriv X'syp rig tyiiv, if any man say that 
he hath faith) He does not say, if any man has, but, if any thinks and 
gives out that he has. St James, therefore, here speaks of faith in the 
same sense in which St Paul so frequently does, in the sense of a true 
and living faith ; and thus also in ver. 22, 18 at the end, where he 
treats of the good man who is under its influence ; but afterwards, 
in this verse, and in the rest of the argument, under the name of 
faith, in the way of Mimesis' [imitation of his supposed opponent's 
words], through his love of conciseness, and speaking after the 
manner of men, he means the faith of the hypocrite, which rests on 
a fallacy {self-deceit) : ch. i. 22. He does not teach, that faith can 

1 Mimesis is used when we bring forward or allude to the words of another, 
for the sake of expressing our disapprobation, or for their refutation. 
VOL. V. B 

18 JAMES 11. 15-18. 

exist without works, but rather, that faith cannot exist without works. 
fie does not oppose faith and works ; but he opposes the empty name 
of boasted faith, and the faith which is true and firm in itself, and 
which produces abundant fruit. — ri -jr/gTig, that faith) The article has 
the force of a pronoun, — that which you speak of, and pretend to, 
that which is called faith : in the same manner, that which liars boast 
of is called wisdom, ch. iii. 15. — aurh, himself) Such a faith neither 
confers any advantage on another, nor saves the man himself. 

15. 'Eav 5e, but if) A comparison (the Protasis of which, even 
by itself, conveys a suitable admonition, and one not foreign to 
the subject) : hence the Epanelepsis,^ what doth it profit ? ver. 
14, 16. 

16. 'Eg u/lSiv, of you) This tacit appeal to the judgment of his 
readers makes the Apodosis more forcible. — wa/srs iv ilprivri, Go in 
peace) A form of repulse even now in use : God help you, that is, 
expect no help from me. — hp/j-ahisk xal ^opra^seSe, be ye warm and 
filled) This is good and courteous advice, if it were realised, so that 
there were at hand clothing to warm, and food to satisfy. 

17. 'Eav |in5 'ipya, 'i^rj, if it hath not works) If the works which 
living faith produces in other cases have no existence, it is a proof 
that faith itself (this is the meaning of xai' iauTfiv) has no existence, 
or that that, which any one boasts of as faith, is dead. — vixpd inn, 
is dead ) As the mere saying, "JPaJee food and drink and a garment, is 
not meat and drink that satisfies, nor a garment that warms, so the 
saying, / have faith, is not real fixith, which profits his neighbour, 
and is salutary to the speaker himself. The title dead strikes us with 
horror. Though the abstract word is used, the concrete is meant. 
Faith is dead ; that is, the man who says that he has faith, has not 
that life, which is faith itself. A similar ° change in the attribution 
of words occurs, ch. iii. 4. See the note. — xad' saorriv, in respect 
to [by] itself) And when it has works it is alive, and is discerned 
to be so, not in respect to [byl the ivorks, but in respect to [by'] itself 
It does not derive its life from works. 

18. 'AXX ipiT Tig, but some one will say) entertaining more correct 
ientiments than the other person, mentioned in ver. 14, and assert- 
ing the true nature of faith and works. — &iT^6v //,oi) show me thy faith 

1 The figure Bpanalepsis is the putting of the same word, or words, at the be- 
ginning of a preceding clause and at the end of a subsequent clause or member 
of a sentence. Thus verse 14th begins, and verse 16th ends, with the same 
words, " What doth it profit ?" 

' See Append, on Hypallagr. 

JAMES II. 19-21. 19 

without thy works (show, if thou canst ; that is, thou canst not) ; and 
I will show thee by my ivorks, of which I know that I cannot be 
destitute, my faith. There are two sayings, the former of which 
'speaks of faith before works, the latter of works before faith, and 
this for the sake of emphasis ; the former has reference to the clause, 
77iou hast faith ; the latter to the clause, and I have works. See 
Apparat. Crit., Ed. ii., on this passage.^ [The %m^/s gives point to 
the challenge, hiic,ov, x,.t.x. — Not. Crit.] 

19. 2i) mSTiuiii thou believest) There is a forcible repetition in the 
word thou by the figure Anaphora f for this verse also is contained 
under the words, a man will say (ver. 18). — 6 ©sJs iTg, One God) 
That fundamental article^ which has always distinguished the faith- 
ful from unbelievers, is put prominently forward. — tianvouei, believe) 
The word believe is here used in a very wide sense ; for the devils 
perceive, and understand, and remember, that there is a God, and 
one only. — xal (pplagougi, and tremble) in fearful expectation of eternal 
torments. So far is such a faith as that from justifying or saving its 
possessor ; and yet it has some efficacy, but in an opposite direction. 
This, added as it is, contrary to the expectation of the reader, has 
great force. 

20. ©sXe/j, Art thou willing?) A question fuU of character (marked 
by courtesy) ; for vain men are in fact unwilling to know, and 
do not suffer themselves to observe. — xiii, vain man) uttering vain 
and empty words. — %wf;'s ruv 'ipyiav nzpa, sfsriv, without works is dead) 
This is both illustrated and proved in the following verse.— nxpa,* 
dead) without life and strength to justify and save. 

21. ' K^pakiJj 6 '!rarr\p rj/j^Siv, Abraham our father) So St Paul, Kom. 
iv. 1. — Ig epym sdixaiiiSri, was justified by works) St James recognises 
the inward and pecuKar power of faith, which is previous to works, 
and distinct fi^om works and fi:om their influence, which reacts 
upon faith (ver. 22) : but hypocrites are ignorant of this ; speaking 

' Thus also verse 22. See the note on Luke xi. 36. 

2 ABC Vulg. have jja^/?. But Stephens' Kee. Text (not Engl. Vers.) has 
ix, with later authorities. — E. 

' See Append, under the title Anaphora. 

* i/mpii. 'Apyij is the reading of Cov. 4, Gen. and many Latin copies. 
Baumgarten asserts that this variation of reading ought not to have been num- 
bered among those worthy of mention. I have mentioned it in the margin, 
which perhaps I should not have done, had not the Vulgate read otiosa. Yet I 
have added e. Moreover in the smaller edition I have erased it. 

'Aoyt: is the reading of BC corrected, Vulg. (otiosa). But tii>, of A Memph. 
inferior MSS. of Vulg. Tisch. and Lachm. read xpyi.—B. 

20 JAMES II. 22. 

more readily in flattering terms of works, of which they themselves 
are destitute. Therefore James employs an argument ad hominem ; 
and that he may convince them, he especially mentions works, while 
in mentioning them, he understands (as lying underneath the works) 
the active principle of faith. Nor does James use the word 
bizaiovaia.,, to be justified, in a different sense from that iri which 
St Paul uses it; in which sense righteousness is most intimately 
connected with salvation, ver. 14. But that sense is a very preg 
nant one ; so that the term righteousness is co-extensive in its mean- 
ing on the opposite side with sin (see especially the note, Eom. iii. 
20) ; and as sin includes both guilt (reatus) and the taint 
(vitium) of our nature, so does righteousness denote the whole 
process, by which a man is righteous, and is judged and pronounced 
to be so ; that is, one with whom God is no longer angry on ac- 
count of his guilt, but reconciled to him : and one who on his 
part is no longer an enemy to God, but a friend, ver. 23. Comp. 
Eom. viii. 7 with what precedes and follows. Now both St James 
and St Paul use this word, bixaiovv, to justify, in one and the same 
sense, though St Paul in a more restricted, and St James in a wider 
application ; and for this reason, that St Paul is accustomed to 
speak of the act of justification, which chiefly consists in the remis- 
sion of sins ; whereas St James, which is especially to be observed, 
speaks of the state resulting from the same justification (which is 
incorrectly but frequently termed a second justification), when a 
man continues in the righteousness which is of faith, and makes 
progress in that which is of works. Hence it is that St Paul, from 
Gen. XV. 6, brings forward Abraham as believing ; St James, from 
Gen. xxii. 10, as even offering his son upon the altar, long after- 
wards. The former simply adduces the saying. It was counted to 
him ; the latter also this. He loas called friend, which was after- 
wards added. The former says, God justifies, and justifies the 
ungodly, and 'we are justified; the latter simply says, A man is 
justified. The former makes mention of faith only, and not of 
works, although they proceed from faith ; the latter makes mention 
of faith and works. — w/ rh Suaiaernpiov, upon the altar) He designs to 
show, that the work of Abraham was undertaken altogether in 

22. "On, that) Here are two clauses; and if emphasis is laid 
on the word faith in the former clause, and on works in the latter^ 
the sense will be plainly seen, by which the bearing of the one part 
upon the other is clearly expressed.— jj m'sr/s, faith) It was by faith 

JAMES II. 23, 21 

that Abraham offered his son, Heb. xi. 17. — emnpysi, wrought with) 
Therefore faith has one kind of efficacy and operation {inpyuav), 
works another : and indeed faith before works and with them. 
Works do not give life to faith ; but faith produces works, and works 
make perfect faith. — inXsiiiSri, was made perfect) He does not say, 
was made alive. That which faith derives from works is not its re- 
ahty and truth, for it has a true existence before works, but its per- 
fection and its attaining to the Divine friendship ; ver. 23. Comp. 
John XV. 10. The vigour of faith, which produces works, is in- 
creased, excited, and strengthened by the very act of producing 
them, just as the natural heat of the body is promoted by the exer- 
cise which it first stimulates. See 1 John iii. 22. Abraham re- 
turned firom that sacrifice much more perfect in faith than he had 
gone to it. The same word, riXiiovaiai, is used by Alexander 
Aphrodisiensis, in his 2d Book, respecting the soul. Chapter III., 
rplTos ^6 sffri, when he describes the intellect as increased by the 
knowledge of things situated beyond [external to] itself. Faith 
itself is made perfect, that is, is shown to be true, by works. 

23. 'E'jrXripwSri r} 'yf>a<pri, the Scripture was fulfilled) The sense is 
here anticipated by Prolepsis,'^ for it was fulfilled before it was 
written : but at what part of Abraham's time was it fulfilled ? 
When he first believed, or afterwards, when he offered his son % At 
both times : but James especially refers to the time of the offering, 
since he is speaking of the state of Abraham after his justification : 
and to this the expression, he was called the friend of God, has re- 
ference ; but fi?om this he proves justification by works ; from the 
former expression, justification by faith. — &) I have found this 
particle in two Latin MSS. I mention this circumstance, lest 
other versions should increase the doubt respecting the genuine 
reading of the word. — -Aai plXog Qiov h.XriSri, and he was called 
the friend of God) This is the second part of the whole verse ; 
for it has no reference in its connection to the verb was ful- 
filled. Abraham had already been the friend of God, before his 
death ; and after his death he was so called by his posterity, 2 
Chron. xx. 7 ; and by God Himself, Is. xli. 8. He was the friend, 
in an active sense, the lover of God, which has a reference to 
works ; and in a passive sense, loved by God, which has a refer- 
ence to justification by works. Both these senses, united together 
by the force of the relatives, are found also in John xv. 14. In 

1 See, under the title Ampliatio, Append. 

22 JAMES II. 24-26. 

Hebrew it is ^na, which, in the passages cited, has au active sound, 
but a passive signification. At least the parallel words in Isaiah 
are, servant, elect, and friend ; and in the Septuagint, ov ^'yd'!rnaa,, 
whom 1 loved, as in the passage quoted from 2 Chron. it is rffl 
^'yawri/jbiiuj gov, beloved by Thee. On which place also the Halle 
reviewers^ remark, that Abraham is called by the Arabs as it were 
by a proper name, Alohalil, that is, the friend of God. So also 
Judith viii. 22, Abraham amicus Dei effectus est, though these words 
are not found in the Greek text. 

24. ' Opan, ye see) So fiXimig, seest thou, ver. 22. — e^ spym dmaioZ- 
rai, is justified by works) See ver. 21, note. — av6pca'rrog, a man) 
whether Jew or Greek.— /io'voi', only) The Scripture has foreseen 
and marked out here the error of those gospel-bearing Cyclopians, 
as Erasmus terms them, and degenerate disciples of Luther, who 
have for their banner faith only, not as taught by St Paul, but apart 
(desolatam, separated) from works. 

25. Ka/'PactjS, and liahab) Having made mention of an illus- 
trious man, Abraham, the father of the Jewish nation, he brings 
forward a woman (for he addresses men and women ; ch. iv. 4), and 
one who was a Gentile, and had led an abandoned life, that no one 
may require works from Jews only. 

26. Tap, for) For is used in the place of therefore, as Rom. iii. 
28, note. — rh Buf/,a %wf;s -niufiarog, the body without a spirit) TwDiaa 
often denotes '7no7}v, the breath, which is the sign of life ; but when 
it is opposed to the body, it denotes the spirit or soul : nor is that 
sense foreign to the meaning of this passage. Faith without works 
resembles a Hfeless body ; but it does not therefore follow that living 
faith derives its Hfe from works. It has been already explained, at 
ver. 21, why James has mentioned works rather than the peculiar 
energy of faith. Vain pretenders have the /otto, but not the power 
of godliness. 2 Tim. iii. 5 ; Tit. i. 16. 

' Halle reviewers. The reference is to the " Memoirs of a Library at Halle," 
a periodical publication under the superintendence of Baumgarten, printed in 
the years 1748-1751. It contains- valuable information on the various editions 
of the New Testament. See Michaelis' Introduction by Bp. Marsh.— T. 

JAMES 111. 1-3. 88 


1. Mil 'n'okXoi, not many) A rightly governed tongue is rarely found. 
Ver. 2, all. There ought therefore to be few teachers. Comp. 
Eom. XV. 18. In accordance with this principle also, he who acts 
as teacher ought not to be too much given to speaking. — yinaSe, be) 
of your own accord. — fiii^cv xpifia.) greater condemnation) on account 
of more numerous offences. Comp. Wisdom vi. 5. [For we shall 
have to render an account of all our words. — V. g.] 

2. YloXka) in many and various circumstances and ways. — airavni, 
all) The apostles do not even except themselves ; 1 John i. 8. — h 
Xoytii, in word) viz. in a single word. Opposed to many things. The 
tongue does not always answer to the feeling. — •Ttrahi, offend) This 
word is properly used of any fault or slip of the tongue. — ouroj) he 
indeed. — hmarhi; — doiij^a, able to bridle the whole body) The descrip- 
tion of a perfect man. — to aZiiia, the body) that is, the man himself. 
Antithetical to the tongue, which is a member ; ver. 5. Comp. 
body, ver. 3, 6. 

3. "ih) I have thus edited on the best authority •^ Idou, Eras- 
mus. There are very few MSS. remaining of which we can with 
confidence determine that they read idoi. The interjection, '/Si, is 
from an active verb ; ISou follows the Middle Voice. If there is any 
difference, 7ds gives the idea of reflection ; ISou is more impassioned. 
Therefore James in this first passage uses 'Ids ; afterwards, he often 
uses idou, as he advances in strength. And one writer at least, in 
another place, uses both ISou and Ms, and that too in the short com- 
pass of a conversation ; John xii. 15, 19, xvi. 39, 32.^ Not to en- 
large further upon a matter of slight importance, I am satisfied with 
the reasons already alleged for the preference given by me to 'ISi. — 

^ E< Se is the reading of AB Vulg. Memph. So Lachm. and Tisch. In this 
case the Apodosis to ei is virtually given in ver. 5, " Seeing that we put bits,'' 
etc. ; so also the tongue, etc. C reads i'Ss. Rec. Text /Sou, without very old 
authority. Later Syr. and Theh. have eece. &jc. has ecce enim. — E. 

2 ("Se. This is a middle reading ; from which some few have made /Souj and 
many, long since (and perhaps also Cant. 2, which Mill refers to on ver. 4, and 
Baumgarten with him), d is, or liii, with the difference only of one or two 
letters ; and this difference is less apparent in the Greek MSS. than in the 
Arabic and Coptic. In the Latin it is si autem. 

24 JAMES III. 4-6* 

7aiv mwm, of the horses) This is emphatically put at the beginning 
of the sentence. — o-ro/iara, mouths) This is an appropriate word ; for 
the tongue is in the mouth. — i^irayo/Liv) we turn about} 

4. Kai) even. Not only animals, but even ships.— ffsiXjipwi') ff!tXj)f 05, 
vehement. There is a twofold impulse (momentum) : the bulk of 
the ships, and the force of the winds. — ■n-riSaXh-j, with a helm) An 
elegant simile, as applied to the tongue. The phrases, v'ery small, 
and a small member, answer to each other. The same mayr be 
apphed to the pen, which is the substitute for the tongue amongst 
the absent.— ;5 op/j^n, the impetus) The force moving, and turning, 
and directing to its place. The feeling which moves the tongue 
corresponds with this. — jSouXriTai, listeth) An instance of Hypallage :^ 
equivalent to, wherever he wishes, who has the command ; for the 
moving force is under his control. 

5. Msya'kauyjf) boasts itself greatly : makes great pretensions, 
both respecting the past, and with a view to the future. There is 
often great importance in those things which the careless think 
small. The idea of greatness is also conveyed by the words, world, 
the course of nature, and hell, ver. 6. — ISod, behold) The word behold, 
used for the third time, is prefixed to the thii'd comparison.— oX/yox) 
So just before, /j,ixp6v, a little. The Alex. MS. reads ijXixov,^ with 
which the Latin version, and not that alone, plainly agrees : and 
yet I have with good reason removed this various reading from my 
margin : {1st) because it is plainly an alliteration with tiXhrin which 
follows : (2d) because even Latin writers retain the word modicum. 
This is sufficient for maintaining the received reading. 

6. ' O xo'ff.ttos, the loorld) This is part of the subject, with the addi- 
tion of the article (as jj amXouea, which follows), showing why the 
tongue is called fire : namely, because it is a world (in the Vulgate 
universitas, a universe) of iniquity. The words, how great a matter, 
and the world, refer to each other. As the little world of man is 
an image of the universe,* so the tongue is an image of the little 
world of man, exciting it altogether. There is a frequent metaphor 

' eivrm) Baumgarten says, Omittit Hunt. 2, nee est in Barb. 2, etc. But 
the 1st Edition of Mill, " Omittit Hunt. 1, nee est in B. 2 (id est in Bas. 2), etc." 
No injury is done to this celebrated man, but it is right that others should know 
that he has not gained an accurate knowledge ef the Manuscripts. 

2 See Append, of Techn. Terms. 

' 'Hx/xoj/ is the reading of BC corrected and Vulg. So Lachm. and Tisch. 
'OA/yoK is the reading of Rec. Text, with A corrected and later authorities. 

* The term maerocosmus (macrocosm) is applied to the universe at large ; 
and microcosmus (microcosm) to the little world of man. Thus Manilius : 

JAMES III. 6. 25 

from the universe to the lesser world : Ps. cxxxix. 15 ; Eccles. xii. 
2 ; and not only to man : there is a reference to the whale, Jonah 
ii. 3, 6, 7. James employs this figm-e. The world has its higher 
and its lower parts : these are, in a better point of view, the heaven 
and the earth ; in a worse, the earth and hell. And as in the 
world, heaven or hell is with reference to the earth ; so in man, the 
heart, of which the tongue is the instrument, is with reference to 
the whole body or nature. For in the case of the good, heaven, and 
in the case of the wicked, hell, has its veins in the heart : from 
which source so many wonders are diffused to the course of nature 
(nativitatis). We may learn from Psalm Ixxvii. 18, what is meant 
by this course, ^lavri tyu ^povrrig gov h ru rfoyjji, i(pamv a'l adrpa'Tmi 
ffou rr) oixou/ievri. The voice of Thy thunder loas in the heaven, Thy 
lightnings lightened the world : for as in that passage ?J?3, rfoylc, 
as opposed to 73n, rjj ohovinvri, denotes the celestial or aerial sphere, 
so in this place rpo^os rijs yiKsicag, the course of nature, as opposed 
to rfi ji'svr/i, hell, or the heart, denotes the higher parts of the earth, 
or the entire nature of man, which holds a middle place between 
heaven and hell ; and thus it denotes the body with its entire 
temperament. Comp. ver. 15, from above, earthly, devilish. — yheeigj 
the natural constitution; i. 23; and life; Judith xii. 18. — ■yrdeag 
rag ri/Lspag r^s yindiug jJ^ov, all the days since I was born. The 
metaphor is taken from a round wheel, and is very appropriate : 
for as a wheel is turned about with great velocity ; so it is with the 
sphere of heaven, and the nature of man ; and this being set on 
lire while it revolves, soon breaks out into a blaze in every part, 
so that the fire seems not only to be borne in a circle, but also to 
be a circle. Respecting the flaming vjheels of the Divine throne, 
see Dan. vii. 9. — ovrag, so) This word not read in the African 
copies, has been introduced into this place from the beginning of 
the fifth verse.' If the apostle had intended to use it a second 
time in this comparison, he would have used it at the beginning, 
and not in the middle of the Apodosis, o'ina xal n yXuieaa mp. A 
few copies, but those of great authority, omit oiroig. Isidonis of 

" Quid mirum, noscere munduni 
Si possunt homines, quibus est et mundus in ipsis 
Exemplumque Dei quisque est in imagine parva ?" 
And Sliakespeare : — 

Coriolanus. — " If you see this in the map of my microcosm." — T. 
' ABC Vulg. both Syr. Versions, Memph. Theb. omit oSrai before i) -/'hZasai 
KctMarareti. Kec. Text supports it without very old authority. — E. 

26 JAMES UI. 7, 8. 

Pelusium in particular joining them. There are three comparisons 
beginning with 'ih, Idod, iSoi (ver. 3, 4, 5). The third comparison 
has its Protasis in the middle of ver. 5 : idou oXlyov mZ( r{ki%rtv uXjii/ 
maiTTif the Apodosis begins at the beginning of ver. 6, and consists 
of two declarations, the former of which is as follows : ?£«/ n y>-ojeect, 
mp, 6 aoiy/Mg rrig admag (supply ssHv) : the other is )5 yXaeea xa6!s- 
rarai h roTg fieXeeiv fi/j,uv fj gTiXouaa oXov rh gSJ/j,a. In this second 
declaration ri yXuesa, the tongue, is as it were the Subject, and is 
repeated a second time by way of Anaphora^ and emphasis, as far 
as the particle o'iroig- the predicate is xaiigTaTai — rh au/jja, in this 
easy sense ; the tongue is that which defiles the whole body. Between 
these two clauses o'uroi; seems to be out of place ; so far is the 
sense from being impaired by the removal of ouraij. This is followed 
by the explanation, inasmuch as being that which both inflames and 
is itself inflmned, etc.; where, by a metaphor from the universe 
(the macrocosm) to man (the microcosm), the wheel., or higher 
sphere (comp. Ps. Ixxvii. 18), is man's rational nature itself; but 
hell is the lower part, the heart. The tongue, situated in the middle, 
is inflamed by the lower parts, and inflames the higher, being itself 
a world, or orb of iniquity. Thus I hope that those things which 
Wolf has remarked on this passage, will be explained ; and I am 
quite willing that the things which I have said should be compared 
with the interpretation of Baumgarten. — 7ia61gTara.i) The same word 
occurs ch. iv. 4. — gmXoyga, defiling) as fire, by smoke. — xal pXoyl- 
^oudfe xai (pXoyi'tpiLivn) inasmuch as being that which both inflames 
and is inflamed. The passive is put after the active form ; for the 
man who sins with his tongue, departs more and more out of his 
own power. 

7. Vap, for) Nothing is more violent than fire. — (pugig dnpluv, the 
nature of beasts) A Periphrasis, for Snpia, beasts. — da//,d^£Tai xal 
Si8d/MagTa,, is tamed, in a passive sense ; and has been tamed [has 
suffered itself to be tamed], in a middle sense.— r?i ipvgsi [in obedience] 
to the nature of man) The dative case denotes the obedience of those 
things which are tamed. 

8. Oubslg, Mpu'iruv, no one of men) The antithesis is, of man, 
ver. l.—olhlg, no other; scarcely each individual himself.— a^ta- 
Tdgx^ro^ xaxJv) an unruly evil. Phocylides, Xaog to, xal Uup 
Kul mp,^ dxardgxira ■jrdvra. So '!rup, ver. 6.— /^Effrj^, full) The 
nominative, after the parenthesis, compared with ver. 6. Then 

' See Append. The frequent repetition of the same word in beginnings. 

' JAMES III. 9-13. 27 

especially the evil is not to be restrained, wJien^ it swells with 
deadly poison. 

9. 'En aiirrj — xal h aurr], ivith this itself — and with this itself) A very 
expressive phrase. — @iov) God. Kupiov, Lord^) is the reading of the 
TUexandrian, Colbertinus 7, and Syriac texts. Batimgarten ac- 
knowledges the error ; for Ood and Father is a common title, but not 
Lord and Father; but he adds the ancient Vulgate or Italian Version. 
In the Reutling. M.S. it is so read ; for the copyists frequently use 
the name of Godj and Lord, without distinction ; but the other Latin 
Manuscripts, with one consent, read God (wherefore many of them 
also omit the particle et, which immediately follows), and thus Cassio- 
derus, in his Conplexiones, and more fully in the preface to his 
Commentary on the Psalms. — -/.a! rraTepa) Baumgarten remarks, on 
the authority of Mill, ds is wanting in the Arabic and Ethiopia Ver- 
sions. — yiymdTai) The Alexandrian and Colbertinus 7, read yijivvn- 
lali/ou;;^ and, in addition, notice that ii is to be read for -/.al. Mill also 
reads xa; : Kuster, bi. The latter also reads ysyEvjj/^Evous with a single 
V. — xad' o/xo/wff/v ©£oS, after the likeness of God) We have lost the like- 
ness of God : there remains however from that source a nobleness 
which cannot be destroyed, and this we ought to reverence both in 
ourselves and in others. Moreover, we have remained men, capable, 
by the Divine blessing, of being formed again after that likeness, to 
which the likeness of man ought to be conformed. They who curse, 
hinder that effect. Absalom has fallen from the favour of his father, 
but the people still recognise him to be the king's son. 

10. 'Ex rou aurou tfro/iaro; i^sf^irai eiiXoyia, aa! xardpa, out of the 
same mouth proceedeth blessing and cursing) Ps. Ixii. 4. (Septuagint ) 
rw ST6[iaTi avrSiv ihXoyom, x,a! ty) xapi'ia alrZiv TiarripuvTo, they blessed 
with their mouth, but in their heart they cursed. — oh xP'n, there is no 
need) that is, it is by no means becoming. — ravra o'-jtoi, these things 
so) these good things, with the evils mixed up with them in such a 

11. Urr/fi, a fountain) The heart resembles this. — o-jtra, an aper- 
ture) the mouth resembles this. 

12. m4 hhrnrai, is it possible f) He now prepares a transition from 
the mouth to the heart. He had said with regard to the former, 
There is no need [it is not becoming] ; he says respecting the latter, 

1 So Beng. seems to take fnar'/i, when it is full, etc.— E. 

2 ABC Vulg. Syr. Memph. read Kipiou. Eec. Text reads hou with MSS. of 
Vulg. and later Syr., but no other very old authority. — E. 

* But BO read yiyouora;. — E. 

28 JAMES III. 13-15. 

it is impossible.— ouTc^g ouds aXuxJv yXuxi) ■TToirigai vdup, so neither can 
a salt spring produce sweet water) viz. bhrnrai (to be supplied), inus 
the most weighty authorities, Colbert. 1 ; Cov. 4; Gen.; JEth. ; 
Copt. ; Lat, and the Syr.^ The Alexand. reads oin akmov. Baum- 
garten has a long dissertation in favour of the more generally received 
"reading : Exam., p. xxxii. You vidll see my reply in App. Cnt., 
Ed. ii., on this passage.' The apostle had said in ver. 11, that it is 
not befitting that two contraries should proceed from one source ; he 
now says, that nothing can proceed from any source whatever, unless 
it be of the same kind. Salt (water), in the nominative case, has the 
force of a substantive, as just before, sweet and litter. In Hesychius 
aX\)%n, V MXaffsa, the sea. In James, aXmhv has a wider meaning, 
a lake or spring of salt, pouring forth water. — olirois, thus, is used be- 
fore the word salt, now in particular, because this resemblance, al- 
ready represented in the 11th verse, puts on here a more strict 
propriety,^ and in this place contains the Apodosis itself, which is 
about to be added immediately, in plain (unfigurative) words. 

13. Tic, who ?) All wish to appear wise ; though all are not so : 
see App. Grit, on this passage.' — bn^aTu, let him show) by deed, 
rather than by words. — jtaXjjs avagrpocp'^g, a good conversation) The 
opposite is found in ver. 16. This good conversation itself is de- 
scribed, ver. 17 and 18, compared with 1 Pet. ii. 12. — h wpairriTi 
eoipiag, with meekness, with which true wisdom is connected. 

14. Z^Xov mxpov, bitter emulation) Emulation is not condemned, 
when exercised with kindness; nor anger, accompanied with kindness, 
and proceeding from faithfulness and love. — //,ri, do not) They boast 
and he against the truth, who, when they have bitter emulation, 
still give out that they themselves have wisdom. — /j^n xaraKau^aaSs) 
The Alex, and others read //,ri xauyfiaSi.* See App. Grit., Ed ii. 

15. ^Avoikv, from above) ch. i. 17.- — V. g.] — l-Kiynog, earthly) not 
heavenly, such as descends from the Father. — •vj/u%;^)i, animal) not 
spiritual, which is from the Holy Spirit. Gomp. animal, 1 Cor. ii. 
14 ; Jude 19. This is a middle term between earthly and devilish. 

1 ABC corrected and later Syr. omit ovtus, which Rec. Text prefixes without 
very old authority. ABC Vulg. Memph. Syr. read outs a7.vx.oi/ v^.vx.v. But 
Rec. Text without any old authority except later Syr., reads oihfila. •a-ny^ 
a'hvxov xal y'Kvy.v. — E. 

2 i.e. It is more strictly in accordance with the simile that kTiuxoV should be 
supposed to send forth y-kvx.v., sweet water, than that a irny),, as in ver. 11, 
should send it forth. — E. 

' Inferior authorities read i! tii. — E. 

* Kxrecxavxxo^ft is the reading of BO. KavpcciaSt, of A. E. 

JAMES 111. 16-18. SD 

— iai/ioviubng, devilish) such as even devils have : li. 19 : not that 
which Christ gives. 

16. 'Ex£? airaTOLBTasia, there \is\ confusion) contrary to peace, ver. 
17. What is the character of that wisdom, is known by the effect. 
James thinks it unworthy of the name oi fruit. Comp. ver. 17 and 
18. — irav cpayXov 'jpayfia, every evil work) The force of the word every, 
is plain, if the sentence is thus put : Every work which arises from 
that source is evil. The antithesis is, full of mercy and of good 
fruits, etc. 

17. UpuTov fih a.jvr\ ierii, first of all is pure) Pure from earthly, 
animal, and devilish defilements. He here anticipates, as it were. 
Being ahout to commend peace, he first removes that unholy peace 
with the world, which collects together and cements in one indiscri- 
minate mass everything that comes in its way : i. 27, at the end, ajid 
iv. 4 throughout. Thus also, cleanse your hands, etc. : iv. 8 ; 1 Pet. 
i. 22. — /j^h, indeed) in ver. 18, &, hut, follows. — i'lpn^ixi], peaceable) 
The whole ; the parts follow. — Iots/xjjs) gentle (indulgent), lenient, 
not harsh in cases where the question is as to the duties of a neigh- 
bour (the duties which a neighbour owes to us). — sinrafliis) tractable, 
easy, not morose, where the question is as to the fault of a neigh- 
bour. — iJ^iSTn eXso'uf, full of mercy) where the question is as to the 
misery of a neighbour. — -/.apvuv aya^Zv, of good fruits) There follow 
two more distinguished fruits, and worthy of special commendation to 
those whom he addresses: not judging and without pretence. — a&idxpi- 
To;, not judging) It does not make a difference (discrimination or dis- 
tinction) where it is not necessary ; for instance, between the great 
and the humble, tiesychius ddidipopov, ddidxpirov. It embraces all 
things which are good and just : it rejects all things which are evil. 
It acts without any difference (partiality), not harshly esteeming one 
in preference to others. — awTroxpirog, without pretence) removed from 
pretence and flattery, which is exercised directly towards the power- 
ful, indirectly towards the humble, by harshness. 

18. Kap-jTcig ds Sixccioeutris b eip^vrj, but the fruit of righteousness ps] 
in peace) So Heb. xii. 11, note. The fruit of righteousness is most 
abundant ; although that fruitfulness does not immediately appear at 
the beginning. Righteousness is peaceable ; peace is fruitful. — iv 
ilp^vri S'ffiipirai, is sown inpeace) The expression, is sown, is in accord- 
ance with the word, fruit. Peace is described, ver. 17. Respecting 
the sowing and the righteous, see Ps. xcvii. 11, in the Hebrew. — rors 
voioiieiv ilpnvnh fo'"' t^^^ ^^^t makepeace) The dative expressing an 
advantage, with the force of limitation. See the opposite, iv. 1, 2. 

30 JAMES IV. 1, 2. 

— ToitTii i'lpnr/iv, io put forth peace ; as mirisai "odap, to send forth water; 
ver. 12. 


1. llohv, whence ?) James hints, that many persons often seek the 
causes of contentions, though they are evident. — voXifioi xal /^d^ai, 
rears and fightings^ opposed to "peace;" on which he treats in ch. 
iii. Fighting is the active carrying on of war. There follows shortly 
afterwards in ver. 2, ye fight and ivar. An inverted Chiasmus. Ka> 
tJ'a.-)(jxi h iifin, but the Alexandrian MS. in the lesser Oxf. edit., h 
u,aT\i, xai -irohv iJ>ayjxi- for Mill, as usual, does not notice the order of 
the words, llohv is also inserted before (J-ayji-i in L. andN. 1. There 
may be something remarkable in this variety.^ — irnXih^ hence) The 
reference is to pleasures (fidovZv), of which mention is expressly made 
immediately (comp. ver. 3), and is implied in ch. iii. — arpaTiuo/j,'£vm, 
which war) The same word occurs, 1 Pet. ii. 11. — liiXteiv, in the 
members) The body is the first seat of war : thence there follows the 
war of man mth man, of king with king, of nation with nation. 

2. ' E'7riSu/j,sTTe, ye desire) A kind of Anaphora^ whereby the senti- 
ment is repeated with increased force. Ye desire, with disposition 
towards an object ; ye Mil and envy, with the action and disposition of 
individuals against individuals ; ye fight and war, with the action of 
many against many. — (poviuin xal ^jjXoCrs, ye kill and envy) Ye kill 
through hatred and envy. One sentiment is expressed by two words. 
The same verb occurs, ch. v. 6. He who covets any object, desires 
that the former possessor may be removed out of the way. He 
speaks of murderers, as in ver. 4 of adulterers. Comp. 1 John iii. 
].5. Thus, ipovdiTe, do ye murder? Ps. Ixii. 3 (Septuagint), -minn for 
this Hebrew reading, holding a middle place between the others, is ^ 
well supported by the Halle reviewers. And the tenor of the whole 
Epistle of James has a very close resemblance to the whole of this 
Psalm. See notes at ver. 7, 12, 14, i. 3, iii. 10. See also Ps. x. 8. 

' ACC support the second mSiu, as do also Memph. and later Sjr. But 
Rec. Text omits it with Vulg. BC Vulg. place h if^h after ^cJ.;<;«,. But A 
before x,a.\ itoha. — E. 

2 See Append, on Anapuoka. 

^ See note on chapter ii. I'i. 

JAMES IV. 3-3. 81 

—oust ey^sri di) See App. Grit., Ed. ii., on this passage.* — Si&, on ac- 
count of) This agrees (coheres) with the threefold clause, and ye have 
not; andyecannot obtain; butyehave not. — /^n airiTaSai, yournot asking) 
For the lustful, the murderer, and the contentious man, cannot pray. 

3. Kal ou 'ka.fjL^dviTi, and ye receive not) He does not here say, ye 
have not. To ask and to receive are relative terms. — alrtTgh, ye ask) 
Now he refutes others who wish to appear somewhat better than 

4. Moi'x^ol xal fioi-xoKihi, ye adulterers and adulteresses) Men and 
women are involved in such a war, and break the promise which they 
have made to God. — ^ p;X;a roO -/.off/xov, the friendship of this world) 
The way of the world is pleasure, ver. 3. — ex^pa, enmity) 1 John ii. 
15. 'Ex^pa (the adjective, hostile) is the reading of Steph. i. Lat. 

1 have passed this by, as it injures the sense : for 'ix^pa and ipiXid 
{hatred and friendship) are opposed to each other.^ — iJs civ oh, whoso- 
ever therefore) In this second clause, something is added over and 
above to the former sentence, by the introduction of the words 
/3ouX?j^jj, shall wish, and xadieTarcci, becomes. — ix^poi, an enemy) who 
will obtain nothing by prayer. — TiaMararai) a middle verb, that is, 
renders himself. 

5. KivSig) in vain, without effect, so that it matters nothing to guilt 
or to salvation. Whatever things the Scripture says are serious. 
We ought to reverence every word. — X'eyn, saith) not Xa,\iT, speaks, 
saith the things which follow. — •jrphs <p66vov) against envy. This noun 
(p^oKos) does not occur in the Septuagint, and it does not seem pro- 
bable that James should have wished to make so great a change in 
this verse, and yet, in ver. 6, have made an exact quotation from 
another passage. We may infer from this, that the quotation here 
is from the Scriptures of the New Testament : for the writings of the 
New Testament, as well as the Old, are reckoned in the Scriptures ; 

2 Pet. iii. 16. Some refer it to Gen. vi. 5, 3 ; or to Num. xi. 29 ; 
or to Prov. xxi. 10 ; or to some lost book. But the words 
of James are near enough to Gal. v. 17, and following verses; 
where <p66voi, envyings, are placed among the works of the flesh, 
and the spirit is said to have desires contrary to the flesh, and they 
who are led by this spirit are not under the law, but under grace. 
But this passage agrees especially with 1 Pet. ii. 1, 2, 5. Laying 

' AB Vulg. omit Si. Rec. Text retains it without any very old authority. 
— E. 

^ Lachm. with Vulg. accents it i/Jpx, inimical. But Tisch., with G aad 
many versions, ix6pa., — E. 

S2 JAMES IV. 6-8. 

asi^— ENVYINGS, DESIRE the milk of the word— a spiritual 
HOUSE. And that which here follows. But He giveth more grace, 
agrees with that, the Lord is gracious, ver. 3. He who has this 
passage of St Peter well impressed upon his mind, will altogether 
recognise the reference of St James to it. Nor does the chronological 
order of the epistles stand in the way. Thus James not only concurs 
with St Peter, but also with St F&Ml.—<pS6vov) The friendship of the 
world necessarily produces envy : the Spirit, which has taken up His 
dwelling in us, does not bear envy.— to mivi^a) The Spirit of grace 
and love. — KarMnaiv) tales up His dwelling. — h nfLn, in us) Sons, of 
the New Testament. 

6. Ms;Xora) So much the greater the farther you depart from 
envy.—hi&oiai. He giveth) God. — Xiyn, it saith) the Scripture, ver. 5. 
James confirms the authority of Solomon, whom he quotes with 
great propriety, when he would dissuade us from the hinderances to 
wisdom.— eiog—xa-fi') Prov. iii. 34. Septuagint has Kvpiog — 
the rest in the same words. James altogether agrees with Peter : 
see 1 Pet. v. 5. — ij'!npri(pdvoig, the proud) Pride is the mother of envy, 
respecting which see ver. 5. The Hebrew is D^)!:'?'?, scoffers, such 
are they who think that the Scripture speaks in vain. — avTirdaasrai, 
resists) In the Hebrew r'?\ He will laugh at. The humble are of 
such a spirit, that if it were possible for God to require the service 
of any one, they would afford it ; but the proud endeavour to resist 
Him, as Pharaoh did ; therefore He repays each according to their 
own deservings. He resists the proud, but He gives grace to the 
lowly. — x'^f'j grace) He, to whom God gives grace, learns to lay 
aside all envy. 

7. 'TirordyriTi olv rp Qeoj) Submit yourselves therefore to God: Ps. 
Ixii. 5. Septuagint, •s-Xiji/ rS ©su) u'jordyriSi 7] ■^v'xfi /xou, but, my 
soul, submit thyself to God. This exhortation, submit yourselves, 
agrees with the lowly, ver. 6 ; and after an intermediate explanation 
of this submission, it is brought to a close in ver. 10 : comp. 1 Pet. 
V. 6. — avrigrriri — a(p u/j^uv, resist — fi'om you) The opposite follows. 
Draw nigh — to you. Comp. resist, 1 Pet. v. 9. — rffl 5;a|3oXy, the 
devil) who is proud, and especially tempts men by pride ; the enemy, 
under whose banner pride and envy are enlisted in the world. — 
fisu^sTai, will flee) as overcome. A word of joy, 1. John v. 18. 

8. ''Eyyteari, draw near) The flight of the devil is followed, in the 
order of nature rather than of time, by an approach to God, in holy 
prayer, ver. 2, 3. — lyyn?. He will draw near) as propitious. A most 
joyous word. — xa^aplaaTi, cleanse) That you may be able to put to 

JAMES IV. 9-12. S3 

flight the devil. — ayiimn, purify) that ye may be able to approach 
God, having laid aside adultery of soul. — 3/4u%o/, ye double-minded) 
who give yourselves both to God and to the world, ver. 4. The 
form of address varies in this Epistle ; and at one time they are 
addressed as holy brethren, at another time as sinners, at another 
time as waverers. The double-minded man is at fault in heart ; the 
sinner, in his hands likewise. 

9. TaXai'ffciip^sa.Ti, be aflicted) that ye may be weaned and estranged 
from the world. This is a blessed affliction. He does not here add, 
howl, as ch. v. 1.^ 

11. Mil xaraXaXiTTs, speak not evil) He now notices other excesses 
of a restless soul ; having in ch. iii. spoken of rest, and in the begin- 
ning of ch. iv. of confusion. — rhv adiX<pov, his brother) The article is 
here used, though not with d^sXpou. The equality of brothers is 
violated by evil-speaking, but more so by judging. — xphu vo/mv, judges 
the law) For he acts, just as though the law itself could not perform 
that office, which a man of this kind pounces (flies) upon. — si Ss, but 
if) If you judge, you are a judge. The figure Ploce.^ — vo/j^av, of the 
laio) After this passage, the Law is not expressly mentioned in the 
volume of the New Testament, since it does not occur in the Epistles 
of Peter, John, and Jude, or in the Apocalypse. 

12. 'O voiModirni) There is one, namely, the Lawgiver, God, who is 
able, etc. The Alea;. and Lat. add xal Kpirns, and many and weighty 
authorities confirm this reading ; but I formerly preferred the re- 
ceived reading to this fuller one.^ Baumgarten often asserts, that I 
am not consistent with myself. But it is commendable to change 
one's opinion for the better ; though at the same time he has never 
proved that I am at variance with myself. Consult App. Grit. Ed. 
ii. on this passage. — 6 duvd/j-mog, who is able) It is not ours to judge, 
especially when we are not able to carry into execution. — aoieai) Ps. 
Ixii. 1 : -Trap avTou yap to eurr\pi6v /aou, " for fi:om Him is my salvation :" 
and the same psalm, ver. 3, 7, 8. The Lat. [" perdere et liberare"], 
inverts the order of the words, as the Scripture often does : to kill 
and to make alive, to wound and to heal, to cause sadness and to com- 

' iii KoiT7i(pEiiicv, into heaviness [falling] of countenance) The same phrase as 
the German Kopfhdngen. Comp. 1 Kings xxi. 29 ; Is. Iviii. 6 ; Mic. vi. 8. 
They who carp at others on this ground, are generally themselves such as have 
need above other men to let fall the countenance. — V. g. 

2 The figure Ploce is, when a word is used twice, so that in one place the 
word itself is meant, and in the other its property or attribute. See Append. 

3 AB Vulg. add x«i y.pirk- Rec. Text, without any very old authority, omits 
these words. — E. 

VOL. V. C 

34 JAMES IV. 13, 14. 

fort. See App. Crit. Ed. ii.—cu 5s) The Greeks alone, and but 
few of these, read ffi;:^ and these Baumgarten would not endeavour 
to extend into a great number, did he not place too great confidence 
in the critics who revise the manuscripts according to the text of 
Erasmus. Comp. again App. Crit. Ed. ii. In criticism, this rule 
has great weight : Tliat which is wanting cannot he numbered, Eccl. 
i. 15.— r/f, loho) A feeble person.— rJ» Mpo^) Many read h xphav rhv 
crX»,ff/oy,' and thus the Syr. plauily reads : comp. ch. ii. 8. The Greek 
word 'irepog is usually translated by another word, which means a 
comiMnion, not a neighbour. 

13. "A/s vuv, come now) The interjection used to excite attention, 
ch. y. l.-^xiyomz, ye who say) In plain terms, ye who boast: ver. 
1(5. — (S'}iiiipov n a'upiov, to-day or to-morrow) One says, to-day ; the 
same, or some other person, says, to-morrow, as it suits his conve- 
nience ; as though he had a free choice, ri aipiov, Beza ; and my 
note in the Gnomon was formerly in accordance with this reading ; 
afterwards, in the course of inquiry, I preferred xal aupiov.^ See 
App. Crit. Ed. ii. — mpetjeufiiSa, %.r \., we will go, etc.) The Sub- 
junctive \let us gol makes the language modal,* and suggests urgent 
reasons for actions. — rriv&i) This is put instead of a proper name, as 
SeTva. — nal, and) The repetition of the conjunction, and, expresses 
the will of a mind at ease. — hiavrhv 'im, one year) They thus speak, as 
though presently after about to deliberate also respecting years to come. 

14. Ouz Imgraah, ye know not) Prov. iii. 28. — rJ r^g') See App. 
Crit. no;a, Ps. Ixii. 10. — fi l^cayi) life, on which the action of to 
morrow is suspended. — a,Tfi,ig, a vapour) A diminutive. — y&p, for) 
From the question the particle is repeated in the answer : this gives 
force. — 'israi, shall be^) See App. Crit. Ed. ii. The expression ro 
a'vpiov, to-morrow, confirms the probability of the sense in the future, 

1 AB Vulg. support IL Rec. Text omits it, without any very old authority 
save that of Theb. Version. — E. 

2 AB Vulg. read wMalou. Rec. Text, without very old authority, tTepoa. 
"The margin of both Ed. as well as the Germ. Vers, of Beng. prefer ■yrT.wiou." 
— E. B.— E. 

2 B Vulg. and Elzev. Rec. Text have ri; and so Lachm. A and later Syr, 
have xa,i ; and so Tisch. and Stephens' Rec. Text. — E. 

* See Append, on Sermo Modalis. — B. 

* A and later Syr. have ra,: and so Lachm, Tisch. with more modern 
authorities, to. Vulg. has in crastinum or in crastino. B omits the word 
— E. 

" B and later Syr. have y«/j ian : so Tisch. and Lachm. But A has IVt«/ ; 
Rec. Text, yo'ip iarti ; so Vulg. ; but no other very old authority E. 

JAMES IV. 15-17. -V. 1. 85 

Eirra/, and so does the whole discourse concerning future time : ver 
13, 15. 

15. 'AvtI To\J Xiytiv i/io,;, whereas ye ought to say) referring to ye 
that say, ver. 13. An Imperative is here implied, rather say thus. — 
■Ml, and) If the Lord will, we shall both live and act. We shall 
both live, is part of the Apodosis ;^ for, if it were part of the Pro- 
tasis, and would not be placed before we shall act. Ka.) ^^scafnv is 
expressed in Latin by si vixerimus, where the si is incorrectly 
added, and the xa/ which follows, incorrectly omitted; for %a.l ^^o-M/isn 
{i. e. vivemus) belongs, as we have said, to the Apodosis : and the 
boasting man so speaks as though he had in his own power, (1.) 
the particular kind of action, (2.) the action, and (3.) life ; whereas 
(1.) the life of men, (2.) action, and (3.) the particular kind of 
action, depend entirely on the will of the Lord. See again App. 
Crit. Ed. ii. — ^jjcrw/ien*^ Toi^gai/Mv) The Subjunctive gives to the dis- 
course an expression of modesty.' 

16. Kav^Sgk h raTg aXuZ^oviiaig, ye boast in your arrogant preten- 
sions) Their arrogance is expressed in the words, we will go — we icill 
get gain; their boasting is implied in their presuming upon the 
time. — mvnpa,, evil) The opposite is good, ver. 17. 

17. 'Eihori, to him who knows) A brief conclusion, leaving the 
haughty to themselves. — /j,fi, not) A sin of omission. 


1. 0/ irXousioi, ye rich men) [who have neglected the true enjoyment 
of riches in doing good, ver. 2, 3. — V. g.] In the writings of the 
prophets, foreign nations are often addressed by apostrophe, although 
the prophecy would not come into their hands, but to the Jews. 
Under the same figure, the apostle speaks of the rich, though he 
does not so much write to the rich themselves, who are destitute of 
faith, as to the saints, that they may be induced to bear with pa- 

' This is the punctuation also of Lachm. But Vulg. " Si Dominus voluerit et 
(Amiat. omits Si, which other MSS. here insert) vixerimus, facieraus hoc aut 
illud." So Tisch.— B. 

' AB read l^viaofiiu xccl iroiiiaoi^iii ; Eec. Text, without very old authority, 
^Vjirafisi/ and '7roiii(7afisii. — E. 

* As making the future contingent. — E, 

36 JAMES V. 2-5. 

tience tlie violence of the rich, ver. 7 .- raXui^^apiaii, miseries) This 
was written a few years before the siege of Jerusalem.— l'!rs/'%o/ifw/5, 
coming upon you) unexpectedly and swiftly. 

2 2£ff)]or£, are corrupted) The grasping avarice of the rich is set 
forth.— ff-^ro'/3^(wra, moth-eaten) Job xiii. 28, v^a^ov enri^pc^rov, a 
garment that is moth-eaten. 

3. 'O Ihs airSv, the rust of them) Synecdoche. Even the rust of 
their riches and garments will be a proof of the bondage in which 
their possessions were so held, that they were ofno profit to any, but 
lay unemployed, without any return.— y,tt/"i', to you) against you.— 
p«y£TO/, shall eat) with—<!dpxag, your flesh) while yet alive : 
he does not say Kfia.—ag vZp, as fire) A proverbial expression, re- 
specting swift and total consumption ; whereas the process of rust- 
ino- was before slow and partial. — In iex"-'^"''^ hl^ip^^'i^ i''^ ^^^ ^«^* 
days) Men are accustomed to lay up treasures for the time to come : 
ye have collected it too late ; you will not enjoy it. The same 
phrase occurs, 2 Tim. iii. 1, where see the note. The apostle 
here sets forth the coming of the Lord for the terror of the wicked ; 
in the 7th and following verses, for the comfort of the holy. 

4. ' Kpdl^ii, crieth) A cry ascends to heaven respecting those sins 
in particular, about which men are silent,^ as unchastity and injus- 
tice." Both the hire (of the labourers) kept back, and the labourers 
themselves send forth that cry. A double cry. — i'letXriXh^asiv, have 
entered) The antecedent is here put by Metonymia for the conse- 
quent. The meaning is, Now the Lord comes as Avenger. 

5. ''Erpvtphsa-Ti, ye have lived in pleasure) with specious delights, 
which you have supported from that very hire. — M rrn yric, on the 
earth) now about to be laid waste. — xal sa-TtaroCKriaari, and ye have 
been wanton) with luxury, sordid and mad, and wasting yourselves. 
Luxury (rpupij) produces wantonness {eiraTa,Xri\) ; and wantonness 
is closely joined to slaughter (r?) eipayfi). James describes together 
the pleasure and the cruelty of the rich, as is suitable to the grada- 

' t2i/ dfinnivruv, who have, reaped) It is remarkable, that though so great 
variety of injustice exists, Job xxii. 6-9, xxiv. 2-12, xxxi. 7, 13, that particular 
one of harvest-reaping should be the only one specified here. — V. g. 

" Or those sins which have a way of escape open to them in violence, so as that 
they may not pay the penalty in this world. — V. g. 

3 In our days, on account of the want of ecclesiastical discipline, the whole life 
and conversation of all Christians, who are so called, constitutes almost, so to 
speak, one crying sin. In which respect the fault lies with, not merely the 
daringly wicked, but also those who, when they discharge public functions, are 
too cold and inert in action. — V. g. 

JAMES V. 6-9. 37 

tion. — iis Jv rj/i'ipcf g(payrig, as in the day of slaughter) An adage. The 
slaughter here intended is not that of the rich, but of oxen and 
sheep, etc., for banquets. The JEthiop. omits it ;^ Mill approves of 
the omission. Baumgarten blames me for not refuting that ap- 
probation; but I have sufficiently refuted such matters, Appar. 
p. 443 (Ed. ii. p. 78). 

6. KandiKaaare, ipovEuifarE, ye have condemned, ye have killed) The 
omission of the conjunction expresses haste.^ Compare again App. 
Crit. Ed. ii. I feel grateful to Baumgarten ; for while he brings for- 
ward no reading more worthy of remark, as omitted by me, he re- 
markably confirms the fulness of my choice. — rlv dlxaiov, the Just) 
A distributive meaning in the singular number is admissible, denot- 
ing any just person, as the wicked get each into their power; but 
especially Christ Himself, the Just One, Acts iii. 14, who was slain 
by Jews and Gentiles ; and afterwards James, the writer of this 
Epistle, who was surnamed by the Hebrews the Just, whose slaughter 
is here divinely foretold. The present tense is suitable. He doth not 
resist you; by which clause, following as it does without a conjunction, 
it is likewise intimated that by the very patience of the Just One 
the wicked goad themselves to slaughter. Comp. Wisdom ii. 10—20. 

7. olv, therefore) Whatever the wicked may do in the meantime. 
— vapoudiag, the coming) ver. 8, 9, 12. — rou Kuplov, of the Lord) Jesus 
Christ. — sxSiy^irai, waiteth for) obtains by waiting, at the harvest. 
"iVp'', shall reap, Septuagint, ixdi^irai, Hos. viii. 7.- — tI/miov, precious) 
the reward of labour and patience. — sag, until) To be taken with — 
and hath long patience. He does not cease before (he receives it). — 
civ) SeeApp.Crit.^ — Xa|S,?i) he receive, from heaven. — irpuiiMov) the early 
rain, after sowing. — o-^iilov) the latter rain, when harvest is now near. 

8. 'H -Trapovela, the coming) which will also bear precious fruit. — 
tiyyixe, is come nigh) The apostles said this with truth : although 
those times intervene which are spoken of, 2 Thess. ii. and in the 
Apocalypse. Comp. the note. Acts ii. 39. 

9. M)j grivdt^iTi, do not groan) through impatience'. — ha /ijj xpiSt^n, 
that ye be not judged) by the Judge at His coming. Groans are in 
jurious, both to those by whom, and those against whom, they are 

' AB Vulg. Memph. omit a;, but support h hf^hf (ii"^/"*'?) cfpay^f- Rec. 
Text prefixes the ag without good authority. .33thiop. Vers, omits all the words. 
— E. 

2 Cod. Amiat. of "Vulg. puts an " et " before "non resistit." — E. 

' B supports an (judging from the silence of collators). A, Theb. and later Syi 
omit ain. — E. 

88 JAMES V. 10, II. 

Uttered: see App. Grit. Ed. ii.^— o Kpirfig, the Judge) that is, Chnst, 
whose office they usurp, -who unbecomingly groan, and anticipate 
the time of judgment. If Bawmgarten shall show by any mark that 
the article was not read by Stephanus, I shall affirm that the article 
did not fall out by accident at the beginning of the line.^ — 6vpuv, the 
doors) A very close approach : Matt. xxiv. .33. — eVrsj-zCEv, has placed 
Himself) stands, always hearing everything. 

10. 'AdiX<poi /ji,ov, rrii xaxo'rrahias) The vindication of this reading 
is to be found, App. Grit. Ed. ii. on this passage.' — r^c xaxovakiag, 
the enduring of evils) lest you should think that any strange thing 
has happened to you. The word xaxovakT occurs, ver. 13. — 
roi)c 'Trpoipfjrai, the prophets) who were singularly persecuted in their 
time, and therefore blessed: Matt. v. 12. — sXaXrieav, have spoken) 
How great was the violence of the world, and the patient endurance 
of the prophets, is here intimated.— rp ovo/^ar;, in the name) The 
obedience of the prophets in praising the name of the Lord is intended : 
h is understood, as at Matt. vii. 22 ; Lev. xix. 12, Septuagint. 

11. 'Idov) See App. Grit, on the passage. — rovg vmfielmvTag, those 
who have endured) in preference to those who have lived luxuriously. 
The Alexandrian Codex and Euthalius give weight to those which 
read mof/^iivavrai.* — uffo/ionjv, endurance, patience) James returns to the 
subject with which he began : comp. ch. i. 3, note, nipn, Septuagint, 
vm/ji.ovfi, in Job xiv. 19. It here marks constancy attaining to the 
desired object. — rh riKog Kuplov) the end, which the Lord gave to Job. 
— ithiTi, ye have seen) There is the same use of the word, with re- 
spect to a transaction long ago past, Heb. iii. 19. Patience and its 
end are in consonance, ch. i. 4 ; Matt. xxiv. 13. James is not silent 
respecting the end of the patience of Job. — on, [" that"] since) This 
depends upon the words immediately preceding. It is a continued 
sentence. Patience is twice mentioned, and the Lord is twice men- 

' AB Vulg. and all the Versions read x.pi6iiTt ; Rec. Text, with very inferior 
authority, »xritxpi6iire. — E. 

' AB read the 6. But Stephens' Rec. Text omits it, which perhaps was not 
"by accident," as Beng. thinks, since some few cursive, and therefore inferior, 
MSS. omit it.— E. 

3 AB Vulg. omit fcov. Rec. Text omits it, with Syr. and Memph. Also AB 
and most Versions put a.h?^(pol before xaxoirain'o.;. Rec. Text puts it after 
Kcixaw. without good authority. — E. 

* AB Vulg. and both Syr. Versions read i'Ttoft.ilsianit.g. So Lachm. rightly 
Rec. Text, with Memph. and Theb. Versions and inferior Uncial MSS., reads 
inpiivouTo.; : SO Tisch. But this does not suit the connection so well, which 
plainly refers to those who had informer times endured. — E. 

JAMES V. 12- U. 39 

tioned. Ecclus. ii. 11, olnTlpfiuv xa! IXirifLuv, //^axp68v/j,og xa! mXuiXiog, full 
of compassion and mercy, long-suffering and very pitiful. — nXha-aXay- 
Xvog, very pitiful) He does not lay upon tte patient more than he is 
able to bear. — oh.Tlp/jLuv) He rtiercifully gives a happy issue. The 
figure Chiasmus : i>r/.Tip//.c^\i, from I'lxa, to yield, denotes a tender affec- 
tion even without respect to calamity or misery, as David says to the 
Lord, nnms, Ps. xviii. 2. 

12. Mn ofivvBTi, do not swear) for instance, through impatience. 
The proper use of the tongue in adversity is set forth by way of 
contrast in ver. 13. — /j.rjrf rbv ovpavbv, neither by heaven) Matt. v. 34 
and 35. — hi/.uv rl val, va!, let your yea be yea) Let your yea be the 
same in word as it is in deed [reality]. — lirh xplm, under judgment) 
Comp. ver. 9. This, as I have said in the Apparatus, is in agree- 
ment with the tenor of the whole Epistle.* In Baumgarten, Nee 
has crept in, instead of Hoc. I mention this, lest he should seem to 
be at variance with himself. 

13. TJposuj^isSa- ■4'aXXlrw, let him, pray ; let him sing psalms) It is 
allowable also to sing psalms in adversity, and to pray in prosperity: 
but in adversity the mind in general is less able to endure the sing- 
ing of psalms ; and that which the mind endures ought rather to 
be done. They were especially accustomed to do this in pubHc in 
the assembly of the faithful ; as the antithesis shows, let Mm call for, 
as applied to the sick : ver. M. 

14. Tlpse^urspous, the elders) For while they pray, it is much the 
same as though the whole Church should pray. — aXzi-^avng auTm 
s\a!oj, anointing him with oil) That which Christ had committed to 
the apostles, Mark vi. 13, was afterwards continued in the Church, 
even after the times of the apostles : and this very gift, remarkably 
simple, conspicuous, and serviceable, was of longer continuance 
than any other. See an instance in the works of Macarius, p. 272. 
And Ephraim Syrus has a remarkable testimony, gu//,^ouX. oar. -. 
'Eai/ oixovo/j,iot,» 'irXfipuv oKiifrii iXaltii rhv xdf/:VovTa, x.r.X. : If in dis- 
charge of thy office, thou anointest the sick with oil. It even seems to 
have been given by God with this intent, that it might always re- 
main in the Church, as a specimen of the other gifts : just as the 
portion of Manna laid up in the ark was a proof of the ancient 
miracle. It is clear that James assigns the administration of this 
oil to the presbyters, who were the ordinary ministers. This was 

1 AB Vulg. both Syr. Mempli. Memph. Theb. read w^ro xpiaiu ; and so Elzev. 
Rec. Text. But Stephens' Rec. Text has us ixoapmu, with inferior authorities. 
— E. 

40 JAMES V. 15, IC. 

the highest Faculty of Medicine in the Church, as in 1 Cor. vi. we 
have its highest Judicial order. O happy simplicity ! interrupted 
or lost through unbelief (amffr/ar). For inasmuch as the Latin 
Church has its extreme unction,^ and the Greek Church its iv'/iXam, 
from the force of experience, they assign much less efficacy for the 
restoring of health to this mystery (//.vsrijpiui), or sacrament, as they 
term it, than James does to the apostolic usage. Whitaker says 
with great force against Durseus, Let them use oil, who are able hy 
their frayers to obtain recovery for the sick : let those who are not 
able to do this, abstain from the use of the empty sign. For the only 
design of that a??om;!in^ originally was miraculous healing : and in 
the failure of this result, it is nothing but an empty sign. But the 
laying on of hands is also a holy outward rite, although it does not 
by the mere act confer the Holy Spirit. For not even in the be- 
ginning was it always used with this one design. — h, in) This is 
certainly not less connected with the verb, let them pray, than with 
the participle, anointing; whence there follows (ver. 15), the prayer 
of faith. — Tox) Kvplou, the Lord) Jesus Christ. 

15. 'H su^rj rnc 'rrianuf, the prayer of faith) [He does not say the 
oil shall save. — V. g.J When some of the faithful pray, the whole 
power of faith is spread and exercised through the whole body of 
the Church. James would have complained that he was greatly 
misrepresented, if any one were to say, that he attributed the remis- 
sion of sins to works. — kuv, and if) It may happen that a man is 
sick, even though he has not committed [special] sins. — aps^^o-Era/, it 
shall be forgiven him) the having committed sins. 

16. 'Ego/ioXoyE/iT^E, confess) The sick man, and whoever has com- 
mitted an ofPence, is ordered to confess : the injured party, to pray. 
The things to be confessed are those which especially burden the con- 
science : he to whom the confession is made, knows better how he ought 
to pray, and is more stirred up to prayer. — aXXriXoir., to one another, 
mutually) Confession may be made to any one who is able to pray. — 
o'TTug laSriTi, that ye may be healed) Diseases therefore were prevalent. — 
otXij, much) even to the restoration of health. — lex"^', avails) even 

1 iii^i'Kciiou. This word (as its derivation shows) appears at first to have de- 
noted the prayers which were used at the consecration of the oil with which 
the sick were to be anointed, but it has generally been applied to the act of 
extreme unction. For a full account of the word, see Suicer's Thesaurus. 

The Greek Church practises the rite of extreme unction, though its usage in 
this respect does not entirely correspond with that of the Church of Rome. See 
Riddle's Christian Antiquities, and Willetts' Synopsis Papismi. T. 

JAMES V. 17-20. 41 

for another. — dixaio-j, of the just) who is not himself involved in any 
fall (lapse into sin). — ivspyovfi^hn, having efficacy) Efficacy is followed 
by a favourable hearing : it is by this that prayer avails. There 
are therefore three things: (1.) efficacy of prayer; (2.) a favour- 
able hearing; (3.) rb lex^ii^ the availing. This at length follows 
from the two former. The first is internal in the mind of him who 
prays : the third produces eflFects even on outward things. 

17. 'HX/as, Elias) The whole effect of prayer is supernatural, and 
so far miraculous, though it does not appear so externally. — 'oiJ,oti>- 
Tairig, subject to like passions) The same word is used, Acts xiv. 15 : 
having the same <ya^!), passions, the same afflictions of mind and 
body, which might not seem capable of such efficacy Qv'ipysia). — 
^ ■rpoeiuxfi vpoeriv^aTo, he prayed ivith prayer) While the idolatry of 
Baal flourished, he used prayer only, but that earnest : employing 
no other instrumentality for the production of this result. The 
Hebrew phrase itself, in which a verb is joined with a substantive 
or a quasi-substantive, always denotes something vehement : for in- 
stance, dying thou shalt die : shalt so die, that it may deserve to be 
called death. 

18. TJaXiv T/!off))uf aro, he prayed again) when the idolatry had 
been abolished. His gesture in prayer is described, 1 Kings xviii. 
42. — xai n yri, and the earth) xa,i, and so. — auryji, her or its) though 
a little before it had not been able to produce it. 

19. 'AStXpo/, brethren) James, under the guidance of the Holy 
Spirit, avoiding a multitude of words, brings the Epistle to an end. 
I, he says in this Epistle, seek your salvation ; let every one face to 
face [not absent as I] seek the salvation of his neighbour. Comp. 
Heb. xiii. 22. — rig, rig, any one, any one) Every one ought to seek 
the salvation of every one. — '?rXa,]i?]Sfi, shall be led aside) through sin. 
— Tig, any one) whoever it shall be [that converts him], that [soul 
so converted] shall be his gain. An appropriate ending of the 

20. TimaxiToij^let him know) both the one who converts another, 
that he may be more intent upon it, and the one who is converted, 
that he may be led to grateful obedience. — edten, he shall save) The 
li'uture : it shall hereafter be evident. — -^v-xriv avTov, his soul) the 
f-inner's. A great work. — ly. ^avdrou, from death) which will destroy 
(swallow up) the sinners. The connection is : not only in diseases 

^ TtpoaiVXiXi 'jrpoatii^XTO. Thus also Luke xxii. 15 : I'TriSufiix sTriOifiTitra-t 
mth desire I have desired; i.e. earnestly desired. John iii. 29: x«)»^ x^'F^h 
rcjoiceth with joy ; i.e. greatly rejoiceth. Also 1 Thess. iii. 9.— T. 

43 JAMES V. 20. 

of the body, ver. 14, do you succour one another, but also drive 
away the death of the soul. — KokL-^n, shall hide) impelled by that same 
love, under the influence of which he recalled him when in error ; 
1 Pet. iv. 8, note.^ — 'nXri^og aij^apnuv, a multitude of sins) either the 
sins which the person in error had committed, and which are known 
to him who converts him, or those which he was about to commit.^ 
Steph. and ^thiop. read, of his sins. I know not why Steph. is in- 
serted by Baumgarten. James concludes as though it were an or- 
dinary book and not a letter. 

1 Shall in love charitaUy hide, not reveal to others, but intercede with God 
for, the sins of his neighbour whom he converts. — E. 

' And also the sins which either had been committed, or might still hereafter 
be committed, by the converter or others. — Y. g. 

ox THE 



1. Xl'sTpog, Peter) There is a wonderful weightiness and liveliness 
in the style of Peter, which most agreeably arrests the attention of 
the reader. The design of each Epistle is, to stir up hy way of remem- 
brance the pure mind of the faithful, 2 Pet. iii. 1, and to guard them 
not only against error, but even against doubt, eh. v. 12. This he does 
by reminding them of that Gospel grace, by which believers, being 
anointed, are inflamed to bring forth the fruits of faith, hope, love, 
and patience, in every duty and affliction. The first Epistle contains 
three parts. ' 

I. The Insceiption, ch. i. 1, 2. 

n. The stirring up op a pure feeling. He excites the 
elect — 
a) As those Bom again of God. Here he mentions as 
well the benefits of GOD towards believers, as also 
the duties of believers towards God ; and he inter- 
weaves these things one with another, by three 
powerful motives, to which weight is added from the 
mystery of CHRIST. 

A) God has regenerated us to a lively HOPE, to 
an inheritance of glory and salvation, ver 

Therefore HOPE "to the end" (perfectly), 
H) As obedient sons, bring forth to your heavenly 
Father the fruit of FAITH, 14-? 1 

44 1 PETER I. 1. 

C) Being PURIFIED by the Spirit, LOVE 

with a PUEE heart, without fault, 22, ii. 10. 

6) As strangers in the world, he calls upon them to 

ABSTAIN from fleshly lusts, ver. 11, and to 

maintain — 

A) A good CONVERSATION, ver. 12. 

1) In particular, 

1. Subjects, 13-17. 

2. Servants, after the example of Christ, 


3. Wives, iii. 1-6, 

4. Husbauds, 7. 

2) In general, all, 8-15. 


1. By their readiness to defend their faith, 

and by shunning evil company, 
15-22, iv. 1-6. 
(The whole course of Christ, from His 
passion to His coming to judgment, 
gives weight to this part.) 

2. By their virtues, and a good adminis- 

tration of their gifts, 7-11. 
c) As fellow-partakers of future glory, he calls upon them 
to SUSTAIN adversity. Let every one do this — 

1. In general, as a Christian, 12-19. 

2. In his own particular condition, v. 1—11. 
(The title ayaTrriroi, heloved, twice made use of, 

separates the second part from the first, ii. 11, 
and the third part from the second, iv. 12. 
The state even of the elders is looked upon as 
a state full of troubles in this life, and there 
ought to be a wholesome looldng forward from 
it to glory, v. 1-4 ; and the word, submit your- 
selves, V. 5, also introduces suffering and 
endurance notwithstanding ; and this seems to 
be the particular reason why the apostle 
separates these two conditions, v. 1-11, from 
those which he mentions ii. 12 and following 

ni. The Conclusion. 

1 PETER 1. z, 3. 45 

— 'ExXixToTg, elect) in heaven; elect out of the whole people, out 
of mankind. Comp. this and ver. 5, with Matt. xxiv. 24. — •zapim- 
dr}fi,ois, strangers) on the earth, [with reference to their heavenly country. 
— ^' S-] — Siaa-ropag Uovtov, of the dispersion of Pontus) He addresses 
the dispersed Jews, James i. 1 ; although he afterwards addresses 
behevers of the Gentiles, who are mixed with them, ch. ii. 10, 
note, iv. 3. He mentions five provinces in the order in which they 
presented themselves to him, writing from the East : ch. v. 13. 
Cappaclocia, Pontus, and Asia, is the order in which they are men- 
tioned. Acts ii. 9. The Epistles of Peter were formerly placed 
before those of John, James, and .Tude : and from this circum- 
stance all of them appear to have been called " Catholic" (General) 
Epistles, because that title is especially applicable to the first. It 
is not agreed upon whether Peter first sent this Epistle into Pontus, 
or to Jerusalem, where the Jews flocked together. 

2. Kara, 'npoyvwsiv, according to the foreknowledge) This depends 
upon elect. Foreknowledge is also praised (referred to), ver. 20. 
It includes also good-will and love. — Qio\J, of God) The mystery of 
the Trinity, and the economy of our salvation, are intimated in this 
verse, and indeed these constitute the sum of the Epistle.^ — Xlarpoc, 
Father) even our Father. — b ayiaeiJiSi Hviv/jjarog, in sanctification of 
the Spirit) 2 Thess. ii. 13, note. — e/c ma-Konv, to obedience) That 
obedience is meant which is rendered through faith ; ver. 22, note. 
St Paul undoubtedly joins together, in the passage quoted above, 
sanctification of the Spirit and faith. Observe also the particles, 
xara, b, iig ; by means of which the bearing of the three cardinal 
benefits upon election, and their mutual order, is indicated. Comp. 
Apocalypse i. 4, 5, 6. — xai pavng/j^hv, and sprinkling) The obedient 
are sprinkled to the remission of their sins : 1 John i. 7. But here 
the sprinkling is passive, by means of which the sprinkling is obedi- 
ently received. On the subject of obedience, see again ver. 14 ; on 
the blood of sprinkling, ver. 19. — irXn^uvhin, be multiplied) to a 
further extent. The same word occurs, 2 Pet. i. 2. So Dan. vi. 
25, iipn^ri v//,n vXriSiivklri, peace be multiplied unto you. 

3. EiiXoyjjros, blessed) The sentiment is, God has regenerated us. 
The Mode^ (expression of feeling) is added, that is to say, an ex- 
pression of thanks. — llarnp, the Father) The whole of this Epistle 
closely agrees with the Lordls prayer, and especially with its earlier 

1 He treats of the Father in verses 3, 15, 17, 21, 23; of Christ, in verses 3, 7, 
11, 13, 19, ii. 3; of the Spirit, in verses 11, 12, 22.— V. G. 
- 2 See Append, of Techn. Terms on Sedmo Modalis. 

40 1 PETER I. i. 

clauses. Let the sentiments be compared with one another, m 
their proper order. 

Father ; 


. i. 3, 14, 17, 23, ii. 2 


i. 4, at the end. 

In heaven ; 

The same. 

Hallowed be thy name. 

i. 15, 16, iii. 15. 

Thy kingdom come. 

ii. 9. 

Thy will be done. 

ii. 15, iii. 17, iv. 2, ] 

Daily bread. 

V. 7. 

Forgiveness of sins. 

iv. 8, 1. 


iv. 12. 


iv. 18. 


And Peter expressly makes many references to prayer itself, ch. 
iii. 7, iv. 7. — xara sXeos, according to His mercy) We had been in 
a wretched state : Eph. ii. 1, 2. — avayinrjoas, who has regenerated 
us) ver. 23, ii. 2. [From this place to ii. 10, St Peter recounts the 
things which GOD has done for our benefit; and from that provision 
for our salvation lie derives most efficacious admonitions to hope, i. 
3-13 ; to sanctification and fear in believing, 14-21 ; to love, 22-ii. 
10 ; introducing now and then most sweetly doctrine concerning Christ. 
— V. g.]— £'5, to) A remarkable Anaphora [repetition in beginnings. 
Append.] : to hope, to an inheritance, to salvation. — e/'s iXntiba, ZSisctv, 
to a living hope) This hope is a heavenly inheritance, ver. 4 : and 
it is termed living, because it springs forth and flourishes from the 
resurrection of Christ. Peter frequently uses the epithet living, 
ver. 28, ii. 4, 5 ; and he makes mention of hope, ver. 13, 21, iii. 5, 
1 5. Comp. the epithets in the following verse. To hope, more- 
over, he joins faith and love, ver. 8, 21, 22. — hi avaerdeeag, by 
the resurrection) This depends upon the word living, Comp. 
ver. 21. 

■4, KXj)pora,!i/av, an inheritance) They who are sons by regeneration, 
are heirs. He treats of this inheritance also, ch. iii. 7, 9. — a(p6apTov, 
incorruptible) For it is a divine inheritance. — ai/,iavTov, undefiled^) 
For no impure person, however closely related, is a joint-heir. — 
aixafawov, free from decay) For the heirs themselves are not subject 

' No defiled person, though of the number of those who are aMn to the 
Lord as to external privileges (as the Jews were), is a co-heir. The " Proximi " 
are here opposed to the '^filii, regeniti," who are ipso facto " pure and un- 
defiled."— T. 

1 PETER 1. 5-7. 47 

to decay, they do not die. Peter delights to accumulate synonymous 
words ; ver. 7, 8, 19, v. 10. — nrripniiivri]!, kept) from the beginning. 
Comp. ver. 10. The same word occurs, John xvii. 12. Comp. 
also John ii. 10. — Iv oupavoTi, in heaven) In the power of God. — slg 
•j/ias, unto or for you) who are alive at this time. 

5. 'Ek dvvd/isi Qiov, hy the power of God) He Himself does it, and 
will do it entirely : ch. v. 10. Comp. 2 Pet. i. 3.^ No one can 
propose to himself, in what way he may msh to arrive at the 
goal. It is the power of God which gives us safety against our 
enemies ; it is the long-suffering of the Lord which gives us safety 
against ourselves : 2 Pet. iii. 15. The apostles themselves are a 
proof of this. — ippovpov/Msvoug, who are guarded) The inheritance is 
kept in safety ; the heirs are guarded. Neither shall it be wanting 
to them, nor they to it. A remarkable confirmation [sample of 
how the word of God strengthens and guards believers] occurs, 
2 Pet. iii. 17. — diet ir'nsnoii, by faith) It is by faith that salvation is 
both received and kept. — iToi/inv SaroxaXv^drivai, ready to be revealed) 
The revelation takes place at the last day : the preparations for it 
began to be made when Christ came. — avoxaXuipSfimi, to be revealed) 
A frequent word in this Epistle : ver. 7, 12, 13, iv. 13, v. 1.- — h 
ytcupS) is^drcjj, in the last time) Peter considers the whole of the 
time, from the beginning of the New Testament to the coming of 
Christ in glory, as one time, and that short, in comparison with the 
times of the Old Testament. Therefore 
in depends upon ready.' 

6. 'Ek w) in which circumstance. — ayaWmeH, ye rejoice) The 
present, ver. 8. Augustine, gaudete, imperative : rejoice ye? Comp. 
James i. 2. — oXlyov, for a little time) This is spoken with reference 
to the whole Church, ch. v. 10. Comp. iv. 7. — el d'eov sstI, if it be 
needful) If (since) has here the force of an affirmation : so in 
ver. 17. 

7 Aoxlfiiov, the trial) That is, your faith, which is thus tried; for 
it is compared with gold. — '!roXvrif/i,6repov, much more precious) The 
epithet belongs to the subject.^roD airoXXufihov, which perisheth) 
Gold perishes with the world, ver. 18 ; nor will it then profit any 

1 1 Thess. V. 24 ; Matt. xix. 26. If deprived of this protection, how could we 
continue stedfast in the presence of the adversary ? 1 Pet. v. 8. — "V. g. 

' Not as Engl. Vers, upon "revealed." The preparations for its being 
"revealed" take place in this present, i.e. the last time. — B. 

» Vulg. " exultatis." Other MSS. ofVulg. " exultabitis." So Orig. 1,3006 
ha'B ayoKhnkainh. But ABC, Kec. Text, ayoKhtSink. — E. 

4S 1 PETER I. 8-10. 

one. The same participle occurs, John vi. 27. — Bi, but'') Faith is 
compared with gold, not with reference to the perishing of gold, 
but with reference to its being tried by fire. — iupi6ri, may be found) 
For it does not now appear ; but it will appear when other things 
shall perish. — 'ivamv, praise) in words. — n/iriv, honour) in deeds.— 
S6^a«, glory) in the award bestowed at the judgment. — a^iroxaXi-^/s/, 
at the revelation) ver. 13. 

8. Ou% iiboTic ajantari) Ye love, although ye know Him not in 
person. A paradox : for in other cases it is knowledge whicli 
produces love. This is said respecting love: Peter afterwards 
asserts the same respecting faith. Whom and in whom : the absence 
of the copula resembles Anaphora.^ — s/'s h, in whom) The word in 
properly belongs to believing, as does also now. — //.jj opZuTsg, not see- 
ing) The present : that is, although you see Him not as yet in 
glory. The apostles, who had seen Him themselves, thought that 
their faith was not so great as that of others. — dvExXaX^rw, unspeak- 
able) even now : 1 Cor. ii. 9. — ycal dido^aafihri, and glorified) This 
joy is glorified in itself, and glorified by witnesses. Comp. ver. 10. 
In other respects it is unspeakable. 

9. Ko/i/^o'/joevo/, receiving) now, at present. — rHig msTiui, of faith) 
ver. 8. — ■4^u%wi', of your souls) It is the soul especially which is 
saved : the body shares in the resurrection. 

10. Tlipl rie auTTipiag, of which salvation) A great argument for 
the truth arises from the prophecies and eagerness of the prophets. 
—l^itrjTriaa)! xai s^YipiuvrjSav, inquired and searched diligently) There is 
great emphasis in the two compound words, ixt^rirsn, to seek out, 
to attain to by seeking : B^Bpiuvav, to search through, to attain to by 
searching. The simple word Ipiuvuvres, searching, occurs in ver. 11. 
What they attained to by inquiring and searching, is expressed 
and defined in ver. 12. 'EpivvuvTzg, searching, refers to the first and 
principal searching respecting Christ Himself: l^s^jjrjjirai/ xat sE,ripsu- 
njsav, they inquired and searched diligently, to a further and more 
advanced searching respecting Christians.- — 'TrpoprJTai, prophets) with 
the other righteous men : Matt. xiii. 17 ; John viii. 56. The 
omission of the article gives weight to the sentence, as is often the 
case with the Germans : for it has the effect of calling away the 

1 The li is held a good reading in the judgment of Ed. 2, rather than accord- 
ing to the larger Ed., although it is not given in the Germ. Vers. 

ABC Rec. Text have iix. 'Ttvpog Ss ^oxifmc^o/iiii/ov. Vulg. omits a.TraK'hvfiiiiolu 
and therefore also IL Orig. has x,«.\ S/a 'jrvpo; hioxifiaafthov. — E. 

2 See Append. 

1 PETER I. 11, 12. 49 

attention of the hearer from the particular consideration of in- 
dividuals to the genus itself. So ver. 12, angels. A gradual rise 
of subject. — E/'s 6^a$, unto you) who live in this age. — -/upiroi, grace) 
The grace of the New Testament, ver. 13. True grace, ch. v. 12. 
Comp. John i. 17. 

11. E/'s Tim n mm, to wJiat, or what manner of) The disjunctive 
particle expresses the great eagerness of the prophets : (to know) 
whether those things were about to happen in their time or after- 
wards : ver. 12. What {rha,) denotes the time absolutely, so to 
spealc, an era marked out by its own numbers : what manner of 
{mm) speaks of the time to be known from various events. Dan. 
ix. 2. — UviiJ/^a, Xpisrou, the Spirit of Christ) testifying of Christ ; 
Eev. xix. 10. The Spirit of God, Gen. i. 2, is called the Spirit of 
Messias in the work entitled Baal Hatturim,. — to, — •xa^fiiJ.aTa, the 
sufferings) Hence comes salvation. — ra e/'j Xpisrov •jraStif^aTa) the 
sufferings about to happen to Christ. — /j,iTa raura) after these suffer- 
ings. — So^af, glories) In the plural. The glory of His resurrection ; 
the glory of His ascension ; the glory of the last judgment and of 
the kingdom of heaven. 

12. oh, to whom) searching. — oV;) that. — ouy^ lavToTg, not to them- 
selves) Matt. xiii. 17 ; Ps. cii. 19 ; Dan. xii. 13. — tj/j^Tv, to us) The 
times defined by the seventy weeks of Daniel exactly extend to the 
time of Christ's appearance on earth, and to the faithful then living : 
this is the force of unto us. And these weeks came to an end during 
the time of Peter. See Ord. Temp. p. 366 (Edit. ii. 314).— aira) 
those things : for prophets is understood with ministered, as is evi- 
dent from the answering clause, not to themselves. Compare diaxoHM 
with an accusative, ch. iv. 10. "A and slg a have reference to aura. — 
vuv, now) The Latin expression is hodie, to-day. — h, with or in) The 
Evangelists were infallible witnesses. — a^r oipavou, from heaven) that 
is, from God. — Imh/iovm, desire) It was not so soon revealed to 
angels ; at any rate, not to all. A well-regulated curiosity is a virtue, 
not only in prophets, ver. 10, but also in angels. — ayyikai, angels) 
The revelation from heaven increases in weight.-' Prophets, and 
righteous men, and kings, desired to see and hear the things which 
Christ spake and did. Matt. xiii. : but angels desire to look into the 
things which the Comforter teaches concerning Christ. — •jrapar/.d-^ai, 
to look into) It became Imown to us by hearing, to angels by sight, 

' Here reaches its climax, viz. in the fact of its being the object of aiigeh' 

curiosity E. 

VOL. V. 1> 

50 1 PETER I. 13-17. 

which is greater: 1 Tim. iii. 16. And yet it affects us more inti- 
mately : it is for angels •Trapa-A.himiv, to take a side-glance at ; the 
force of ■sapa is to be noticed. 

13. A/J, wherefore) An exhortation is now 'derived from those 
thincfs which have been said. — avaZoisa/Lim, girding up) to collect the 
strength. Comp. the expression, to stir up, 2 Pet. i. 13. — rag da^uag, 
the loins) Asimilar phrase occurs, Job xxxviii. 3. — v^<po9Tsc) sober: ch. 
V. 8. — rsXsioig s}.TlsaTi, hope [Engl. Vers. " to the end"'], hope perfectly) 
have that hope which may grasp the end (riXog) placed before it, 
ver. 9. Hope is repeated from ver. 3. — f>if>o/j,hi^ii) which is afforded 
and held forth. The same word is used, Heb. ix. 16. Grace is 
given to us in perfect measure, and with that our hope ought per- 
fectly to correspond. They are correlatives.— Ii/ a^o/taXu-vj/s/, at the 
revelation) There is but one revelation, which takes place through 
the whole time of the New Testament, by the two appearances of 
Christ: Tit. ii. 11, 13. 

14. Tixm, children) See ver. 17, at the beginning. — i/Taxo^s, of 
obedience) Obedience is paid either to the Divine truth, ver. 22, or to 
the Divine command. The latter is the fruit of faith ; the former 
is faith itself. Therefore Peter expressly stirs them up to hope in 
3d and following verses (making mention of hope itself, ver. 3, 13) ; 
to faith in the 14th and following verses (using the word faith twice 
in ver. 21) ; to love, ver. 22, but in such a manner that he attem- 
pers faith with hope, in 7th and following verses ; and again hope 
with faith, ver. 21, and faith with love, ver. 22, and ch. ii. 6 and 
following verse. — ^ij avaxri/J^a-rit^o/Mvoi^) Supply yivriSrin, ver. 15, be ye 
not conformed. — ayvolct, in your ignorance) Their former state, even 
as Jews, before their calling. 

15. Kar&, according to) The highest example. — zaXigatra, who 
hath called you) Peter often brings forward this calling, ch. ii. 9, 
21, ui. 9, V. 10 ; 2 Pet. i. 3, 10. — avagrpoipr], in conversation) ver. 
17, 18. 

17. 'EvixaXiTeSs, ye call upon) and are called by His name. — 

1 cx^fcx and its compounds are used to denote that which is fleeting and 
changeable, as 1 Cor. vii. 13, to ayj'/if^a, toS icicfiov roirov, " the fashion of this 
world;" Rom. xii. 2, fi^ avaxnf^aril^iaSi ru xiui/i roira, "be not conformed to 
this world." The word fiopq:^, appears to be contrasted with (rx^,««, as that 
which is essential, as opposed to that which is outward and accidental. 

See an excellent article by Mr Lightfoot in the "Journal of Classical and 
Sacred Philology," vol. 3, p. 114.— T. 

See note on Rom. xii. 2. Mo^ipi the form, denotes something deeper and 
more perfect than ixn^a, the outward fashion. — E. 

1 PETER I. 18-22. 51 

j,<rpD(f!iimX^'!rTu;, without respect of persons) whether any one is a 
Hebrew or a Greek. — airpoeomXriicrug — b po/3w) Comp. 2 Chron. xix. 
7. — 'ipyov, work) The singular. The work of one man is one, 
whether it be good or evil. —Ik jZ)o|3y, in fear) Fear is joined to hope, 
each flowing from the same source. Fear prevents us from falling 
away from hope. — itapoix'iag, of sojourning) He calls them strangers, 
because they are in the world, ch. ii. 11 ; not however without an 
allusion to the haeiropd^, the dispersion in Asia, ver. 1. 

18. Ou pSaproTg, not loith corruptible things) ver. 23. — /jbaraiag, 
vain) A vain course of life, which leaves no fruit behind, when the 
time has passed away. — 'Xarjio'TrafaUrou, received from the fathers) 
There is only one Father to be imitated, ver. 17. There is the same 
antithesis. Matt, xxiii. 9. In religion men too willingly and perti- 
naciously tread in the footsteps of their fathers, and the Jews in 

19. T//i/(f), precious) The blood of Christ is incorruptible, ver. 18. 
— oig, as) This explains the reason-' for his use of the word precious. 
— a/j,u)/Mu, ivithout hlemisK) Jesus Christ had in Himself {afjbo!i//,ou) no 
taint of evil. — aemXov, without spot) Nor did He contract any stain 
from without (atfm'Aou). 

20. Uposyvcaf/Mvov, who was fore-ordained) Acts ii. 23. — vph, before) 
Therefore all the good pleasure of God is fulfilled in Christ. — 
(pavipcaSsvTog di, but manifested) The foreknowledge was-in God alone. 
— ■Xfavoiv) times, viz. of the world. 

21. A/' auroD, by Him) by Christ, in whose resurrection all the 
argument and efficacy of faith and hope centre. — [mffrEuovras, loho be- 
lieve) by the power of that manifestation. — V. g.] — udn) that so. — 
•r/ffr/K u/ii,Siti Kai iKiri&a, your faith and hope) These two are most inti- 
mately joined together, and yet they differ with respect to the pre 
sent and the future. [Faith is derived from the resurrection of 
Christ : hope from His glorification. — V. g.] — s/'s ®iov, in God) alone, 
ch. iii. 5, who hath exalted Jesus, and prepared an anchor for us ; 
Heb. vi. 19 ; Kom. viii. 34 ; whereas, apart from Christ, we could 
but have feared Him. Now we clearly believe and hope. 

22. T(is -ifiv/a,',, your souls) Without the copula, as ver. 14 and 
15. — riymxoTig, ye who have purified) who have undergone purifica- 
tion of your souls. Hence follows presently xaSapac, pure. The 
word ayvilin denotes both chastity and all other purity. See Sep- 

' This is an instance of the figure iEtiologia, which is used to express the 
reason why we make use of any particular proposition or assertion. 

52 1 PETER I. 23-25. 

tuagint.— Waxt)!], in obedience) This is faith, to which love is accus- 
tomed to be joined : for Peter attributes purification to faith, Acts 
XV. 9. — Tfig aXtikias, of the truth) revealed in Christ. — dia nnv/j,aToc, 
ly the Spirit) The Holy Spirit bestows that obedience and purity. 
Comp. ch. i. 2. — e'lg <piXa,diXflav — aya'^^gari, unto love of the brethren — 
love ye) These are two steps : comp. 2 Pet. i. 7 ; from which the 
statements concerning the graces which go before [these two steps 
of lovel, here in the 22d verse, and there in 5th and 6th, may in 
like manner be compared. — avvTozpirov, unfeigned) For it flows from 
the truth. Comp. ch. ii. 1, 2. — ayarfiaare, love ye) The sentiments 
agree, ch. ii. 3, 10. — IxnvZg, earnestly) ch. iv. 8. 

23. ' Avayiyivvni^evoi, being born again) Hence their brotherhood. — 
IX, empag, of sowing) The Word of God is the seed, empog : the 
preaching of the Word of God, the sowing, ampd. Therefore of is 
not afterwards repeated, but the phrase, by the Word, is used. — 
't^uivTog xal /ji^ivovrog, living and abiding) This is connected with the 
Word, ver. 25. The Gospel bears incorruptible fruits, and not dead 
works ; because it is in itself incorruptible. The living Word is ftdl 
of efficacy ; abiding for ever, it is free from all corruption. 

24. nasa aap^, all flesli) Is. xl. 6-8. Flesh, that is, man by old 
descent. — iig ;^oVroc, as grass) The Septuagint does not contain iig, 
as,^ nor aurou, it^ in the next clause. — Sofa, glory) The wisdom, 
strength, riches, and righteousness of man. — i^ripdnSri, is dned up) 
from the roots. — o %o>5-off, the grass) that is, the Jlesh. — avkg, the 
flower) that is, its glory. — l^i'mei, is wont to fall away) in the highest 

25. Kupiou, the Lord) The Septuagint has rou @iod ij/j,!ov. — suay- 
■yeXiaSh, preached in the Gospel) ver. 12. — ilg u//.ag, unto you) in 
whom immortahty is thereby implanted. 

^ Hence the omission of the word ug in this place is both approved of in the 
margin of the 2 Ed. as the better reading, and is noticed in the Germ. Vers. In 
like manner presently, the reading airiis is preferred to the reading duSpa^ov, 
which was held in more esteem by the larger Ed., in the margin of Ed. 2, and 
in the Germ. Vers. — E. B. 

Lachm. omits i>s, with AC (but Tisch. claims C in favour of aj) and MSS. of 
Vulg. both Syr. Versions, and Origen. Tisch. inserts i>s, with B fudging from 
silence of collators), C (according to Tisch.), MSS. of Vulg. and Memph. and 
Orig. 1,226a. Also aurii; is read by ABC Vulg. both Syr. Memph. Orig. 
KuSpUov is read by Eec. Text, with inferior authority. Also airoS is added 
after Siuhs by C Vulg. Memph. But AB, the best MS. of Vulg. (Amiat.), both 
Syr. Versions, and Origen, omit it. — E. 

1 PETER n. 1-4. 63 


1. Uagav Haxlav, all vice) Hoisav, icavTa, 'iraaa.g : he points out three 
kinds. Kaxlav, a faulty state of mind, as opposed to virtue. — 'Travra. 
doXov xai I'TToxpiesi; xal <p66voug, all guile, and hypocrisies, and envyings) 
in actions. Guile wrongs ; hypocrisy deceives ; envy assails a 
neighbour : all these things are injurious to love, on which see ch. 
1. 22. — 'irdsag xaraXaKiag, all detractions) in conversation. 

2. 'iig apriyivvriTa, as new-born) who do nothing else, but only 
desire. The first age of the Church of the New Testament is 
marked out. — /3f£p?i, babes) who are free from all guile. — XojrAv) 
Derived from Xoyog, the Word, ch. i. 23. The milk of the Word is a 
periphrasis for the Word itself Comp. Eom. xii. 1, note. — adoXov, 
without guile) The antithesis to guile in ver. 1. — ydXa, milk) This 
is the same as that which is before called seed, ch. i. 23. — iva h 
auTSj au^nSTJTi i'lg aurrifiiav, that ye may grow thereby unto salvation) 
We are bom again unto salvation, ch. i. 3, 5, 9 ; and we grow unto 
salvation, in this passage. The copies of greatest authority have 
long read, ^iJg earrifiiav : in the more recent ones, an hiatus has been 
introduced, the eye of one or two copyists having glided fi'om ug to 
i'iiTip in the next verse. Peter had in his mind Ps. xxxiv., which 
in ver. 8, under those words which Peter repeats, holds out to us 
gdiTrtplav, salvation. TevffaaSi xa! 'j'Ssti, on ^priffrhg 6 Kiipiog. MAKAPI02 
avrjp, 05 IX'ttI'I^si lie avrov. taste and see that the Lord is good : 
Blessed is the man that trusteth in Him. The first tastes of the 
goodness of God are afterwards followed by more ftJl and happy 

3. ''Eyiiieask, ye have tasted) A taste excites the appetite.^ — on, 
that) Ps. xxxiv. 8. Peter quotes the same Psalm in the next 
chapter. — ^prjSThg, good) Therefore they, who are born again, are 
and ought to be like Him. — 6 Kvpiog, the Lord) nini, Christ, ver. 4 : 
Ps. xlvii. 6. 

4. ' Ov, whom) Apposition : whom, that is, the Lord, the Stone. — 
ir;'o(r£^%i),u.£vo/, approaching) of your own accord, through faith. — XlSov, 
stone) In what manner He is regarded both by believers and unbe- 
lievers, is declared, ver. 6, 7. The name given to Peter by the 

" ABO Vulg. and almost all Versions, i-ead u; (iurniita.ii. Rec. Text, with 
inferior authorities, omits the words - -E. 
2 Comp. Mai. iii. 10.— V. g. 

54 1 PETEK II. 5-7. 

Lord remained fixed in his mind : hence he alludes to it in various 
ways, not only under the name of Stone, Acts, iv. 11, but also under 
the repeated mention o? firmness [stedfastness, 1 Pet. v. 9]. t,uvTa, 
living) living from the beginning, 1 John i. 1, and raised from the 
dead, Eev.. i. 18, after that He had been rejected by men, both 
Jews and Gentiles. — St.'jroSsdoy.i/j.a.efisvov, disallowed) especially before 
His death : ver. 7, note.—sxXniTov, elect) ver. 6. 

5. Kal) even. — aurol) yourselves, partakers of the same name 
(Stone).— X!6oi, stones) Many names, which belong to Christ in the 
singular, are assigned to Christians in the plural. Christ is the 
Living Stone; Christians are living stones. From Him they also 
are called sons, priests, kings, lambs, etc. So the Shulamite is 
called from Solomon.— ^Si/t-es, living) Such persons, living stones, 
may be at once both a house and a priesthood. — olK.o8o,aiTak, are 
built up) The indicative, as Eph. ii. 22. — oJkos, a Jiouse) a temple. — 
hpdreu/ia, a priesthood) a multitude of priests. This is presently 
afterwards explained, and (the contrary having been premised in 
ver. 8) in ver. 9 and 10. — ayiov, lioly) as belonging to God. — foir/a;, 
sacrifices) of praise, ver. 9. — sl'Trposdijiroug, acceptable) Is. Ivi. 7, a/' 
6u(Siai avrSis 'isovrai hi/tral h'Tri rh (veiasrtipio)! jJjOV' Their sacrifices 
shall be accepted on My altar. — bia, by) Christ is both precious in 
Himself, and makes us accepted ; for He is the altar. See Is. as 
quoted above. 

6. Mipii-xii, it is contained) Used here as an impersonal verb. — 
idou, behold) See Eom. ix. 33, note. — ixXixrhv, 'ivrifjuov, elect, precious) 
Elect, has special reference to the stone ; precious, to the chief corner- 
stone. In Hebrew pN, a stone 1D1D ^D1D mp^ nJS tni of searching 
out, a corner-stone of preciousness, most firmly laid. The term elect 
is also used of believers, ver. 9. From the word precious is derived 
the word rj ri/^ri, the preciousness, the price, vex. 7. — o menvuv, he that 
believeth) From this is derived the word believing [unto you who 
believe], ver. 7 — oh /^ri xoi,raisx'^)i(ir\, shall not be put to shame) He 
shall experience that the preciousness of Christ abounds towards 
him (whUst) believing. 

7. 'H Ti/in, the preciousness or price) Supply ieTh, ^aiists, is well 
known ; that is. He is precious towards (in the estimation of) you. 
'B., that, xdeT^s, to precious, ver. 6, note. The abstract, preaowsness 
or price,, expresses the view in which the faithful regard Christ.— 
X'lHov — ym'iai, a stone — of the corner) See Matt. xxi. 42, note. Peter 
had quoted the same saying, Acts iv. 11; and in this place he quotes 
it most appropriately. AlSov, x.r.X. The Syriac translator, or Greek 

1 PETER II. 8. 65 

copyist, before him, passing from XlSov to XMoc, omitted the inter- 
mediate words, as sometimes happens. But these plainly belong to 
the subject. Peter quotes three sayings in ver. 6, 7 : the first 
from Isaiah, the second from the Psalms, the third again from 
Isaiah. He makes allusion to the third in ver. 8 ; but he alluded to 
the second and the first in ver. 4, even then revolving them both 
in his mind. Therefore the words, a<!r6didoxi/j,as//,hov, rejected, and 
a-TrzdoxifjMgav, they rejected, in ver. 4, 7, have reference to each 
other. The dative, a-Trnkvsi, to them that are disobedient, as just be- 
fore D/i/i/ ToTg mersvoveiv, to you that believe, accords with the Hebrew 
prefix b, with this meaning, as relates to those that believe not; and 
the remaining part of this verse coheres with this dative, and the 
construction is easy : systTiSn eig xi<paXrjti ymlag xal \!6og itfod-MihiLaTOi, 
%,T.\., was made the head of the corner and a stone of stumbling, etc. ; 
the conjoining of the two sayings (Dicta) softening the disparity 
of the accusative and the nominative case, iig xKpaXriti — Xlhg. The 
saying of the Psalm has a twofold agreement with this. For 1st, 
They who A'Tridoxlfiasav, rejected the stone, were truly a'auSovyrig, 
disobedient. 2d, The same persons, while they rejected the stone, 
were unconsciously contributing to its becoming xe(paXfi yaviag, the 
head of the corner; nor can they now prevent this, however much 
they may be grieved [lit. snarl at it], and they shall experience, to 
their great misery, that He is the head of the corner : Matt. xxi. 44. 
— xifaXfiv, the head) Christ is the head of the corner, especially with 
reference to believers, who are built upon Him ; yet unbelievers 
experience this in another way. 

8. O/ ■jrposxo'jTougi, Tip Xoytf) airidovvng, who stumble, not believing 
the word) In ver. 7, he expressed the different judgments of believers 
and unbelievers respecting Christ ; now he sets forth the difference 
itself between believers and unbelievers. Many construct irpoexow- 
rougi rCji Xoycfi, stumble at the word. But vposxoirrovai, put absolutely 
(as in John xi. 9), is derived from •Trpeaao/jt^fj.aro;, the word quoted 
from Isaiah ; and the declaration follows, rffi Xoyw a-riiSovvrig, tiot 
believing the word, as ch. iv. 17, T/ to tiXo; tuv airfi6o\ivToiv rffl tou 
©sou svayysXlu) ; What shall be the end of those who obey not the Gospel 
of God ? and certainly ch. iii. 1, I'l Ting amikvai tm \6yifi : If any 
obey not the word. It is in the Gospel-word that the preciousness of 
Christ is set forth : they who do not believe the word, despise 
Christ, and stumble at Him. — iig o xal iTsdrisav, to which also they 
were appointed) Which refers to stumble : they who do not believe, 
stumble ; they who stumble are also appointed for stumbling. This 

5fi 1 PETER II. 9. 

appointment follows unbelief and stumbling, as even the intensive 
particle, also, and the order of this clause which is placed last, 
signify. And yet stumble is present. They were appointed has the 
force of a past tense ; by which it is implied, that by a most just 
judgment of God, unbelievers stumble more and more from day to 
day. Are appointed answers to I lay {or appoint), vex. 6 ; but with 
some difference : for God is said, in the active, to appoint Christ and 
the elect : unbelievers, in the passive, are said to be appointed. Comp. 
Eom. ix. 22, note. 

9. 'r/i£?5 &, but ye) Supply are. After the mention of a subject so 
sorrowful he consoles the pious ; as 2 Thess. ii. 13. — yiwg—ih yff"- 
TToineiv, a generation— for a peculiar possession) He twice mentions 
two remarkable sentences, which signify the relation of believers, as 
towards their Father and towards their God: Is. xliii. 20, 21, 
Septuagint, rh yhog /iou ro i-A.\t%r6r Xaov /J^oti ov nrifUVoineaMh ''"^ af eras 
fLou diriyiTeSai: My nation ["people"'], My chosen: My people whomlhave 
reserved as a possession ["formed"] for Myself, to " show forth My 
praises." Ex. xix. 5, 6, Kahg 'ripiovsiog an 'itavrm tuv ihZv, ^aalXsiov 
hpdTiu/j,a, xat shag ayim: a peculiar people from all the nations, a royal 
priesthood, and a holy nation. Uspl in composition often denotes some- 
thing surviving: as vepiyhicSai, to conquer, the enemy being driven 
back; mpi'iroiiTsSai, to reserve something, when you give up the rest; 
mpifiiovv, not to put to death ; iripmng, DnnB', the surviving. Job xxvii. 
15. And thus for n^JD the Septuagint has vipiovrng. Exodus, as quoted 
above, etc.; iripiousiadf/^hg and <Kipi'rro'in<!ig, Mai. iii. 17. Peter does not 
add, (iff J ira,)iTu\i ruv eSvcuv, from all the nations; because he honours the 
Gentiles also with this title : ver. 10. — ixXixrhi) chosen, excellent. — 
fiaslXiioii ispdnvfia, 'iSvog uyioii, Xaog elg "jtipivoirieiv, a royal priesthood, a holy 
nation, a people for a peculiar possession) A kingdom of priests is a 
Hebrew expression. God is a king; His priests are the faithful: 
Rev. i. 6. Comp. 2 Sam. viii. 18 vyith 1 Chron. xviii. 17. A holy 
nation, the property of God. Uipmolnaig in the abstract is the same as 
irepioumog in the concrete, in the Septuagint. Comp. Eph. i. 14, note. 
— rag apirdg, His excellencies) His wonderful glory in this verse, His 
mercy in the following verse. His goodness in ver. 3.^ St Paul only 
once uses the word apirri, Phil. iv. 8, of the righteous: St Peter, in 
this one passage only of this Epistle, of God : in the second Epistle, 
ch. i. 3, he employs it a second time of God, and in ver. 5 (of the 
same chapter) he uses it of the faithful. The Hebrew is Tiirin at 
the passage already quoted; which word in Is. xlii. 8, 12, Ixiii. 7, the 
'■ Comp. Num. xiv. 17. — V. g. 

1 PETER II. 10, li. 57 

Septuagint translates by a^srfif, just as they put apir^ for Tin, Hab. 
iii. 3 ; Zech. vi. 13. Eustathius on Horn. Odyss. 2., apirfiv oi /j^lav 
Tiva, Xsyii, &XX& rh ihdai/juov ttj; ^w^$ xal [i^axoLpierh, 5] xa; 'jrasav di'^ioTrjTaj 
oi /ioDOB rr}v %ara. ppevag, aXXA xa/ rriv zaTa spya -/.al oixovo/J,iav y,ai offa 
roiavra: he does not speak of any one excellency, hut of the happiness 
and blessedness of life, or even all cleverness, not only in mind, hut in 
deed and in management, and things of this hind. And so he says 
everywhere. — It.ayyii'k-riTi, should show forth or declare^ The sense is, 
that ye acknowledge and declare. Septuagint, Is. xlii. 12, r&g apirai 
auTou h raTi vrisoii avayyiXovsi, they shall declare His praises in the 
islands. 'E^ in e^ayyil'ATjTe expresses the ignorance of many, to whom 
the faithful ought to declare the excellencies of God. — tov) of God : 
2 Pet. i. 3, note. 

10. o; Tori, who in time past) See Rom. ix. 25, note ; and with 
"in time past," comp. presently after, "ye were," ver. 25. The 
quotation from Hosea is a kind of enigma. In Hosea, if taken lite- 
rally, it has reference to the Jews ; for, according to the context, as 
an axiom it is only applied to a particular subject {hypothesis^) ; but 
there may be a more general question (thesis) in the mind of the 
speaker, and then it may be applied to other subjects. / will call 
them My people, who were not (My) people, is applicable to Jews and 
Gentiles. Thus care is taken that the sense of the text may not 
necessarily appear to be twofold. — ov Xahg, not a people) Rom. x. 19, 
note : not even a people, much less the people of God. The former 
half of the verse has special reference to the Gentiles ; the latter to 
the Jews. Concerning the latter, see Tit. iii. 4, and the context : 
concerning the former, Acts xv. 14. 

11. ' AyuirriTdi, dearly heloved) A friendly and well-disposed exhor- 
tation. — '!rapa%aKu, I heseech you) So ch. v. 1. [A great exhortation, 
of which the former part begins here ; the second part in the middle 
of ver. 15, ch. iii. Both parts have ha b Z, x.t.X., ch. ii. 12, and iii. 
16. — JVot. Crit.'] — 'rapo'inmg xal 'aapi'?ridri/j>ovc, strangers and foreigners) 
A gradation : ye are not only as in a strange house, but even as in 
a foreign city, ye who believe of the Jews and Gentiles. The rea- 
son why ye should abstain. Lev. xxv. 23, Septuagint, irpoen'kiiroi 
Kal mapoi-Mi u,u,eTg kn hatiriov sjJjov, ye are strangers and sojourners before 

^ Hypothesis is a particular definite question : thesis, where the subject of in- 
quiry is general and unlimited. Cic. in Top. : Qusestionura duo sunt genera, 
allerum infinitum, alterum definitum ; definitum est, quod Cmhaiu Grasci, nos 
causara ; infinitum, quod 6iaii) illi appellant, nos propositum, possumus norai- 
nare.— T. 

58 L PETER 11. 12, 13. 

Me. Ps. xxxix. 12, on •ya^o/xos iyw £/>; iv rjj yjj .Jca/ ta.fimbniJ'Oi, 
xciSug ■jrdvng oi •raTific fiou, for I am a stranger on the earth and a so- 
journer, as all my fathers were. Comp. Heb. xi. 13, note. — a-n-ix^sh, 
abstain) The Imperative,^ as cli. v. 1, 2, I exhort— feed. Thus 
cohere the words, having your conversation, etc., ver. 12, and ch. iii. 
7, 8, 9, and the word ready pVoz/io; coming after the previous Im- 
perative, as 'ixovrig here], ch. iii. 15. — sapnixuv, carnal) 2 Pet. ii. 10, 
18. — erpaTihonai, war) Not only do they hinder, but attack. A fine 

12. Tjiv a\iaciTpo<p'nv, your conversation) There are two things in 
which strangers and foreigners ought to conduct themselves well : 
The conversation, which is prescribed in excellent terms for subjects, 
ver. 13 ; for servants, ver. 18 ; for wives, ch. iii. 1 ; for husbands, 
ch. iii. 7 ; for all, ver. 8 : and confession, ch. iii. 15, 16, which pas- 
sage has a manifest reference to this. Each passage is derived from 
the will of God : ch. ii. 15, iii. 17. — xaraXaXoZgiv, speak against you) 
That was common even then, ver 15, ch. iii. 16, iv. 4, 14. — wsxazo- 
TToiuv, as evil-doers) As though ye were not obedient to authorities 
and magistrates and good laws : ver. 13, 14. — v/., froin) Constructed 
with they may glorify. — xaXuv Ipym, good worlis) Hence well-doing, 
ver. 14 and 15. This is true submission. — i'jroTmvgavrig, closely in- 
specting) The same word occurs, ch. iii. 2. Other men narrowly 
look into the actions of the righteous. — do^deaai rh ©sJv, they may 
glorify God) God, who has children like unto Himself. — h ri/j,£pa 
iiTia-MTtng, in the day of visitation) ii/iipcf, in the day, used indefinitely. 
[The note in the Germ. Vers, interprets it of the last day. — E. B.] 
There is an allusion to the divine visitation, when God brings to 
light the innocence of the righteous, which has long been hidden : 
and He often brings about this result by means of even hostile 
magistrates, during the process of inquiry, and he often converts 
adversaries themselves. Thus Septuagint, in rfj ii/j^ipcf. rrtg imaxo'j^g, in 
the day of visitation, Is. x. 3 ; In jf.a,ipa smaxoirrig, at the season of 
visitation, Jer. vi. 15. Until such a day arrives, there is need of 

13. Tldari avSpuivivri xrissi, to every creation of man) A king or 
Csesar is called a creation, and so are governors sent by him ; the 
abstract being put by Metonymia for the concrete, as in political 
language the phrase, eine Creatur, to create a magistrate, is often 

1 Not the Infinitive drnxi^^xi, as B Vulg. and Kec. Text. But clTri-assh m 
AC, both Sjr. Versions, Memph. and Cyprian. E, 

1 PETER II. 14-18, 59 

used (comp. -/.Tien, a building, Heb. ix. 11) : hence the word every 
is divided by the words, whether, or. And they are called creations 
of man, because they govern the affairs of men, after the manner of 
men : which saying savours of the heavenly perception (sense) of 
the apostle, raised above all human things. And under this very 
name, they who have attained to the nobility of faith, might look 
down upon the whole of that creation. Peter guards against this, 
and orders them to submit themselves, for the sake of the Lord 
Christ, who once became subject, though all things are subject to 
Him. — hia, on account of) The highest obligation, by the name of 
Jesus Christ, whose honour is at stake. — ^aeiXiT, to the king) Caesar. 
For they were Eoman provinces into which Peter was sending. 
The Jewish zealots refused obedience. — i/Tefjf^ovr/, supreme) Among 
the French, Souverain. 

14. ' AyaHomiSiv, those that do well) A word of frequent occurrence 
in this Epistle. 

15. (bifiouv, to stop) to put to silence. — ayvualav, the ignorance) for 
instance, respecting the integrity of Christians. This word contains 
the reason why Christians ought to pity the heathen. 

16. 'fls sXiuhpoi, as free) without maliciousness. This depends on 
ver. 13. Concerning liberty, comp. ver. 9. — xaKlag) maliciousness, 
the vice of a slave. 

17. Uavrag, all) to whom honour is due : Rom. xiii. 7. — ri/j,ri<raT£, 
honour) They who are unconnected with us, are to be treated with 
courtesy; brethren, with familiarity. This Aorist is followed by 
three Presents. The king must be honoured in such a way, that 
the love of the brotherhood, and the fear of God, be not violated. — 
Tin ahX(pornra., the brotherhood) The abstract, ch. v. 9. Brethren are 
to be loved, because they are brethren. — rh eih, God) Prov. xxiv. 
21, Septuagint, (Bo/Sou tov eshv, v'l'i, na! BasiXia, " Fear God, my son, 
and the king." — rov ^aaiXia,, the king) ver. 13. — rz/iare, honour) in 
action also, and not in feeling only. 

18. o; oixirai, servants) He prescribes duties to these, and not to 
masters, the greater part of whom were heathens. — woraeno/Mvoi, sub- 
ject) The participle, for the imperative, depending upon virordynTs, 
ver. 13 ; from which the form of the imperative ought to be re- 
peated by Zeugma. So also ch. iii. 1. — ou ^ovok, not only) Gentle- 
ness obtains obedience more easily than harshness. — ajaMi, to the 
good) who inflict no injury. — s-jnuxiaiv, the gentle or indulgent) who 
readily pardon errors. — e-z-oXioTi, the froward) who without cause have 
recourse to severity. Hows, and reproaches. 

60 1 PETER II. 19-23. 

19. X<£^/5 ["thank-worthy"], favour) with God: ver. 20.— 5'« 
emiibneiv ©soC, for conscience toward God) On account of the con- 
sciousness of a mind which does things good and pleasing to b-od, 
even though they please no man (let the force of y.xii>;,^ which pre- 
sently follows, be considered).^— «3«*)S, unjustly) that is, suttering 
those things, which are unjustly inflicted. DJH, a3««s, Septuagmt, 
Prov.i. 11, 17. 

20. KXios, glory) KXsog denotes praise, not so much trom many^ 
as from the good ; and here proceeding from God Himself, m return 
for insults.— xoXap-^o/^svo,, beaten with blows) The punishment _ of 
slaves, and that instantaneous.— Tciff^ovr^s, suffering) afflicted with 
dehberate evils.— x«?'S [" acceptable," thank-worthy], /ai;oMr) Peter 
imitates the phrase which he himself, when a recent disciple, had 
heard from the Lord. Luke vi. 32, and following verses. 

21. E/s rouro, to this) to the imitation of Christ ; who condescends 
to propose His own exam.ple to servants, as He Himself was for- 
merly esteemed as a servant. — inT^tiinre, ye loere called) with a 
heavenly calhng, whereas it found you in a state of slavery.— feo- 
■kifj.'Trava'i, leaving) on His departure to the Father.^— i/Tro/^a/i/toi/, an 
example) 'TtayfaiLiJ,li,a copy, a lesson for imitation, is adapted to the 
capacity of a tiro, learning to paint. Thus Peter in this passage 
plainly paints before the eyes of servants the example of Christ, ex- 
pressing those features which are especially adapted to the case of 
servants. — "x^iSK', footsteps) of innocence and patience. The same 
word occurs, Rom. iv. 12 ; see note. 

22. "Os a/iapriav ovx s<7rolr}eev, oudi ibpiSri SoXos, x.r.X., who did no 
sin, neither was guile found, etc.,) Is. liii. 9, Septuagint, or; avofj,ia,v 
o\i% evoi'naeo, ou&i SoXoi/ h rui gro/iari a'jrou, that is. He committed nei- 
ther open nor secret sin. "Words most suitable for the admonition of 
servants, who easily fall into sins and deceits, reproaches towards 
their felloM^-servants, and threats, arising from anger without strength. 

23. Oux avTiXoi&opii, Fie reviled not again) Is. liii. T.—oux ri'miXn, 
He threatened not) although, as Lord, He might have done so.' 

1 When a just man is not approved of by men, though doing what is good, 
and when he does not acquire, either before or afterwards, either their assent, 
support, or the intimation of a grateful mind, nay, rather experiences everything 
of an opposite kind, he may possibly be affected with no small chagrin and sor- 
row. But, if his conscience can only have God propitious, nothing but an un- 
mixed feeling of delight remains. — V. g. 

2 Into glory, V. g. ; in contrast to the previous " shame." 

2 And although He openly declared His coming again, Matt. xxvi. 64. — 

1 PETER II. 24, 25. 61 

The more befitting is it that servants should exercise patience.' — 
vapsdldou di, hut committed) viz. the judgment. — Sixaiug, righteously) 
The righteousness of God is the foundation of tranquihty to the 

24. "Os, who) Peter infers, that we are able, and ought to follow 
the footsteps of Christ. — avrhg avriviyxev, Himself bare) aurovpyla, 
personal exertion, becomes a servant, so that he himself should do 
what is to be done. \_Er muss selber daran. — Not. Crit.J Jesus 
Christ Himself undertook the part of others : He did not substitute 
others for Himself, as they do at the present day, who assign [locant, 
letout\ Canonical Hours to others. Peter agrees with Is. liii. 11, 
Septuagint, -/.ai rag a/j^apriag aurSjii ahrog avolaii, And He Himself 
shall bear their sins. Comp. Heb. ix. 28, note. — h ra eufian alrov, 
in His own body) which was most afflicted. — inrl rh guXoi/, upon the 
tree) Slaves were accustomed to be punished with the tree the 
cross, the fork.^ — ha, that) This word, that, declares that the expia- 
tion of sins, properly so called, was made on the cross of Christ : in- 
asmuch as the fruit of it, and of it alone, was our deliverance from 
the slavery of sin. —, being dead) This expression appo- 
sitely describes our deliverance from the slavery of sin : for a slave 
is said to become the property of any one, ymeiai Tivhg. ' A'jri signifies 
separation ; as Job xv. 4, Septuagint, avB-roitjaa <po^ov, thou castest 
off fear : German, ohne werden. The opposite term is wpoaysvisSai 
in the Septuagint. The Body of Christ a'!riyinTo, was presently 
taken away from that tree to which He had borne our sins : so ought 
we to be removed from sin. — rt] iixaioghr/i, to righteousness) Righteous- 
ness is altogether one ; sin is manifold, to sins. Respecting right- 
eousness, comp. Is. liii. 11. — Z^heoiiiiM, ive may live) in a free service. 

25. 05 rS)' fLiiiXa'Xi aiiTou id6riri- rin yap iig ■n-poBara vXavi/Miva, by 
whose stripe ye were healed ; for ye were as sheep going astray) Is. 
liii. 5, 6, Septuagint, rffl /iiJiXoim ahroii rifJ,iTg id6yifi,ir •jrdvrig oig -Trpo- 
jSara J^rXai/^^'/j/'. A paradox of the apostle : Ye were healed with a 
stripe. But fiwXa-J^, a weal, is common on the person of a slave : 
Sirach xxiii. 10. — ■jroifiha ■ I'r/V.oiro.', shepherd and bishop) whom 
you are bound to obey. Synonymous words. Comp. ch v. 2. 

1 It is in fact arms of this sort which are often used by those who are feeble : 
such as slaves especially were, who might therefore be readily disposed to 
threaten their masters with the Divine judgment.— V. g. 

2 The furca consisted of two pieces of wood in the shape of the letter V, 
which pressed upon the neck and back, while the hands were bound to the two 
ends. A slave thus punished was called /wrcz/er.—T. 


J PETER III. 1-4. 


1 ' TmraeedjLiim, subject) In the progress of the discourse, by a 
change of construction which is full of character, the participle is 
put for the imperative : ver. 7, 8. — xcJ u nvig, even if any) Peter 
speaks with mildness. — Xo'yw- Xoyou, the word : word) Used in a 
double sense by the figure ^Antanaclasis : in the former place, the 
Gospel is signified ; in the latter, discourse. The conve7'sation itself 
breathes the force of the docti'ine. — xipdriStjamrai) The future Sub- 
junctive, of rare occurrence. So xauSrigu/j^ai, 1 Cor. xiii. 3 ; J^jSx?)- 
6risriTai, Dan. iii. 11, vi. 7. It is a more remote future, as in Latin, 
lucraturus eris, you will he about to gain. 

2. 'Ev (pifiw, in fear) This is to be referred to ayvjjv, chaste ;. not to 
a'iaSTpo(f>riv, conversation. Fear is something general, commended by 
the apostle to all Christians, but especially commended to women, 
that their conversation be chaste. 

3. ''ill' eSToi, whose let it be) A graphic painting of the inward cha- 
racter by the outward gestures.^ Women themselves are thus to 
resolve : we claim for ourselves, we regard as our own, not outward 
ornament, but the inner man, etc. — ou;)/ 5 — x6s//,og, not — adorning) 
Although they use such adorning, as the occasion permits, yet 
they do not consider it as adorning. — l/j^^Xox^g- ■n-ipid'essag- hhhamg, of 
plaiting ; of luearing ; of putting on) The verbals imply the labour 
bestowed on dress, which consumes much time. 

4. 'axx' xfMTig, but the hidden) The inner is opposed to the 
outward : but instead of the inner it is called the hidden ; by which 
a just desire of concealing itself is included in the idea. — &vSf>amg, 
man) Eph. iii. 16, note.— i^, in) Understand Hv, which is. This 
hidden man is not the ornament itself, but is adorned by the orna- 
ment : the ornament itself is that which is incorruptible, etc., whence 
those women are so adorned whose hidden man rejoices in such a 
spirit.— ap^aprw, incorruptible) Eph. vi. 24, note. This is opposed to 
outward adorning, which is corrupted. Concerning gold, comp. ch. i. 
18. Meekness and quietness ought to be incorruptible. Moreover 
the corruption of this spirit is turbident obstinacy (contumacy) and 
fear.—vpaio; %al ijgux'ou, of a meek and quiet spirit) The meek is he 

' Antanaclasis. See Append. 
' See Append, on Ethopoeia.— E. 

1 PETER III. 5-7. 63 

who does not create disturbance ; the quiet, who bears with tran- 
quility the disturbances caused by others, whether superiors, inferiors, 
or equals : to the former the end of ver. 5 has reference ; to the latter, 
the end of ver. 6. Moreover the meek is shown by his affections ; 
the quiet, in words, countenance, and mode of acting.— ii, which) The 
incorruptible. — em-iriov rou eEou, in the sight of God) who looks to in- 
ward, and not outward things : whom the righteous strive to please. 

5. A/ dyiai yvmnag, the holy ivomen) most worthy of imitation. — 
al iXTl^otieai, loho hoped) Hope in God is true holiness. This epithet 
is a part of the subject. — uvroraffffo'/AEna/, heingin subjection) The adorn- 
ing of the matrons in the old time is explained by the words, being 
in subjection (of which subjection Sara is an example), doing well, and 
not fearing, etc. 

6. 'Vie., even as) The particle used in bringing forward an example. 
— v<!rfi-Musi, obeyed) Gen. xviii. 6. — -/.vpiov, lord) Gen. xviii. 12, Sep- 
tuagint, 6 Si xupiog /j^ou. Also 1 Sam. i. 8 : xal bIvsv avrr] 'HXKava o 
aviip aurrjc, " Avva- xa! iT'Tiv, idov iyih xvpii- xai ihev ai/r^, ri sSti 6oi on 
xXakig ; And Elhanah her husband said to her, Hannah I and she said. 
Here am I, my lord : and he said, why weepest thou ? — aMv, him) 
although he was born of the same father: Gen. xx. 12. — iyevijSriTe, ye 
have become) he says ; not ye are [as Engl. Vers.J He addresses those 
that believe even of the Gentiles. — rixva, daughters) Daughters ought 
to imitate their mother, as the sons Abraham. — ayahroiovsai, doing 
well) This also depends upon adorned [ver. 5; Engl. Vers, differently]. 
— xal fj^ri, and not) Comp. ver. 13, 16, 15. You need fear no man 
in doing what is right. — po/3oi/A£va/, fearing) Anger assails men, fear 
women. — i:ror[eiy, [fluttering] terror) coming upon them from without; 
ver. 14, note. Prov. iii. 25, Septuagint : Ka/ ou poj3ri6'/ia>i 'jrrunsit 
e'TTiXdovsar And thou shalt not be afraid of sudden terror. 

7. ' O,u,oloig, in like manner) The likeness does not refer to special 
duties, some of which belong to the wife, and others to the husband ; 
but to the foundation of love : thus, in like manner, ch. v. 5. — ymm, 
knowledge) The master shows gentleness, ch. ii. 18 ; the husband 
yvusiv. Tvueig, which has regard to the iceaker vessel, implies modera- 
tion, and produces yvw/ijji/ [^judgment, kindly judiciousness, friendly 
advicel ; respecting which word, see 1 Cor. vii. 25, note. Therefore 
it excludes all violence, by which the weaker are struck with terror 
[ver. 6], especially that caused by anger. Adam furnished a re- 
markable example of the dominion exercised by a husband tempered 
with moderation, who himself gave name to his wife, and gave her the 
power of naming her children. — ag, as) It is twice used here : in the 

64 1 PETEK III. 7. 

former place it refers to yvZim, moderation; in the other, to j-//a)5v, 
honour. The weakness of the vessel requires moderation; the inherit- 
ance enjoins honour (which implies more). — aehnaTspifi, to the weaker) 
The comparative : even the man has weakness. — cxivsi, vessel) This 
denotes the sex and entire disposition and temperament of woman. — 
rffi yumixiiu) Th yuvaimrov, absolutely: that is, women. — anv'sfi,o]iT£g 
TiiJ,rii, giving honour) This is said in accordance with the command, 
that women should be in subjection. Comp. ch. ii. 17. — rif/^nv, honour) 
viz. that of a just opinion respecting them, of kindness, and of a chaste 
conversation. Comp. in honour, 1 Thess. iv. 4. — a-jyAXripom/j^oi) Others 
read euy/Xrifoni/^oii •} but the apostle is prescribing to husbands their 
duties towards their wives of whatever character, even towards those 
who do not believe the word. Comp. ver. 1. See App. Crit. Ed. 
ii. on this passage. — e-jy-AXripovoiMoi, joint-heirs) Heirs together with 
other believers. The reason why the husband ought to show mode- 
ration towards the wife, is derived from the weakness of the wife ; the 
reason why the husband ought to give honour to the wife, is derived 
from the fact, that God also gives honour to the man, as to an heir. 
The hope of eternal glory makes men noble-minded and mild. There 
is a similar argument shortly afterwards in ver. 9, Bless, inasmuch 
as ye are called to inherit a blessing. The nominative case, joints 
heirs, elegantly corresponds with the word dwelling together with 
them. Husbands are said to be joint-heirs, not with their wives, but 
with all the faithful. Comp. gunzXixTri, elected together with you, ch. 
V. 13. — iyxo'Ttrigdai) Some few read i%%lj'K7i(sia,i? The Hebrew phrases 
in Schoettgenius agreewith both the Greek words: and indeed "ipj? with 
the word JxzoVreir^a;, where barrenness is treated of, through which 
children fail, who otherwise arise in succession to their parents throiJigh 
prayer: aajJandlsy with the word ly-AO'jTTisSai, where sins which area 
hindrance toprayersare treated of. This therefore is the betterreading. 
For the apostle wishes that the prayers of husbands should not even 
be hindered or interrupted. But they are interrupted by intemper- 
ance and wrath, 1 Cor. vii. 5 ; and there is no time in which the 
recollection of injuries occurs to one more, than when engaged in 

' Tiscli. and Elzev. Rec. Text read nyx.Mi>ou6fiois, with Vulg. and Syr. and 
inferior MSS. The reading of B is doubtful. But the weightiest authorities, 
AC later Syr. and Stephens' Rec. Text have avyx.7\ripov6/ioi : and so rightly 
Lachni. — B. 

" AB read eyxoTrnaSxi : so Lachm. ; and so Vulg. Memph. " impediantur." 
None of the oldest authorities, except both Syr. Versions, support ixx-oTr-naiai, 
which is the readins of Rec. Text and Tisch -E. 

1 PETER III. 8-10. 65 

prayer :^ and to those who do not forgive, our heavenly Father does 
not forgive, although they pray. — irftietvyac,, 'prayers) by which you 
gain that inheritance, and seek the salvation of your wives. Comp. 
note on 1 Tim. ii. 8. 

8. navT-Es, all) Before this, from ch. ii. 18, he has been describing 
particular duties. — o/Ao^povEs, unanimous) in mind. The three parts 
of ver. 8 and 9, by the figure Chiasmus,^ in inverted order answer to 
the psalm which is repeated in ver. 10 and 11, by three clauses 
(members).^ — gufi'jrahTg, having the same feelings with, sympathising) 
in prosperity and adversity. Eaphelius proves from Polybius the 
wide sense in which the word is used : Qdpgog l/A/SaXe/i/ xai eufLvahTg 
•^oirinai '■oOs '!tapax,aXov/iho\ig, to inspire confidence, and make those who 
are exhorted entertain the same feelings with himself. — ^iXdSiXfoi, 
having brotherly love) towards the saints. — iZeir'Kayyyoi, pitiful) to- 
wards the afflicted. 

9. Ka-Ah, evil) in deed. — 'koidoplav, railing) in words. — rouvavriov, on 
the contrary) This has reference to railing. For evil is the opposite 
to those things which occur in the preceding verse. — on, because) 
No railing can injure you. Comp. ver. 13. You ought to imitate 
God, who blesses you. — iis roDro, unto this) So, for this purpose, that, 
ch. iv. 6. — ihXoyiav, a blessing) for eternity, the first-fruits of which 
are enjoyed by the righteous even now. See next verse. 

10. 'O yap 6iXuv Zoiriv aya'xa.v xai JSiTv ri/j,£pag ayaSdg, he who wishes 
to love life and to see good days) If you wish, says Peter, to taste of 
that inheritance, you must abstain from evil in speaking and in 
practice. Ps. xxxiv. 12-16, Septuagint : Tig isriv avSpwaog crdiXm l^ctiriv, 
dyoi'Truv rjfiipag iden ayaSdg ; What man is there who wishes life, loving 
to see good days ? And thus the Hebrew has it in that passage, and 
the Syriac Version in this. Peter, without altering the sense, im- 
parts to it fresh vivacity : SiXuv ^urj]/ dya.'K^.i, who wishes so to live, 
that he may not be wearied of life. Opposed to this is l/jtilcrisa, rriv ^wiji/, 
Eccles. ii. 17 ; that is, / became weary of life. And so Gen. xxvii. 
46; Num. xi. 15. — liauedroi ttiv yXueaav airou, let him refrain his 
tongue) The Sejrtuagint has '^raveov rriv yXueedv eov, refrain thy tongue, 

1 It not seldom happens that, at the time when a quarrel has broken out 
among friends, neighbours, colleagues, and the learned, so as to take possession 
of the mind day and night, prayer ceases altogether. — V. g. 

2 See Append, on Chiasmus. 

' Therefore the expression to Se tiTios refers not to the conclusion of the 
whole Epistle, but to the exhortation to maintain a conversation such as is 
right, ver. 11. — V. g. 

VOL. V. E 

G6 1 PETER III. 12-15. 

and the remainder of the passage in the second person, as far as the 
words Slcu^ov a'oT^v, ensue it. 

12. "Or/ o) of,6aX/x,o!) because the eyes. The Septuagint has o^teX^o/- 
the remainder is in the same words, as far as ■/.a%a..—ivi dixakug, over 
the just) who hsivelrom that source Hfe and good da.js.—'?rp6soij-ov, 
the countenance) with anger : comp. 2 Sam. xxii. 28. Anger excites 
the whole countenance of a man ; love affects the eyes. 

13. Ka; Tii, and who ?) Andhas the force of drawing an inference, 
and of maintaining an assertion. — rig 6 xaxueav, who is he that will 
harm you?) that is, often a matter is much more easy than is supposed. 
Opposed to that which is good. Isa. 1. 9, 'iV'f^^L N^n ^D, Septuagint, 
Tig xaxuigsi fii ; who shall do me harm f — roD ayaSoii V'/^"!™'? followers 
of good) Follow good (m the neuter gender), says St John, 3d 
Epistle, ver. 11. And thus Peter also in this passage. Satan is 
called wovripbg, the evil one : whereas God is good. But this epithet 
is not accustomed to be put (by Antonomasia^) for a proper name. 

14. Haaxpith ye suffer) A milder word than -^axoueSai, to be af- 
flicted. — fLaytapioi, happy) ch. iv. 14. Not even does this deprive 
you of a happy life ; it rather increases it. A remarkable manner 
of treating the subject of the cross. — rh Ss po'^ov auroiv fj.^ (po^ij^rin, 
firiSs rapavSriTi' Kvpiov Ss rh Qihv ayidsare h raTg jcapSiaig v/XiUV, Be not 
afraid of their terror, neither be troubled; but sanctify the Lord 
God in your hearts) He teaches how adversities are to be borne, 
in order that happiness may not be diminished. Isa. viii. 12, 13, 
Septuagint, rin be <p6j3ov auroD (rou XaoD) ou /j,ri (po^riSTiTi, oi^s firi 
rapar^^plti, Tov Kvpios rSiv 8uvafi,scii\i aurhv ayidgaTS, %ai ahrlg 'idTal eon 
ipo^og. Ye shall not fear their fear, nor shall ye be afraid. Sanctify 
the Lord of Hosts Himself, and He shall be thy fear. Do not fear 
that fear, which the wicked both themselves entertain, and endea- 
vour to excite in you. ^otSiiaiai (p6j3ov is said, as yjnipnv %apav, to 
rejoice with joy. There is one only who is to be feared, even the 
Lord : who is sanctified with pure fear, and truly honoured as 
God, the feelings of the pious answering to the Divine omnipotence 
[Isa. viii. 13]. 

15. "Eroi/x,oi Se, but prepared) The Vfovd prepared gives the idea of 
boldness ; de has force. Not only ought the conversation to be good, 

' The reading ^ifKara], which was left an open question by the margin of 
both Editions, seems to be preferred by the Germ. Vers. — E. B. 

ABC Vulg. (" semulatores ") read fuTicjra/: so Lachm. But Rec. Text and 
Tisch., with very inferior authorities, fnfirrrai. — E. 

* See Append, on this figure. — E. 

I PETEK III. 16-18. 67 

on which point see ch. ii. 12, note, hut every one also ought to be 
prepared to make confession, — rffi aiTouvn, to him that asketh) Among 
the Gentiles some were openly wicked, ver. 16 ; others were in 
doubt. To these latter believers are ordered to give a kind answer. 
— iXvldog, of the hope) which they confess, who say that they are 
strangers in the world, and avoid its lusts, ch. ii. 11. Comp. Heb. 
xi. 13, and following verses. The hope of Christians has often 
excited others to inquiry. — /Asrii, with) Twells, P. I. p. 125, joins 
this with every man that asketh ; but it depends upon prepared to 
give an answer. There is need of meekness with regard to our- 
selves ; of fear, with respect to others ; of a good conscience towards 
God. — po'jSou, fear) In common language, respect. They who have 
a good conscience, when accused, are more easily provoked, and less 
easily preserve meekness and fear, than the guilty. Therefore they 
are here admonished, to unite with a good conscience, meekness and 
fear, and thus to gain a complete victory. Sleekness avails espe- 
cially, when we have to do with inferiors ; fear, when we have to 
do with superiors. 

16. "Bxonrig, having) This is added to the word prepared without 
a copula. — i'ffripidl^ovng ii/iSiv — avaarpof^v, who falsely accuse your — 
conversation) An abbreviated form of speech : that is, who falsely 
accuse you on account of your good conversation. 

17. KpeTrrov, better) happier, in innumerable ways. — i!, if) And 
this will is recognised from those things which befall us. — ri 6iXr}/La, 
the will) which is kind. — roS &iou, of God) For our inclination 
does not wish it. Comp. the words of Christ to Peter, John 
xxi. 18. 

18. "On, because) That is better, by means of which we are 
rendered more like to Christ, in death and in Hfe : for His passion 
brought the best issue (result) to Himself, and the best fruit to us. 
—Xpiirhg, Christ) The Holy One of the holy. These are neatly 
turned expressions : Christ for sins, the just for the unjust, —ava^, once 
only) never again to suifer hereafter. It is better for us also to suffer 
once with Christ, than for ever without Christ. — -jripl &i/,apriSiv, for 
sins) just as though He Himself had committed them. — sVa^s, suf- 
fered) and that too in such a way, that His enemies slew Him on ac- 
count of His confession. But His preaching was not thereby hin- 
dered; for He discharged that ofSce, both before the day of His death, 
and on the dayof His death, and immediately after Hisdeath. — b'maioc,. 
the Just) [Who has accomplished good for us in a most pre-eminent 
way, ver. 17. — V. g.] Why should we not suffer on account of 

68 1 PETER III. 18. 

justice ? ver. U.—im ri/^&s •rrpogaydyf,, that He might bring us) that 
He Himself, when He departed to the Father, might justify us, who 
had been alienated from God, and might bring us to heaven (ver. 
22) tocrether with Himself, by the same steps of humihation and 
exaltatfon which He Himself passed through. From this word as 
far as ch. iv. 6, Peter closely connects together the path or pro- 
gress of Christ and the faithful (by which path he himself also 
was following his Lord, according to His prediction, John xm. 36), 
intertwining therewith the unbehef and punishment of the many.— 
rffl 0,a, to God) who ^villed it. More is signified by the Dative 
than if he had used a Preposition [^f-Js Siiv'], unto God.—6ava.Tojhig, 
being slain by death) as though He now had no existence. Peter 
shows us how our nrpogayayn, access to God, was effected.— tfa/>x;, in 
the flesh) The flesh and the spirit do not properly denote the human 
and divine nature of Christ : comp. ch. iv. 6 ; but either of them, 
so far as it is the principle and fixed condition of life, and of the 
working which is in conformity with it, whether it be among 
mortals, of however righteous a character it may be ; or with God, 
even that which is in glory : Eom. i. 4, note. To the former state 
the soul in the body is more adapted ; to the latter, the soul either 
out of the body, or when united with the glorified and spiritual 
body : 1 Cor. xv. 44. — Z,wo'iroiri^ih, quickened) This process of quich- 
ening ought to be explained as antithetical to that of being put to 
death. As to the rest, Christ having life in Himself, and being 
Himself the life, neither ceased, nor a second time began, to live in 
spirit : but no sooner had He by the process of death been released 
from the infirmity which encompassed Him in the flesh, than im- 
mediately (as illustrious divines acknowledge) the energy of His 
imperishable life began to exert itself in new and most prompt 
modes of action. Wisely therefore does Hauber refer the burial 
of our Eedeemer in some way to His exaltation, in the Contempla- 
tions about the Burial of Jesus Christ, p. 8. Comp. the dissertation 
of Essenius, p. 10. This quickening, and in connection with it 
His going and preaching to the spirits, was of necessity quickly fol- 
lowed by the raising of His body from the dead, and His resurrection 
from the tomb, ver. 21. Christ liveth unto God, Eom. vi. 10. 
Comp. the phrase according to God, ch. iv. 6. The discourse of our 
Lord, John vi., which Peter had received in a becoming manner, 
ver. 68, had been fixed in the heart of Peter ; and with that por- 
tion, and especially ver. 51, 53, 62, 63, may be compared that 
which Peter writes, ch. i. 2, 19, iii. 18, 22, iv. 1. 

1 PETEK III. 18, 19. 69 

18, 19. Tlv(u/ji,arr rrveu/jiiacti, in spirit; to the spirits) These ex- 
pressions are adapted to each other. 

19. 'Ev w) in which spirit. Christ had to do with the Kving, in 
the flesh ; with spirits, in spirit. He Himself has efficacy with the 
Hving and the dead. There are wonders in that invisible world. 
In a subject full of mystery, we ought not to dismiss from it the 
proper signification of the language employed, because it has no 
parallel passages. For they, to whom each mystery has first been 
revealed, have most nobly believed the word of God even without 
parallel passages. For instance, our Saviour only once said, This is 
My body. The mystery respecting the change of those who shall be 
alive at the coming of the Lord, is only once written. — roT's — -Trnu- 
u^asi, to the spirits) Peter does not say that all the spirits were in that 
place of confinement, for many might have been in a more gloomy 
place ; but he means, that Christ preached to all who were in con- 
finement. — h (puXaxri, in guard) The guilty are punished in prison ; 
they are kept in guard, until they experience what the Judge is 
about to do. The expression about the state of those living under 
the Old Testament, Gal. iii. 23, bears some analogy to this. — twu- 
/ia«, to the spirits) of the dead. Comp. Heb. xii. 23. He does not 
call them souls, as in the next verse. — mpiukk, going) namely, ta 
those spirits. The same word is used in ver. 22. Those spiriti 
were not in the tomb of Jesus : He went to them. — kxripvS,sv, He 
preached) By this preaching, which followed close upon His being 
quickened, Christ showed Himself both alive, even then, and 
righteous. Peter would not say, ihriyyikiearo, He preached the Gos- 
pel, if even ever so much the preaching of grace only were here 
designed : for the hearers had fallen asleep before the times of the 
Gospel ; therefore he uses a word of wider meaning, He preached 
(or publisJied). Noah, a preacher ,oi righteousness, was despised, 
2 Pet. ii. 5 ; but Christ was a more powerful preacher, who, when 
quickened in spirit, vindicated His own righteousness, which was 
not believed by them of former times, and openly refuted their un- 
belief, 1 Tim. iii. 1 6. If he were speaking of preaching by Noah, 
the word sometime would either be altogether omitted, or be joined 
with the word preached. This preaching was a prelude to the 
general judgment ; comp. ch. iv. 5 ; and the term " preaching" itself 
is to be taken in its wider sense, that it may be understood to have 
been to some a preaching of the Gospel, as Hutter says, to their 
consolation, which is more peculiarly the office of Christ ; to others, 
and perhaps the greater part, a publishing of the law, for their 

70 1 PETER III. 20, 

terror. For if the judgment itself shall be a cause of joy to some, 
assuredly this preaching was not a subject of dread to all. The 
author of the Adumbrations, which are assigned to Clement of 
Alexandria and to Cassiodorus, says, They saw not Bi& form, hut 
heard the sound of His voice. Calvin, in his Institutes, 2d Book, 
ch. xvi. 9, says, For the context also leads to this conclusion, that the 
faithful, who had died before that time, were sharers of the same grace 
with us : because it enhances the power of His death from this cir- 
cumstance, that it penetrated even to the dead ; while the souls of the 
righteous obtained an immediate view of that visitation, which they had 
anxiously expected, on the contrary, it was more plainly revealed to 
the lost, that they are altogether excluded from salvation. And 
though Peter does not speak with such distinctness, it must not thus be 
understood as though he mixed together the righteous and the wicked 
without any difference, but he only wishes to teach, that a perception 
of the death of Christ was common to both. 

20. ' A'jndrjsaai, who had been unbelieving) who in their life had 
not believed the patriarchs, when they admonished them in the 
name of God. — •rori, sometime) This sometime (used in ver. 5 also 
with reference to a long time [ago]), and this long-suffering, of which 
he speaks immediately after, have reference to all ages of the Old 
Testament previously to the death of Christ. It is called forbear- 
ance, Rom. iii. 26. Long-suffering preceded the first coming of 
Christ, as here shown, and His second coming, 2 Pet. iii. 9, note. — 
on, when) The weak reading, on, is rightly refuted by Wolf. A 
certain edition, which has 6V/, is very corrupt, even in this very 
word. Some copies have on, according to Erasmus, even in his first 
edition ; but the Basileensis H. is the only one which is found, from 
which Erasmus rarely deviated, though he did in this instance, and 
with reason. — am^sdi^eTo^) Other copies have i^Trag ihsyiro; but very 
few have this reading, e being first corrupted into a, as is often the 
case ; nor does the simple verb Sey^te^ai agree with the passage. See 
App. Crit. on this place. ' Am^ibixiro, that is, God continued waiting, 
that men might believe. But there is greater force in the Greek 
double compound : He continued waiting on, until there was an end 
of His waiting, m the death of the men. — h, in) Understand oJov : 
that is, for instance [to wit], in the days of Noah. ITie most re- 
markable species is subjoined to the genus, for these reasons : 1) 
On no occasion did a greater number perish together than at the 

1 So ABC Vulg. Orig. 2,553(ian<] 4,135a. Rec. Text has £%»^ lisStx^ro, 
with no authority except Orig. 4,135a in a MS. 

1 PETER 111. 20, 71 

deluge. 2) By mention of water, Peter conveniently passes to the 
subject of baptism. 3) The destruction of the world by water is a 
prelude to its destruction by fire, 2 Pet. iii. 6, 7, in conjunction wit^ 
the last judgment, eh. iv. 5. Nor is it matter of surprise that the 
word sometime is used in a wider meaning than the days of Noah ; 
since also the days of Noah altogether were many more than the 
days of the building of the ark ; but these, however, are immediately 
added. Compare with this the definite marking of time, which 
gradually becomes more particular, in Mark xiv. 30 ; Luke iv. 25 ; 
Deut. xxxi. 10, O what ample (noble) preaching ! — TiaraeMmZfi- 
/jLivrii xi^uTov, while an [not the"] ark was in preparation) K;/3wrou 
without the article : Heb. xi. 7, The expression is adapted to the 
mind of the unbelieving spectators. This building occupied a long 
season, for it is not probable that many assisted Noah in his work. 
During the whole of that time especially the long-sufiering of God 
waited, — sis fjv, into which) Having entered into the ark by faith, 
they sought and found safety, — oX/'/o/, a few) It is the more probable 
that some out of so great a multitude repented, when the rain 
came ; and thougb they had not believed while God was waiting, 
and while the ark was building, afterwards, when the ark was com- 
pleted, and punishment assailed them, began to believe ; and to 
these, and to all like them, Christ afterwards presented Himself as 
a preacher of grace, Luther attributed less weight to this interpreta- 
tion in his homilies on 1st Peter, published in a.d, 1523 ; but shortly 
before his death he more decidedly embraced it. There is a well- 
known passage in his Comm, on Gen. vii. 1, and his Exposition of 
Hosea agrees with it, published in the year 1545, in which, ch. vi. 
2, he referred the two days (spoken of by the prophet) to the descent 
into hell ; and quoting this passage of Peter, he says ; Here Peter 
plainly says, not only that Christ appeared to the fathers and 
patriarchs who were dead, some of whom undoubtedly Christ, on His 
resurrection, raised with Himself to eternal life, but also preached to 
some who in the time of Noah did not believe, and waited for the 
patience of God, that is, who hoped that God would not deal so 
severely with all flesh, in order that they might recognise that their 
sins were foegiven through the sacrifice of Christ. In accordance 
with this are the comments of L. Osiander on this passage, of 
Hutter, in Expl. Concordise, p. 993 ; and also of Peter Martyr, 
T. I. LL. CC, col. 783. — oxrw, eight) Ham, who was about to 
incur the curse, being taken from this number, there were seven, a 
sacred number, — bl vbarog, through ivater) di&, through; an appro- 

73 1 PETER III. 21 

priate particle, denoting passage, without consideration either oi the 
peril which threatened from the waters in themselves, or or the 
safety afforded in their being borne above them in the ark. Thus 
the following verse accords with this. 

21. "o -/.al rifiag avTirwirov) The relative 0, ivhich, stands in the place 
of Uoip, water ; and has avrlrvTrov added to it as an epithet ; but the 
substantives, baptism and asking [" answer"'], are put in apposition to 
it. — ^y,^ now) at this time, which is in other respects an evil time. — 
(Tw^e;, saves) brings us forth from the destruction of the whole world, 
and of the Jewish people. There is a reference to were saved, ver. 
20. Peter shows that, as in former times there were some who 
perished through unbelief, and others who were saved through faith, 
so altogether in the New Testament there are some who are saved 
(as in this passage), others, on the contrary, who perish : ch. iv. 4-6 : 
that they both experience, although in different ways, the efficacy 
(power) of Christ : which very thing has special force to bring forth 
the godly from the wicked, and to confirm them in patience.— ou 
aapxog, not of the flesh) He declares why and how far baptism has so 
salutary an effect. There were baptisms also among the Jews ; but 
they were such only as purified the flesh, and to this their efficacy 
was limited : even now the flesh is washed in baptism, but the wash- 
ing of the flesh is not that in which baptism really consists, nor does 
it (baptism) save, so far as it is [i.e. in respect of its being] done by 
the hand: comp. Eph. ii. 11 : but so far as it is the ashing [" answer"] 
of a good conscience. The word eapxhg, of the flesh, is emphatically 
put first, and the putting away of impurity is ascribed to the flesh \i.e. 
" the flesh's putting away of impurity"] (accordingly it is not said, 
the putting away of the filth of the flesh [as Engl. Vers.]) ; and the con- 
science is opposed to the flesh. — omnbrjisiias ayaS^g s'Tiiptirrifjia.j'- the 
asking of a good conscience) Dan. iv. 14, xn^KtJ' (parallel to which is 
NDJna, a judicial decree, Heb. 131), in the Septuagint, smpurni/.a, in 
this one passage. But i'KB' and Em are oftened rendered by the same 
by the word s'Tripurda. The Greek Scholia have this : impdrrifia, 
Tour'fgTiv, appapuv, h'synipov, a-ftobn^ig, an earnest, a pledge, a proof. 
There is no doubt but that the apostle had reference to the Hebrew 

' hmpiiryifia. The word seems to denote tlie promises made in baptism. St 
Luke ii. 46, uses the word i-jr^parav for questioning, where he speaks of the 
child Jesus as being found in the temple, sitting in the midst of the doctors, 
both hearing them and asking them questions. The word appears to compre- 
hend, as referred to baptism, the mutual questions and answers which make up 
the process of teaching on one side, and the stipulation on the other. — T, See 
Quarterly Review, vol. 71, p. 332. 

1 PETER III. 22. 73 

TVa^. It is the part of tlie godly to ask, to consult, to address God 
with confidence ; but it is the part of the ungodly not to ask Him, 
or to ask idols : Judges xx. 18, 23, 27 ; 1 Sam. x. 22, xxiii. 2, 4 ; 
Isa. XXX. 2 ; Hosea iv. 12 ; in all which places the Septuagint has 
s'TTipuT^v. Therefore it is the asking of a good conscience which saves 
us ; that is, the asking, in which we address God with a good con 
science, our sins being forgiven and laid aside. Comp. ver. 16 ; Heb. 
X. 22. This asking is given in baptism ; and it is exercised in all 
acts of faith, of prayers, and of Christian life ; and God always re- 
gards it as worthy of an answer. Comp. Deut. xxvi. 17, 18, 
m»Nn nini ns, rbv eihv si'Xou, thou hast chosen God : Tl'lDKn nilT'i, -/.a! 
Kupiog elXsTo at, and the Lord hath chosen thee : Isa. xix. 21. — di' 
amardsiois, hy the resurrection) Constructed with saves. Comp. 
ch. i. 3, 21. 

22. "Oj lari)/ h Si^i^ Tou ©sou, ■/MTO.'Xiiai Th 6dvaTov, 'ha Z,o>rti ociuvloi, 
xXijpovo/ioi yivdifL'Ja) Such is the reading of the version which is by 
far the most ancient of all. Wlio is on the right hand of God, after 
having sivallowed up death, that we might be made the heirs of eternal 
life} This reading is followed by Augustine, Cassiodorus, Fulgen- 
tius, Beda, and, as Mill affirms, by all the Latin writers. See App. 
Crit. Ed. ii. on this passage. Peter derives special uses from the 
sufferings of Christ, from His death, from His return to life, from 
His resurrection, from His going into heaven, from His judging the 
quick and dead ; but firom His sitting at the right hand of God 
he either derives no use, or that which is still read in the Latin 
Version. By His death, Christ altogether destroyed death : but His 
sitting on the right hand of God presupposes that this death has been 
once for all exhausted, that He may claim life for us ; and it involves 
a STATE of LIFE which is glorious, eternal, and salutary for us. 
Acts ii. 28 ; Rom. vi. 9, 10 ; Heb. vii. 16, 24, 25 ; 1 Cor. xv. 54; 
John xiv. 19. The signification of past time in xarannuv ought 
especially to, be considered. — mpiuMi) after that He had gone. — 
ayyiXuv, angels) To Him angels are subject, and that too of all ranks, 
whether good or evil ; and so also are men. 

■■ " Qui est in dextera Dei, [deglutiens mortem, ut vitsB seternse hseredes 
cfficeremur."] Vulgate in Amiat. and other oldest MSS. Fuldensis MS., 
however, and others, omit the words in brackets ; and they are not supported by 
Greek MSS.— E. 

74 1 PETER IV. 1-4. 


1. XpiSTou, Christ) who is the Lord of glory. — eapxi, with the flesh) 
Shortly afterwards, h sapxt, in the flesh. — ''■o'wXkaah) arm yourselves, 
against enemies. — 6V;) because. This is that continual subject of re- 
flection. Altogether, comp. Rom. vi. 6-11. — <iri'7ta\jrai) has obtained 
a cessation, freedom. 

2. Eig rb, that he may live) for it is connected with the words. He 
leas obtained cessation. There is a connection between the word in 
the flesh, ver. 1, and in the flesh, ver. 2. Sin, ver. 1, shows itself in 
the desires [lusts], and suffering in the flesh reminds the man that ilie 
rest of his time in the flesh is at length about to have an end. — 
avSpu'jruf, of men) those of yourselves and others. — e':rdv/iiai;, lusts or 
desires) of various kinds : but the will of God is perfect. There is 
the same antithesis, 1 John ii. 17. — ^iZeai) to live. An appropriate 
word. It is not used of the brute creation. 

3. 'ApxsThc, sufliceth) A lowering of expression [Meiosis. See 
Append.] : for not even ought the past times to have been wasted in 
sins. At the same time a loathing of sin is expressed on the part of 
those who repent. — xanpyaeaeSai, to have wrought) namely, for yov? 
to have wrought. This is shortly afterwards explained. — ■7rnropiv,u,'muc, 
when ye walked) advanced madly. The antithesis to this word is 
•TTopeuklg, He went and, is gone and, ch. iii. 19, 22. — omfiXwyiaig, 
xii/Mig, icoroig, in excess of wine, revellings, and banquetings) Those 
before mentioned are practised by individuals, these by clubs. — 
uSifiiToig, in abominations) by which the most sacred law of God is 
violated : Rom.i. 23, 24. — ildaXoXarpelatg, idolatries) of various kinds. 
So, in the antithesis, the word manifold or various, ver. 10. 

4. "El. w, in which) while you determine that it is sufficient to have 
lived badly [in past time]. — gutrpi^Svruv, runnin'g together with them) 
in a troop, eagerly.— rjjv aurriv) the same as they do up to this day, 
and as you did formerly with them.— (i!/cij;;!jff;v, confusion) This is de- 
scribed in ver. 3. — PXas(pn/MuvTig, speaking evil of you) uttering 
against you reproaches, of pride, singularity, secret impiety, etc. 

1 T'^it aur'/ii> hi>oixi>, the same mine:) viz. of suffering with willingness.— V. g. 

2 Rec. Text reads i,/i7„ after dp^ero; yi.p, with C alone of the oldest authori- 
ties But AB Vulg. and both Syr. omit iiH-''"- So Beng. understands the 
"yoM."— E. 

1 PETER IV. 5, 6. 75 

5. ' Amduieovm Xoyov, shall give account) in particular of their evil 
speaking: Jude ver. 15. — rffl) to Christ. — irol//ja5 sxc"", w7io is 
ready) The apostles, when they do not professedly treat of the time 
of Christ's coming, set forth that coming as close at hand to their 
expectation and piety : hence it is that Peter comprehends those 
who then reviled under the living, as though shortly about to be 

6. Tap, for) The particle connects ready and is at hand, ver. 5, 
7. The Judge is ready ; for now that the Gospel is preached, nothing 
but the end remains. — xa! vsxpoTg, even to the dead) Peter calls those 
dead who lived through the whole period of the New Testament, 
from the time that the Gospel was preached by the apostles after the 
ascension of Christ, especially concerning Christ the Judge, Acts x. 
42, and those whom the Judge, who is at any moment about to come, 
will find dead, and will restore to life, ver. 5. The Gospel is preached 
also to the living ; but he mentions the dead, because the saying, that 
they might be judged, etc., is especially accomplished in death. And 
from this very thing it is plain that the preaching of the Gospel 
which is meant, is before that death, and not subsequent to it. 
When the body is put off in death, the condition of the soul is alto- 
gether fixed, either for evil or for good. The Gospel is preached to 
no one after death. Christ Himself preached to those who had for- 
merly lived, ch. iii. 20. In the New Testament there is preaching 
in abundance to those who are alive. The Lord sees respecting those 
to whom that preaching does not come in their life. — ihnyyikieSn) Be, 
that is, Christ, was declared in the Gospel. While they were alive. 
He caused Himself to be preached to them by the Gospel. The 
Gospel is always preached at the present day : but Peter speaks in 
past time, for \i.e. having respect to] the time of judgment [in rela- 
tion to which the preaching will have been past\ ; which, as we have 
said, he sees as it were close at hand. — ha, that) The end and eflS- 
cacy of the Gospel is, that men may be made like Christ in death 
and in life, ch. iii. 18. The way of salvation through Christ is both 
secured and made known to all : they who have believed are saved, 
and ought to be objects of imitation, not of reproach, to others ; they 
who have not believed, nay, have even used reproaches, are justly 
punished. — xpiSZer tfici, might he judged : might live) They who 
receive the Gospel become like the death of Christ through repent- 
ance ; and successively through (by means of) all adversities, even 
until the death of the body. That death is called a judgment, "with 
reference to the old man ; and to this judgment, distinguishing evil 

78 1 PETER IV. 7-9. 

things from good, the faithful themselves readily subscribe : nor will 
they be liable to the dreadful universal judgment : ver. 5, 17, 18 ; 
1 Cor. xi. 32. But the same also live with Christ : and they are 
said to live, not to he made alive ; because they have been made alive 
already together with Christ : ch. iii. 18, compared with Eph. ii. 5. 
Eespecting this judgment and life, comp. ver. 1, 2, 3 ; for the faith- 
ful, while they are engaged in the flesh, already receive the begin- 
nino- of these things. — %ara avSpdrous) as far as relates to men; for 
they are exempted from human affairs. — xara Qibv) as far as relates 
to God; for they live to God. — ■jniev/x-aTi, in spirit) See ch. iii. 18, 

7. ndvTm) of all things ; and therefore also of the arrogance of the 
wicked, and of the sufferings of the righteous. — riXog, the end) when 
the number of the dead and living shall be complete : [in the last 
judgment. — V. g.] — olv, therefore) He returns to exhortation ; and in 
ver. 7-11 duties are opposed to the sins enumerated in ver. 3. For 
luxuries are opposed to theheing sober andwatchful; desires ("lusts"), to 
love ; excesses in wine, revellings, banquetings,io hospitality ; abominable 
idolatries, to the lawful ministering of heavenly gifts to the glory of 
the true God. — aai vn'^/an, and watch) Temperance assists watchful- 
ness, and each of them assists prayers : they who are removed from 
temperance are sleepy ; and the sleepy are slothful as to prayer, 
even on this account, that they do not willingly take any time from 
their labour and the ordinary pursuits of life. — 'Trpoisuxas, prayers) 
which are necessary at the last time. 

8. Tiiv — ayd'ffriii, love) Love is already presupposed to exist : the 
injunction is, that it be more vehement. — 6V; dydict] ^aXiiTm 'xXfiSog 
a/jbapriZv, because love covers a multitude of sins) Prov. x. 12, Septua- 
gint, iravrag bi roig //.fj (piXonixouvrag xaXv-^si (piXla, friendship shall 
cover all that are not contentious. Comp. Prov. xvii. 9. He who 
greatly loves, covers the faults of him whom he loves, as many as 
they are : he turns away his own eyes from them, and, as far as is 
lawful, blinds others respecting them, and makes them the subject of 
prayer to God. And the Divine love attends such a love as this 
with aid and approbation, and rewards with a like return him also 
who loves : Matt. vi. 14. Love also is especially necessary on this 
account, because the Judge is at hand ; James v. 9. And they are 
blessed whom the end of all things finds without sins, except such as 
are covered. 

9. E/'c aXXriXovg, mutually) This relates to those who dwelt in dif- 
ferent cities or districts. — yo/yuir/iwv, murmurings) These are avoided 

1 PETER IV. 10-14. 77 

by preserving an equality of duties, or by not nicely weighing tlieir 

10. KcA^Uji, even as) Understand shortly afterwards, .so. — aM, that 
(gift) itself) without striving after another. — vomiXrig, [" manifold"] 
varied) distributing various gifts, with reference to the speech, or 
ministering. See next verse. 

11. 'ng Xoyia 0iou, as it were oracles) that is, let him speak the 
things which God supplies, at the present time. — w? Ig 'fX""') '^^ ""* 
of the strength) with activity. — Jv craai, in all things) for all men and 
all things are of Him, and through Him, and to Him. — i^, to whom) 
To God. There is a similar expression respecting Christ, 2 Pet. iii. 
18. — n ^()^a, the glory) for instance, of wisdom, which utters the 
oracles. — rh xpdns, the strength) which gives power to the righteous. 
The same doxology occurs, ch. v. 11. 

12. ' Aya<!rriToi, /^n ^inZi<s6i, beloved, do not think it strange) He ex 
horts them with love. A taste of the Divine power, which the pre- 
ceding verses relate, forbids us to he offended as hy a strange thing. 
For adversities to befall the saints is, in one point of view, something 
strange ; for they are sons of God : in another, it is not strange ; for 
it is adapted to them, for their purification [lit. seasoning'\. — •Tnipuesi, 
the burning) ch. i. 7. — •irfJs ntupacfjih') which is not except /o?* trial. — 
0/i7)i, to you) The dativus commodi. — ym/jbhri, when it takes place) by 
Divine counsel. — au/^jSalvovTOi, happening) accidentally. 

13. Ka^^, even as) Glory answers to the measure of sufferings, but 
much more abundantly. — -/.oivuviTts, ye are partakers) willingly. — 
ira,9rif/,asi, in the sufferings) ver. 1. — y^aipiTi, ha, rejoice, that) That, 
here, is more than if he had said on, because. By joy and desire we 
attain to joy and gladness. Comp. ha, that, John viii. 56. The re- 
ward of joyful patience is had regard to here. — ayaXXiuiJ^im, with 
exulting joy) then free from all suffering. 

14. E/' hsihiZieh sv hmiiari Xpisrou, if ye are reproached in the name 
of Christ) The Gentiles thought it a reproach if they called any 
one a Christian : ver. 16. — to rrig &6^ris !<-al rb rod ©sou Xlviij/^a, the 
Spirit of glory and of God) The same Spirit which was on Christ : 
Lukeiv. 18. He is here called the Spirit of glory, overcoming all 
the reproaches of the world, and the Spirit of God, whose Son is 
Jesus Christ. The abstract, glory, is put for the concrete ; as 2 Pet. 
i. 17, 3, 4. The article rf is with great force put twice, as Apocalypse 
xxi. 6. And glory may be taken so as to be iv dia hoTii, Glory and 
God, that is, the God of glory, or as an appellation of Christ (comp. 
ver. 16, as a Christian, and ver. 13; James ii. 1, note) ; and it mav 

78 1 PETER IV. 15, 16. 

be implied that the Spirit of Christ is also the Spirit of God the 
Father. The faithful, deeply feeling joy, experience the same Spirit 
sometimes as the Spirit of Glory and sometimes as the Spirit of God, 
in a different sense, the difference of which the Spirit itself reveals. 
— !(p' hiJMi ava'jraUra.i, rests upon you) That spirit is upon the 
righteous even before they suffer reproaches ; but then they are more 
confirmed on this very account, and receive more abundant conso- 
lations of the Spirit : Num. xi. 25, 26, Wanitabearo Jw' ahroui ri 
'TTKufjtya, the spirit rested upon them.. — ^Xaeipri//,iTTai, He is evil spoken 
of) namely, Christ. — So^d^iTai, He is glorified) in the midst of your 
reproaches, ver. 16. He writes from his own experience. Comp. 
Acts V. 41. 

15. Mil .yap, for not) The particle for gives the reason why the 
Lord is glorified in those who suffer. For it presupposes that they 
have it as a settled principle in themselves, to wish to suffer in no 
other way than as Christians ; and not to commit anything contrary 
to this, which is deserving of punishment. There is a similar im- 
perative, ch. iii. 3. — i)i (ponvs, as a murderer) Disgraceful titles. — n 
i)g aXXorpioiirlgaoTog, as one who pries into the business of others) The 
particle as, repeated here only, makes a wide separation between 
the man who pries into the business of others, and the classes of 
evil-doers (here mentioned) ; but still it also distinguishes him 
from the Christian. Such are they who thrust themselves into 
business, whether public or private, sacred or civil, with which 
they have no concern, as though they were impelled by great 
prudence and faithfulness, and hatred of the wickedness of the 
world. Men of this kind often incur ill will from the world, and 
more so than they deserve (especially from those in power, and 
who less readily endure just advisers and inspectors, than such 
as are like themselves) ; and thus they easily meet with suffer- 
ings.^ And this might especially happen in the case of heathen 

16. Mri aiaxwiaSo), let him not be ashamed) although the world is 
ashamed o? shame.— do^a^ino, let him glorify) Peter might have said, 
with the force of an antithesis, let him esteem- it an honour to himself: 
but he teaches that the honour is to be resigned to God. Let him 
glorify God, who regards man as worthy of the honour of sufferings, 
and who at the same time bestows upon him a great benefit, to- 
gether with an exemption from the punishments of the wicked, which 
are about to come upon them. There is a similar antithesis in Psalm 
Ixxix. 12, 13, Let our enemies be put to shame : let the Lord be 

1 PETEK IV. 17-19. 79 

ijlorijied. — Iv Tip fji^epii rourw,^ in this part) i.e. in respect of sufferings 
which are of a better kind. See next verse. 

17. 'O xaiphc, the time) that is, now is. — rod ap^ueSai rh xpl/j^a, that 
judgment should begin) It is one and the same judgment from the 
time of the preaching of the Gospel by the apostles until the last 
iudgment. "Ap^aaOai, a middle verb. — a'?rh nij o'kov rou Qiou, from the 
house of God) that is, the Church, ch. ii. 5. Judgment begins from 
this with a mild beginning : Jer. xxv. 29, xlix. 12 ; Ezek. ix. 6. — 
rl rJ teXos, what shall he the end) The judgment, which is more toler- 
able at the beginning, gradually beeomes more severe. The 
righteous, having gone through their part, behold with security the 
miseries of the wicked : the wicked, while they afflict the righteous, 
fiU up their own measure, and learn what their own portion will 
be ; but the righteous better know this, and therefore they are 

18. Ka/ II dlxaiog — <pan7Ta,i ; and if the righteous — appear ?) Prov. 
xi. 31, Septuagint, s/' o fj.h diKaio; fioXig (Tw^era;, o aai^rii xal aiMctprakis 
■ffoS (paviTrai ; Yery heavy chastisements are inflicted upon the 
righteous, when they at any time meanwhile offend : how much 
heavier punishments shall the wicked suffer ? The persecution of 
Nero preceded the calamity of the Jews by a few years. The 
righteous, the ungodly, and the sinner. A semi-double sentence.^ A 
man is righteous with reference to his neighbour, ungodly with re- 
ference to God, a sinner with reference to himself. We must there- 
fore supply, by the force of the opposites in the first proposition, 
eu(rs/3?]5, godly; and o<siog, holy: in the second proposition, «3;xo5, 
unjust. — ^^o'X/s) with difficulty [Comp. Matt. xxv. 5, 9]. This is 
softened, 2 Pet. i. 11, 'rXouelag, abundantly. 

19. Kal 01 itaeyawii, even those who suffer) Kal, even, with the force 
of a concession. Ka.!, even, with a participle, is the same as si xal, 
and if [even though] ; with a verb, ii xai '!raa-)(piri, and if [even though'^ 
ye suffer, ch. iii. 14. We ought not to conceive distrust from 
suffering. — xara rh 6eXri//,a rou Qsou, according to the will of God) on 
account of doing the will of God in a different manner from evil- 
doers, who suffer according to the will of God, inasmuch as God 

' The reading h r^ oi/o/iari roiriji, which Bad not been approved of by the 
larger Ed., is openly preferred by Ed. 2, and is confidently exhibited in the 
Germ. Vers. — E. B. 

'Ov6fi»Ti is the reading of AB Vulg. Mipu is read by Rec. Text on inferior 
authority. — E. 

2 See Append, on Semiduplex Okatio. — E. 

80 1 PETER V. 1-3. 

wills them to be pimislied : ver. 1 5. The will of God is in Christ.— 
nriera xrlitry,, to a faithful Creator) to Him to whom souls are safely 
committed^ who does not even at the first [at the earhest time that 
He might in each instance] send upon us sufferings for our injury. 
Let the supra-Lapsarians see how they recognise a Creator faithful 
towards all. — vapanSiciSuciav, let them commit)a,s a deposit,not alarmed, 
but rather gladdened by sufferings, since they receive them to their 
advantage. — -^vx^i, their souls) although the body appears to perish. 
— h ayah'iroiicf, in well-doing) This should be the one and only care 
of those who suffer, both to act well and to suffer well : He will take 
care of the rest. To be taken with le't them commit. Well-doing 
always has confidence united to it : ch. iii. 6 ; 1 John iii. 22. 


1. npea^urepoug, elders) A title of office, in ver. 2 ; and of age, in 
ver. 5. — eu/j,'!rpisl3uripog, a felloio-elder) Mutual exhortation has great 
weight among equals and colleagues. With propriety and modesty 
does the first of the apostles thus speak of himself. — xa! //.dpnig, and 
a witness) Peter had both witnessed the sufferings of the Lord Him- 
self, and he was now enduring sufferings. — &6^ns, of glory) ver. 4 ; 
2 Pet. i. 16. — -/.oiymhi, a partaker) Apocalypse i. 9. An incentive to 
good shepherds. 

2. XioifLamTi, feed) by disciphne and doctrine. — rJ h ufiTii) entrusted 
to you for your part. — /^ij avayxasrui, not hy constraint) Necessity is 
laid upon them, 1 Cor. ix. 16, but willingness prevents it from being 
felt. This is efficacious both in undertaking and in discharging 
the office. Those pastors are not undeserving of censure, who, if it 
were in their power, would prefer to be anything else.- — [aXX' — aXXa, 
hut — hut) The motive and scope ought to be free from fault. — V. g.] 
— Ij^nhi ai(!x,po>iepdug, nor for the sake of dishonourahle gain) The re- 
ceiving of pay is not forbidden, 1 Cor. ix. 14 ; but there ought to be 
the absence of all that is dishonourable, and the presence of a noble 
promptness. — vpoiu/, willingly) So that the enjoyment consists in 
feeding the flock, and not in the pay. 

3. 'ng xaraxvpieuovrig, as heing lords over) who only give orders . 
with a proud mind, and not with humility, and who oppress. In 
later times the presbyters took upon themselves to bear rule ; whence 

1 PETER V. 4-7. 81 

the title Signore, especially in Italy, from Senior. — tSd -/.Xripm, inherit- 
ances) In Ihe plural : of the flock, in the singular The flock is one, 
under one Chief Shepherd, Christ; but the portions (xXnpoi) are many, 
according to the number of places or overseers. But the style 
closely resembles a Mimesis •} for the congregation is not the peculiar 
property of the elder, but he who lords it, treats it as though it were 
his lot ov property. 'KXn?<'i signifies a lot; then a portion of the 
Church which falls to an elder as his pastoral charge ; then the 
pastor's office ; then the pastors ; then the other clergy. How great 
an alteration^ is there, and a falling off in the meaning at the last ! 
Comp. Note on Chrysostom de Sacerd., p. 504. — ruTro;, examples) 
The purest obedience is, obtained by example, [such as you will 
hardly see rendered by the most keen of pastors " for filthy lucre," 
or " lords." — Y. g.J Such frank intercourse subdues the itching 
desire for rule. 

4. OanpuSi-vTog, is manifested) It is the part of faith to serve the 
Lord, though yet xmseen.—apxi'^roi/jisvoi) the Chief Shepherd. 'Ap^,'- 
•3-o//i?)i''hasthe acute accent on the penultimate, as fiXo'irol/iriv, ^owoliJ^nv. 

5. 'O/jboiag, in like manner) The foundation of the exhortation which 
precedes and follows is humility. — AkXrjXoig, one to another) even 
without regard to age. — syxof^jBiiffaaii, put on) KofifSog, a knot, or band, 
by which the slaves were fastened, especially in the dress of slaves. 
Hesychius: ■AO/j.^uxsaaSai, eroXlsaeSai, to put on a dress ; and sy/.o//,^ojSiig, 
deSilg, bound; and syxExo^/Soira/, buXnrai, he is wrapped up in-.^ There- 
fore lyMfji^wSaah is, put on and wrap yourselves up in : so that the 
covering of humility cannot be stripped off from you by any force. 
— @shg, God) See James iv. 6, note. 

6. Kparaiav x^'P"'> the powerful hand) The hand of God establishes 
different ranks ; He depresses the proud, and exalts the humble. He 
who is subject to the ordinances of man for the Lord's sake, ch. ii. 
13, submits himself also to the Lord Himself. Comp. Kom. xiii. 2. 
— h xaipip, in due time) at the befitting time. Comp. oKlyov, ver. 10. 
Peter often looks to the day of judgment. 

7. Xiagav rrjv /jbspi/jbvav, all your anxiety) If the world depresses you, 
or if many things are wanting to you^ — imppi'^^avrig, casting) boldly. 
[Exemption from anxieties is pre-eminently accordant with humility. 
— Y. g.] Ps. Iv. 22, Septuagint, srippi-^o]/ liri Kupiev rriv /jbepif/^vdv eou, 
aai a'oTog ei 8ioi,6pi-^ii, Cast thine anxiety upon the Lord, and He shall 

1 See Append, on Mimesis. — B. 

2 See Append, on Metalefsis. — E. 

3 Thus Horace : — " Virtute me involvo." — T. 
VOL. V. 5" 

82 , 1 PETER V. 8-10. 

sustain thee. Casting, watch. There is a close agreement between 
these two duties, Luke xii. 22, 37 ; and Peter adds to each its own 
because. God provides : therefore do not be anxious. The devil 
seeks : therefore watch. — /j,iXi,, there is a care) Not so strong a word 
as fi,epif^]ia, anxiety. 

8. Njj'NJ/arE, watch) Let this be your care. Watch with the soul. — 
ypnyopvaaTi, loatch) with the body. — o avTiir/.oi — -/.aram-ft, the adversary 

may devour) He seeks the righteous at once by the appearance of 

justice and by violence : Apocalypse xii. 10. — upu6/ji,evog, roaring) with 
fury. — Z,riTaii, seeking) with treachery. — rUa, whom) especially of the 
faithful, Job i. 8. — xaram'/i, he may devour) First with reference to 
the soul, and then with reference to the body. But he especially 
lays snares by means of the sorrow arising from cares, which is in- 
jurious to faith. 

9. Tji 'ffiSTii, through or by the faith) Constructed with resist [not 
" stedfast in the faith," as Engl. Vers.] — ra aura run TraJrifidTm, the 
very same sufferings) Not merely like sufferings, but the very same. 
The same governs the Dative ddi'k(p6rrjTi, brotherhood. Thus Lucretius: 
eadem aliis sopitus quiete est. Chrysost. de. Sacerd., p. 202 : e/'j rnn 
aurfjv hilvoi; JxT(Vrf/i/ fiaviav, to fall into the same madness with them. 
The meaning of the apostle is : the same sufferings which happen to 
your brethren are also undergone by you. Comp. Matt. v. 12; 2 Cor. 
i. 6 ; Phil. i. 30. [Therefore it is not a bad sign in a person, if the 
devil harasses him with sufferings. — V. g.] — h -/.ogfiw) m i/ie whole 
of this world, which lies in the evil one, the devil : ver. 8. It is an- 
tithetical to tfie eternal glory of God, ver. 10. — v/iZv abik<p6rriri, to 
your brotherhood) of Jews and Gentiles. — sT/TiXiTeSai, are accom- 
plished) The measure of sufferings is gradually filled up. 

10. naffjis ;^ap/ro(;) of all and unmixed grace, which begins and 
completes, which calls and settles (founds). [It is an act of grace, 
when God sends even sufferings upon us. — ^V. g.J — fi^, in) Taken, 
with who hath called. — oXiyov, a little) However great it seems, it is 
little and short in comparison with eternal glory. — •jra^Sovras, when you 
have suffered) Some sufferings are to be endured, then perfection 
comes, etc.— aiiT-Js, He Himself) [without the aid of man]. Do you 
only watch, and resist the enemy : jGod will perform the rest. Comp. 
the /, Josh. xiii. 6, 1. — ■/.aTapr/an, will perfect) so that no defect re- 
main in you. The Doxology which follows agrees with the Indica- 
tive, rather than with the Optative, which some here read.^ Comp. 

1 icuTcccrlaii, arnpi^u, etc., in the Future, is the reading of AB and most Ver- 
liions, except that, whilst many MSS. of Vulg. read " coufirmahit," Amiat. MS. 

1 PETER V. 11-14. gs 

1 Tim. i. 17 ; 2 Tim. iv. 18. — erripl^si, will stablish) so that nothing 
may cause you to waver. — akvaen, will strengthen') so that you may 
■overcome all the violence of your adversaries. A saying worthy of 
Peter. He is strengthening his brethren. 

11. KpaTog, strength) The effect of which is expressed in ver. 10. 

12. 'SiXcuKvou, Silvanus) Silvanus, or Silas, a companion of Paul, 
appears to have been sent by Paul to Peter. On this opportunity, 
Peter expresses his approval of the doctrine and acts of Paul. 
Comp. 2 Pet. iii. 16. — ws Xoy/^o^a;, as I ihinh) That Silvanus was a 
faithful brother was not known to Peter by revelation, but he formed 
this opinion in the judgment of prudent charity, not having had 
heretofore much intercourse with him ; and therefore he entrusted 
him with the letter. — di' oXlyav eypa'^a, I have written shortly) that is, 
in this very letter. An abbreviated expression : I have written (I have 
written and sent) hy Silvanus. Comp. Acts xv. 23. — 'irapaxaXuv, 
exhorting) for the sake of brevity. Instruction (doctrine) requires 
more copious treatment than exhortation. — xal sm/aaprupm, and more- 
over [or additionally^ testifying) A compound word. They had long 
since heard the testimony by Paul and Silas : Peter gives additional 
testimony : 1 John ii. 27. — radrrjv sJmi aXri6^ X"/"") That this grace, 
now present, 2 Pet. i. 12, is that true grace formerly promised by 
the Prophets, and that no other is to be expected. — £;'? fjv haTtixari, in 
which ye stand) Kom. v. 2, note. The grace in which we stand must 
be true, and our standing in it true also. 

13. "Ek Baj3uXmi, in Babylon) This was Babylon of the Chaldeans, 
which abounded with Jews. See Lightfoot, Hor. on 1 Cor., p. 269. 
From the prospect (point of view) afforded by this Babylon there 
follows the series of countries:^ eh. i. 1, note. — euviaXtttrri, elect to- 
gether with) Thus he appears to speak of his wife ; comp. ch. iii. 7 ; 
for she was a sister, 1 Cor. ix. 5 ; and the mention of his son Mark 
agrees with this. 

14. ' Ayd'TTrig) o/ sacred love. — i'lfm, peace) tih^, that is, I pray for 
your salvation : farewell. 

reads " confirmavit :" the latter, however, has " perficiet." Rec Text reads the 
optative, xarapTiaa,!, arvipi%eii, etc — E. 

1 The particular order in which the five provinces are enumerated by Peter, 
proves that it was from this Babylon he looked at them. — E 




1. SuittEwi- n'sTfoi, Simon Peter) At the beginning of his former 
Epistle he had only placed his surname : here he adds his name 
also ; at the close of his life reminding himself of his former con- 
dition, before he had received his surname. The character of this 
Epistle agrees in a remarkable manner with the former Epistle of 
Peter, and with the speeches of the same apostle in the Acts. See 
note on ch. ii. 22, iii. 1. It contains three parts, as the former 

I. The Insceiption, i. 1, 2. 


1. He exhorts those who are partakers of the same faith 
that they increase in the divine gifts, and give all 
diligence to their growth in grace, and in the know- 
ledge of Jesus Christ, 3-11. 

2. He adds incitements : 

1. From the firmness of true teachers, 12-21. 

2. From the wickedness of false teachers, ii. 1-22 

3. He guards them against scoffers : 

1. He refutes their error, iii. 1—9. 

2. He describes the last day, with suitable exhorta- 
tions, 10-14. 

2 PETER I. 2, 3. 85 

III. The Conclusion ; in which 

1. He declares the agreement between himself and St 
Paul, 15, 16. 

2. He repeats the sum of the Epistle, 17, 18. 

— SoDXos jca/ airoaroXoi, a servant and apostle) a servant, as of the 
Lord Jesus ; an apostle of the same, as Christ. — hdnij^ov, equally 
precious') Faith has its preciousness, inasmuch as it lays hold of 
precious promises ; ver. 4. The faith of those who have seen Jesus 
Christ, as Peter and the rest of the apostles, and of those who 
believe without having seen Him, is equally precious, flowing from 
Jesus Christ : it lays hold of the same righteousness and salvation ; 
1 John i. 3 ; 1 Pet. i. 8. — iif/,Tv, with us) the apostles ; ver. 18. — 
Xa^ougi, who have received) They did not acquire it for themselves. 
— h Sizaios-jv-fi, through the righteousness) This is the ground of the 
expression, equally precious. It is this righteousness of God which 
is prior to faith ; for faith depends upon the righteousness. Respect- 
ing this righteousness of God, comp. Rom. i. 17, iii. 26, notes. 
The title of Savjour (Swr^^s) is appropriately added. 

2. 'En s'Triytuigii tou Kvpm rj/jbuv, through the knowledge of our Lord) 
This short and simple reading seems to have been the original 
reading both of the Latin translator, and a little previously of the 
apostle himself. Tor this Epistle presupposes the knowledge of God; 
ver. 3 ; but it particularly urges the knowledge of our Lord, namely, 
Jesus Christ; ver. 8, ii. 20, iii. 18, where the conclusion answers 
to this beginning.^ 

3. 'ri; 'Trdvra riiJyTv, as all things to us) There is a wonderful cheer- 
fulness in this exordium, beginning with the exhortation itself, 
add, etc., ver. 5. For this is the object of the Epistle ; ver. 13, 
iii. 1. All things, in this passage, and all, ver. 5, have reference 
to one another ; for as the Protasis is here, so is the Apodosis there. 
As has the effect of explaining, as 2 Cor. v. 20. Comp. altogether 
the parable of the ten virgins. Matt. xxv. The flame is that which 
is imparted to us by God and from God, without any labour on 
our part : but the oil is that which man ought to add by his own 
diligence and faithfulness, that the flame may be fed and increased. 
Thus the matter is set forth without a parable in this passage of 
Peter : in ver. 3 and 4, we have the flame ; but in ver. 5 and 6, 

1 BO read 'IwroD before tou Kvpiov }i/,iZii. A adds XpKrroti: so both Syr. 
Versions. Vulg. (Amiat. and other oldest MSS.) reads to? YLvplov vfiZu alone. 
— E. 

86 2 PETER I. 4. 

and those which follow, we have that which man himself ought 
to add [ht. to pour upon it], the presence of Divine grace being 
presupposed. — rrn k'lag dvvd/xiag avrou, the Divine power of Him) of 
Him, that is, God : for this is to be repeated from the word divine. 
From the power of God proceeds all power to life and godliness. — 
7-a '?rphe lunv %at ihai^uav) those things which pertain unto life from 
God, and earnestness towards God. Observe, it is plainly not by 
godliness that we obtain life. The Divine glory imparts life (comp. 
Eom. vi. 4, note) ; His power, godliness. To the one corruption is 
opposed, to the other lust; ver. 4. — deBupri/jiii'^c, has given) Thus 
bihoipnrai, He hath given : used twice in an active sense. Thus 
Gen. XXX. 20, Septuagint, diduprirai 6 ©so's fi,oi SZpov xaXov, God hath 
given me a goodly gift. — tou xaXegavTog, of Him that called us) To 
this refer the calling in ver. 10. The calling and knowledge are 
correlative terms. It is the knoivledge of God which is meant; 
and to this God calls us. — iS!(f S6^p xat apirfi, by His own glory and 
virtue^) This is an explanation of what His Divine power is : so 
that the natiu-al attributes of God have reference to His glory ; 
those attributes which are called moral, have reference to His 
virtue. The two are closely united. 

4. hi m, hy which) that is,- by His glory and virtue. His glory 
causes, that the promises are very great ; His virtue, that they are 
precious. — -niJiTv — yivrieh, to us — ye might become) He now gradually 
approaches to the exhortation. And the expression, equally precious, 
in ver. 1, supports the change from the first person to the second. 
— WayjiXfj^aTa dsSdprjrai, has given US promises) The promise itself 
is a gift; then also that which follows it, the thing promised. 
Peter, both when speaking in the Acts, and when writing in his 
Epistles, with great solemnity, eij^vug, is accustomed to put sub- 
stantives in the plural number. — ha ha rourm, that by these) that 
is, by the glory and virtue of Him. Communion itself with God 
was promised : wherefore Peter might have said because ; but he 
says that, with greater force. For the promise is given, that being 
allured by it, we may obtain the thing promised, which is great 
and precious. — hlag xoivaml puam;, partakers of the Divine nature) 
The Divine nature is God Himself. Thus we have Divine power, 
ver. 3 ; excellent glory, ver. 17 ; the holiness of God, Heb. xii. 10, 
for God Himself. See Macarius, Homil. 39. In like manner, 
the nature of man, etc., is used, James iii. 7. As escaping is op- 

' Connected with lilufinfibvis, not ivith x.a>.i<javTo;.—'S.. 

2 PETER 1. 5. 87 

posed to partakers, so corruption through lust is opposed to the 
Divine nature. Moreover glory and corruption, virtue and lust, 
are contraries. And thus the title, the Divine nature, includes 
glory and virtue ; and the same is called the Divine power, inasmuch 
as it is the origin of all that is good ; and the Divine nature, inas- 
much as it admits us to itself. But there is a gradation ; and these 
two things differ as a part and the whole, namely, to receive the 
gifts of the Divine power (buvaiLiui), and to be a partalser of 
the Divine nature, that is, to become holy ; comp. Eom. i. 20. 
— aiTo^uyivTii, escaping') hastily and swiftly. Csuyw, I flee ; a-iropsvyu, 
I flee from, escape. This flight is here put, not so much for our 
duty, as for a Divine benefit, accompanying communion with God ; 
comp. ch. ii. 18, 20. — rrn h ytoafiui h imSu/jila, fiSopag, the corruption 
which is in the world through lust) ch. ii. 20, 18, 19. The senti- 
ment is : In the world is corruption through lust. 

5. Kal, even) also. — avro roijro, this very thing^) The answer of 
the godly towards the Divine gifts is accurately expressed. Auro 
toZto is used as it were adverbially, for xar' auri tovto, " according 
to this very thing." — sitoiibn", diligence) Diligence comprises many 
things ; 2 Cor. vii. 11, note ; and in Peter the things which follow = 
whence give diligence, ver. 10, refers to this ; and so, to endeavour, 
ver. 15, iii. 14. — vafniei'/syA.aerig, introducing) 'Trafd, by the way, 
indicates modesty. God acts : we are diligent. — sm^opriyriuaTi, 
supply, exhibit, minister additionally) The corresponding word is, 
shall be supplied or ministered, ver. 11. Our diligence follows the 
gifts of God ; an entrance into the kingdom follows our diligence. — 
iv rfi vitsni, in the faith) This is called knowledge, ver. 3, by which 
grace and truth are recognised ; and God supplies this to us, just 
as He does life. Faith is the gift of God ; Eph. ii. 8 : therefore 
we are not commanded to minister additionally faith, but in faith 
those fruits which are mentioned, to the number of seven, faith 
leading the band,^ and love bringing up the rear. — {jij^m, your) 
Taken with faith; 1 Pet. i. 7, 9, 21. — rnv apirijv, virtue) by which 
you may imitate the virtue of God, ver. 3, and actively perform all 
things which the spiritual life undertakes. Every present step 

1 But the reading aOroi Ii toinu (but to this very thing, etc.), both in the 
margin of both Editions, and in the Germ. Version, is preferred to the other — 
E. B. 

AuToJ Ss is the reading of A and Vulg., "vos autem :" so Lachni. AiJto toSto 
Se in B (judging from the silence of collators) and later Syr. : so Tisch. — E. 

2 The Chorus; referring to the Choragus in a Greek choir ; 'nri-xoijnv^h. — E 

88 2 PETER I. G. 

produces and renders easy that which follows : the following tempers 
and perfects the preceding. But this is the order of nature, rather 
than of time. ' K^srn, virtue, [not in the common use of the term, 
but] a strenuous tone of mind and vigour ; 1 Pet. i. 13. This is 
the result of faith; 2 Cor. iv. 13, 16, ait the beginning. Next in 
order is [the fruit of virtue] yvZei;, knowledge or moderation ; comp. 
Kom. XV. 14, note. Virtue makes us active, watchful, circumspect, 
separate [or discreet], so as to consider what is to be done or 
avoided, for the sake of God, ourselves, and others ; and in what 
manner this is to be done, and where and when, etc. ; 1 Cor. xvi. 
18, at the end. Next in order is sy/.pdTna, abstinence. This is 
the result of y^ianii, since it is this which distinguishes evil from 
good, and teaches us to flee from evil. Next in order is vwoiLovr\, 
patience. Incontinence weakens the mind ; continence banishes 
weakness, and adds strength. Next in order is shei^na, godliness : 
it sanctifies the natural affections towards parents and others, yea, 
even towards the Creator. Patience (v'?ro,u,ovri) removes all the 
hindrances to godliness. Next in order is fnXaSeXpia, brotherly 
affection. He who has his natural affections sanctified, advances 
to eropyriv, a natural affection, that is purely spiritual. 'Ayaor?], love 
to all, completes this company (chorus) of graces; Col. iii. 14, 
throughout. He who is rightly disposed towards his brethren, 
extends his love to those who are less nearly connected with him, 
and -even to enemies. Hence it is evident how each present step 
produces and renders easy that which follows. Moreover, in what 
way each step which follows, tempers and perfects that which goes 
before, will readily appear, if this scheme be duly considered in a 
retrograde order. He who has love, will exercise brotherly affection 
without partiality. He who has brotherly affection, will perceive 
that godliness is altogether necessary. Euffs/Siis, the godly, will mix 
nothing stoical with r5i i^ofji^ovfi, his patience. To the patient man 
abstinence is easy. 'F.yxparri;, the continent man, with calmness of 
mind thoroughly weighs all things, and has yvZam. Tvasi;, know- 
ledge, is on its guard, lest sudden impulse should carry away apirriv, 
its virtue. The opposites are connected in a similar manner in the 
case of the wicked : unbelief produces vice, etc. — yvumv, moderation) 
1 Pet. iii. 7, note. 

6. 'EyxpdTnav, abstinence) which avoids evil desires. Abstain. — 
l-Kofiovnv, patience) by which adversities and adversaries are endured. 
Sustain [have endurance]. — ihgifiuav, godliness) By which the 
faithful look to God above all things. Euff£/3£/a may be affection 

2 PETER I. T-10. 89 

towards relatives, parents, brothers, etc. ; but it is a sanctified af- 
fection. Comp. 1 Tim. v. 4. 

7. <^iXa8sXpia\i, Irotherly affection) towards the saints who are 
united with you in God. — rnv ajamr^v^ love) From hrotherly aff'ection 
is deduced love : 1 Pet. i. 22. 

8. Taura, these things) Virtue, moderation, etc. A condition is 
involved : If you have these things, then indeed you have true 
knowledge. Comp. ver. 9, for. — vf^n v'Trap^ovra, if they are in you) 
in truth. The same phrase occurs, Acts iii. 6. The expression, 
not barren, refers to this. — aoi,} 'n-Xiovdl^ovra, and abound) copiously. 
Abundance quickly follows truth. The expression, nor unfruitful, 
refers to this : that is, you shall have the fruit, which the knowledge 
of Jesus Christ prodtices, in excellence and abundance : ch. i. 3. — 
xaSlarriffiv, they render or establish) at present. — tig, in) Comp. il;, 
in, in respect to, Rom. iv. 20. — iirlymsiv, the acknowledging) the 
recognition, united with the cleansing from sins. 

9. Tap, for) in its proper sense. — rupXo's ksri, x.r.'K., he is blind, 
etc.) The steps of his relapses are depicted by a choice retrogression 
or inversion of style. Such a man, 1) forgets that he was cleansed 
from his sins, which are past; 2) he is dim-sighted as to present 
privileges, ver. 12 ; 3) he is altogether blind as to those that are 
future, ver. 11. The inversion of the style consists in this, that 
the reference to past^ time in the text is put in the last place, 
whereas according to the nature of the subject it should be said, 
past, present, future. — //,[ia'!rat,!)iv, dim-sighted) Hesychius, /j.uco'Traf^ciii, 
da>SaX/ji,iZ\i, affected with ophthalmia. — X^Sriv XajSuii) having obtained 
forgetfulness. A most appropriate phrase, the participle having 
obtained expressing that which the man willingly undergoes ; comp. 
note on Rom. v. 19. He who reflects how many are the old sins 
from which he has been cleansed, the more easily abstains. 

10. MaXkov, the more) They who have diligence ought to have 
more. — ahXfol, brethren) Peter never employs this address in the 
former Epistle, he uses it once only in the latter : from which the 
weightiness of this passage is plainly seen. — ^i^alav, firm) This 
confirmation takes place by means of virtue, moderation, abstinence, 
etc. ; and therefore there follows immediately, for if ye do these 
things. Comp. Heb. vi. 10. — jSilSalav uf^uv Triv KXrimv xai ixKoyrn, 
your calling and election firm) that is, yourselves firm in your call- 
ing and election. For the confirmation belongs to those to whom 
the falling would otherwise belong. The calling Is put before the 
election, as far as relates to us. 

so 2 PETER 1. 1], 12 

11. UXovelus) abundantly; so that at any time, without stumbling, 
you may be able to enter, not as having escaped from a shipwreck, 
or from fire, but as it were in triumph; and that things past, 
things present, and things to come may profit you. Here Peter 
does not now say, scarcely, as in his first Epistle, iv. 8. This ex- 
pression answers to abound, in ver. 8. 

12. A/6, wherefore) He speaks from an anticipation of his own 
immediate departure and entrance into the kingdom ; ver. 15, 11. — 
iLiWhsa iiiMag aii u'!rofi,i//,vrisxsi\i^) The force of this reading will scarcely 
be understood by those who are not adequately experienced in 
the usages of the Greek language, or at any rate by those who 
have not a nice perception of the beauties of the verb jj^iKku. The 
more recent Greeks themselves have written oiJx ai^'krieu, I will not 
be negligent, iiom. iJ.iKkristii- MiXknv, in German, soUen, to owe. Thus 
Gregory of Neocsesareia, apeTug lyii^ '^^ A'^XXw, I do not yet possess 
virtues. — Panegyric on Origen, pp. 86, 203, ed. Stutgard. And 
it is commonly said, he ought to come; that is, he is not yet come. 
And thus Peter says, / will regard you as always (needing) to be 
admonished : I will never think how much I have admonished 
you ; I will think this only, that you ought to be admonished by 
me. The present, /jA>.\o>, conveys the notion of a future action ; 
wherefore f/^iXXfjgu is an accumulated future ; T shall be about to 
admonish. Hesychius, iJ.iWnaoi, avovSaga, I will earnestly endeavour. 
And this very synonym, eiro-jhaaoi, follows shortly after in ver. 15, 
where the earnestness {em\jbri) of the apostle is also to be observed ex- 
tending itself by letters even beyond (after) his decease ; and thence 
the appropriate use of the word jj^vfjixiii (memory), vi-ith reference 
to his death. Ammonius, Mxijitu] luv yivirai vBxpov- /Mvi/a d'e ^wvroj. 
/Mri/j,r} is said with reference to the dead, and /ji^nia, with reference to 
the living. See Eccles. i. 11, etc., Septuagint. — asi, always) He 
gives the reason why he writes a second epistle so shortly after the 
first. Peter regards it as a fixed principle, that there is more and 
more need of admonition on account of the increasing corruption 
of Avickedmen : ch. ii. 2. — ilhorag, knowing) the truth. — sarnpiyfLsvovc, 
established) Closely connected with this is the word dnyslpeis, to stir 
up, ver. 13. He wishes them to be both firm and as much on the 
alert as possible. — vapoU-fi, present) Truth is present, as in the New 
Testament : 1 Pet. v. 12, note, 

1 MAX-im is read by ABO Vulg. Memph. Theb. But Ree. Text, without 
any of the oldest authorities, has oux d/^iAtiao. — E. 

2 PETER I. 13-17. 91 

13. Ae, but) A particle af explaining or declaring. — (rsstjvw/xar/, 
iabemacle) There is a reference to the immortality of the soul, and 
its brief abode in the mortal body, together with the easy departure 
of believers. 

14. Ta-x^ivfj idriv) is sudden. The present. They who are for a 
long time sick, are able as yet to feed others. The cross was not 
about to permit that to Peter. Therefore he first does that which 
he has to do. — a-jr6$eoig, the laying aside) A violent process, but 
still wished for. Thus departure, ver. 15. — IbriXaise, hath disclosed 
or showed) He had long ago showed this ; John xxi. 18, 19, IVhen 
thou shalt be old. The " old age" of Peter was now close at hand. 
It is possible that some other indication had afterwards been given 

15. 'S,'7to\jia,g(a, I loill endeavour) On this depends l/j^ag 'iyjiv, that 
you may have ["be able"]. Thus also the Latins construct the 
verb studeo. — iJcdgTon, at every time) as often as there shall be occa- 
sion. — 'sx^") -^^ elegant phrase, 'i^oj Tcontaliai. But they were about 
to have it [in their power], since this very Epistle of Peter was 
left to them. 

16. Tap, for) He shows that the subject was one, respecting which 
it was befitting that he should write, though even on the point of 
death ; alleging the testimony of apostles, and the discourse of 
prophets. — aiaope/iBvo/g) <!r\aeroTg, ch. ii. 3, cunningly devised. — //,vSoig) 
fables, such as the heathen had respecting their gods. — l^axoXouCti- 
aavTi;) The If denotes error ; ch. ii. 2, 15. There is no such error in 
this matter. — duvafim xal irapoveiav, the power and presence) Hendiadys : 
that is, most present majesty. Aiva/i/s, power, is opposed to fables. 
Comp. 1 Cor. iv. 20, where loord and power are opposed to each 
other. The Transfiguration on the Mount is a pattern of the 
revelation of glory at the last day ; and the whole testimony of 
the apostles looks to this revelation : Acts x. 42. — EToVra;, eye- 
witnesses) Admitted to His innermost secrets ; for instance, on 
the Mount. — ixihou, of Him) 'Exihog, Me, denotes something distant, 
and wonderful, and great.— /ji^eyaXewrtiTog, majesty) As the name of 
the Father and the Son are correlative terms, so are magnificent glory 
and majesty. Magnificent glory in the text is ascribed to the Father ; 
majesty (magnitudo) or fLiyaknarng (for the Greek word differs 
somewhat from the Latin), to the Son. 

1 7. AajSuv, having received) The participle is put for the indicative. 
He received, by the testimony of His Father. — Ti/jiYi" xal ^o'^ai/, 
honour and glory) divine. The word glory is immediately after 

92 2 PETER I. 18, 19. 

repeated.— (Boij^s hsxSusis, when a voice was home) This is emphati- 
cally repeated in the next verse.— airs) to Him alone.— r;i5 /isyaXo- 
9r/>£ffoSe 3of /IS, tJie magnificent Glory) So God Himself is termed. 

18. •H.asTs, we) John also was still alive.— Jg ovpuvou, from heaven) 
from God.— Tp ayltfi, the holy) The mountain was holy from that 
very circumstance ; at any rate, at that very time. 

19. "Exo/J-iv ^i^awTipov, ice have a more firm) He does not say, 
more clear, but more firm. Wherefore it is here unnecessary to 
inquire [or discuss] concerning the difference in the clearness of 
prophecy before and after its fulfilment. But, undoubtedly, the 
word of prophecy becomes more firm from its fulfilment : Rom. 
XV. 8. For the same reason the word spoken by prophets is not 
more firm than that spoken by apostles, either in itself or in rela- 
tion to those to whom Peter writes : ver. 12, 16.^ Even the word 
of prophecy was always firm of itself; but it became mere firm, 
I will not say in the minds of the apostles, but at all events in the 
minds of their hearers (in whose name he says, we, not ye have). 
to whom the apostles were demonstrating the complete fulfilment 
which had already taken place in Jesus Christ, and were, more- 
over, drawing inferences from this as to its future fulfilment. The 
day when it dawns upon, you, confirms the fact that you saw cor- 
rectly, however indistinctly, the objects which you had already 
seen more faintly by the light of a lamp. See note on ver. 20, 
does not become. — rJi/ vpoprinnhv Xoyov, the word of prophecy) The 
words of Moses, of Isaiah, and of all the prophets, make up one 
word, in every way consistent with itself. For Peter does not now 
bring forward individual sayings, but he embraces their whole 
testimony, as now laid open. Comp. Acts x. 43. Moses, too,- 
had been with them on the mount.^ — xaXug, well) Peter does not 
upbraid them for their dulness, in still attaching greater credit to 
the prophets than to himself and the rest of the apostles. Every 
one ought to praise that which is the support of his own faith, on 
which he especially rests. He calls them, however, to further 
objects. — 'ffpoaixovreg dig, taking heed as) The light of the day does 
not take away the beholding and looking upon the lamp, but yet 
it overpowers it. By the greater light, the lesser one is both ac- 

' Nor is even the word of the prophets preferred either to the seeing or to the 
hearing of the apostles. The " day," in fact, is what prevails in the New Testa- 
ment : and a choice team of the day itself was the seeing and hearing on the 
holy mountain : so far is it from being the case, that the palm must be given to 
the " lamp." — ^V. g. 

2 PETER I. 20. 93 

knowledged to be lesser, and is strengthened : by the lesser light, 
the excellence of the greater one is shown. [Grateful remembrance 
of it is inculcated ; comp. ch. iii. 2.- — V. g.] — ^^X'V: <^ lamp) which 
is used in the night. [But the lamp of prophecy even still benefits 
those now walking in the day. — ^V. g.l — <pahovri) which was shining, 
[but Engl. Vers., present, "that shineth."! It is imperfect (as 
ovTic, when we ivere, ver. 18) ; for there follows, until tJie day should 
dawn, etc., with the same force of time, not in the present, Siauydt^ri, 
avariXXji, (may) dawn, rise. — au^ripfi, dark) where there is neither 
water nor light. — roVw, place) Such a place is our heart. — 'iag o5, 
until) The use of Scripture is not altogether taken away in the case 
of the enlightened, especially in convincing others, as we learn from 
the example of Peter himself. Comp. until,^ Matt. i. 25. And yet 
the enlightened now possess that very thing of which the prophets 
testify. Wherefore John, for instance, in his first Epistle, while 
he writes to such persons, and so often reminds us that he writes, 
never appeals to the prophetic, It is written ; he only adduces the 
testimony of the apostles : for the darkness was past, and the true 
light was now shining ; 1 John ii. 8. And so you may find that 
the phrase. It is written, is of much more frequent occurrence in 
the older books of the New Testament, than in those which were 
written afterwards. — v/J'spa, the day) The full light of the New 
Testament. See how the light of a lamp differs from that of the 
day ! just so does the hght of the Old Testament differ from that 
of the New. See the first Epistle of John ii. 8. — diavydarj, should 
dawn) Having burst through the darkness. — fuapopog, the morning 
star) Jesus Christ : Apocal. xxii. 16. 

20. TouTo, this) The reason of the phrase, ye do well, inasmuch 
as ye knoiu this. — ■apiuTov) before I speak : German, vorhin, before. 
Thus ch. iii. 3. In these Epistles, Peter does not teach, but reminds. 
— rrpixpriTiia 'ypa<pr\';) prophecy, which is contained in the body of 
Scripture. — liiac liriXvasug ou y/virai, does not become of private in- 
terpretation) sTiXueig fi-om h'^riXdoi, to explain ; Mark iv. 34 ; Acts 
xix. 39. 103 some Greek versions render iir'sXvsi, Gen. xh. 12. 
As the sight of the apostles is opposed to cunningly devised fables, 
so (popa, the motion or inspiration of the prophets, is opposed to pnvate 
interpretation. Therefore that is called kiri'kuaK, oi: interpretation, by 
■which the prophets themselves opened to mortals things which were 

^ Including the time fixed on as the limit. So here until does not exclude the 
time being, when the day was shining. — E. 

94 2 PETER 1, 21 .-II. 1. 

before altogether shut up. Prophecy is not at first of man, nor does 
it ever so far depart from itself as to begin to be the word of 
private, that is, of human interpretation (emXurtMs), but it is alto- 
o-ether of Divine unfolding or revelation, and is known to be so in 
its results and issue ; and it even becomes more firm. So for, ver. 
21, ao-rees with this. — ou yhtrai, does not become) That which has 
once been truly spoken by the prophets, remains truth even to the 
present day. A lamp is not the day ; but still it prevails over the 

21. 0EX)j/iar;, by the will) the desire: Jer. xxiii. 26, SejDtuagint. 
Man often feigns by fables, or conceals by error, that which he 
wishes. Comp. willingly, ch. iii. 5. — avUpumv) of man, alone. There 
is an antithesis between this and holy men of God, the definition 
of the prophets.— lii/E;^^)), was borne) Thus ver. 17 and 18. Pleb. 
NtyD from NE>3, to bear. — itori) ever, at a remote or nearer time : 
hence prophecy, without the article, is used indefinitely. — aXX' M, 
but by) Comp. John xi. 51. — <pep6fj,ivoi, carried) This has reference 
to mx^^} ''^^^ borne. A most beautiful antithesis : they did not 
bear, but were borne : they were passive, not active instruments. 
That which is borne, is borne by no force of its own ; it does not 
move and advance anything forward by its own labour. Comp. 
respecting the prophets, Ps. xlv. 2 ; Jer. xxxvi. 18. Shortly after- 
wards, the word spaJce denotes also the readiness with which they 
uttered prophecies. — iXaKrtaav, spake) This has also reference to the 
pen of the written word. They spake : the past tense shows that 
Peter is speaking particularly of the prophets of the Old Testament. 
Comp. ch. ii. 1, note, and ch. iii. 2. — kj'/o/, holy) Because they had 
ilie Holy Spirit. 


1. 'E/Evovro ds xal -^ludoTpo^TiTai, But there were also false prophets) 
An antithesis to the true prophets of the Old Testament, concern- 
ing whom see ch. i. 19. Kal, also. — Xaip, among the people) of 
Israel. He is writing to Israelites. An example of a false prophet 
is given, ver. 15. — 'imrai) there shall he ; and even at that time 
there had begun to be. A prophecy, already given, is now repeated, 
ch. iii. 2 ; Jude 4, 14.— ^EuSoS/SawaXo;, false teachers) Antithetical 

2 PETER II. 2, 3. 93 

to the true teachers of the New Testament. — vapeigd^ouaiv, shall 
privily bring in) 'Ttapci, beside the salutary doctrine respecting Christ. 
— a'lpsgiis a.'jrai'Kilai) heresies, not only bad, but of the worst character, 
ruinous or abandoned. — xui) even. The epithet swift, added to the 
word perdition, which is repeated, is suitable. — rh ayopd(!a.\iToi, aurous, 
Hiui loho bought them) To the confession of whom they ought to 
have been devoted, even to death : ch. i. 16. — iiC'xoTrii) whom the 
true doctrine testifies to be Lord. — apvou/nm, denying) in doctrine 
and works : Jude 4. They deny that He truly came in the flesh, and 
thus they take away altogether the mystery of redemption : 1 John 
iv. 2, 3. — i'irdyovTig, bringing on) Man brings upon himself: God 
brings upon him, as an avenger : ver. 5. — Tax,mv, swift) On account 
of the speedy coming of the Lord. 

2. 'noX\oi,many) How sad! — awXyf/a/s) Others read d'iruXilaig;^ 
but dsikyuai is read in Peter and other places in the plural, whereas 
d--ixi\iia,i is not : and wantonness is that bait which draws many to 
follow them ; Jude 4. That following is succeeded at length by 
destruction : whereas wantonness, not perdition, so meets the gaze 
[at once], that men are led to speak evil of the way of truth : and this 
also is the crime, by which the punishment mentioned in ver. 6 
is incurred. In such a variation of readings it is easy to bring 
forward arguments for either of the two : but it is unnecessary to 
do so, since the decision ought to be made on the authority of 
manuscripts. See App. Crit., edit, ii., on this passage. — di' oS?, on 
account of whom) It refers to of them. — n idbg, the way) ver. 15, 21. 
Gen. xxiv. 48, HDX 111, iv oSSi dXrihiag (Septuagint), in the way of 
truth. — ^Xa,(s^ti,u,ri(lr!(!iTai, shall be evil spoken of) by those who are 
without, and know not how to distinguish between true and false 

3. nXsovE^/a, covetousness, avarice) ver. 14. — wXaaToTg, feigned) as 
dealers do. — v/^&g ef/^mpiurnvTo,!) The writers of the Septuagint put 
s,u.'!ropt{)i(!Sa,i -with an accusative for the Hebrew "ino. Gen. xxxiv. 21 ; 
Prov. iii. 14 ; Ezek. xxvii. 21, ed. Vat. The meaning is, they shall 
make merchandise of you : they shall deceive ; take money. Pliny 
says, respecting certain physicians. Nor is it doubtful, that all these, 
hunting after reputation by some noveltyj immediately make merchan- 
dise of our lives. — Plin., book xxix., chapter 1. — oJg, to whom) It 
tends to the consolation and protection of the righteous, that the 

• ABC Viilg. read daiT^yslai;. Rec. Text has xTraXtloiis, without any verv 
old authority. — E. 

«8 2 PETER II, 4. 

punishment of the ungodly is fully described before the mention of 
their wicked deeds. — 'i-A.ira'Kai) as it were from of old, from the fall 
of the angels. — ohx apyif) is not inactive ; that is, is altogether vigor- 
ous. It is one and the same judgment which hangs over all sin- 
ners, and which is revolved in the mind of the Judge without 
intermission, until it breaks forth ; and in the case of those who are 
mentioned in Scripture as being punished, it is shown what awaits 
others ; although sinners think that it lingers, and they themselves 
slumber. — airiLXna ahruv, their destruction) the destruction, to M'hich 
they will be adjudged. Thus also judgment and destruction are 
mentioned in connection, ch. iii. 7. — oh vmstuZ^u, does not slumber) 
The same word is used, Matt. xxv. •& note. Compare hnoweth, 
ver. 9. 

4. E/, if) The Apodosis is contained in ver. 9. — ayyiXm, angels) 
The most noble of created beings : Rom. viii. 38, note. — oux ipkam, 
spared not) Thus also ver. 5. A severe judgment is intimated 
against those, whom you might have supposed likely to escape. — 
eufcui) mpa, a twisted rope, of twig, hemp, hair, etc. Thus 3£ff/io/"j, 
in chains, Jude 6. — ^o'pou, of darkness) Darkness itself keeps them 
prisoners, and is as a chain. Wisdom xvii. 17, Septuagint, aXiian 
exoTovi idiSrisav, they were bound with a chain of darkness. — rapTupiLeai) 
The noun is o -/.ai jj Tdprapoe, plural rdprapa ; the verb, raprapdoi : it 

does not occur elsewhere in the New Testament, nor in the Septua- 
gint. Therefore the meaning must be sought for from other sources, 
from Homer, Hesiod, and Plato : according to whom Tartarus is 
the lowest place in nature ; most dreadful with darlaiess and cold. 
Whence Hesychius : rdprapog, 6 I'tto t^v yv xaTuiraro; romg, Tar- 
tarus, the lowest place beneath the earth. Eustathius, on the Ihad, 

book Vli., rdprapog, o's ppuvv//,ug rsrdpaarai, drip vwoyaiog %ai dvrPuog, 
Tial did roDro xai '\>uxpk, x.r.K., Tartarus, which, in accordance with 
its name, is in confusion [deriving Tdprapog from rapdoffii\, is a thick 
haze"- under ground without the sun, and on this account is also cold. 
And this idea is confirmed by the word ^o>ou, of darkness, here used. 
Thence raprapouv, from raprapooi, is to sentence and consign to Tar- 
tarus, or darkness. Similar forms are Samr6<,, Kar,6o,, kvzUc, ^up6'^, 
exorooi, eravpou, ra.'Kiiviu, (pijj^iia. But it is possible for slaves of Tai-- 
tarus to dwell also on earth : Luke viii. 31 ; Ej^h. ii. 2 ; Apoc. ix. 11, 
14 ; xii. 9, etc. : just as it is possible for one taken captive in war to 

Ho Jn xir'288 -T *''' ^^'"'^ '' °^^°'"^ ^° *' ''""" "^P"'' "'' ^°''^'''^- ^^ 

2 PETER II. 5-10. 97 

walk even beyond the place of his captivity. Step by step, there- 
fore, the angels who have sinned, are given to Tartarus (TOLprapouvrai). 
— wa.p'sSuxev, delivered) them ; just as the judge delivers the prisoner 
to the officers. Compare Apoc. xx. 2. — s/j xpimv r>}pov//-mvs, reserved 
unto judgment) the judgment of the great day, Jude 6. 

5. 'Apy^a'iov, ancient) antediluvian. — oyboov Nwe, Noah the eighth 
person) Noah and his family were eight in number. Raphelius 
shows that this use of numerals prevailed among the Greeks. Com- 
pare 1 Pet. iii. 20. To the eight souls is opposed the universe, the 
densely peopled world of the ungodly. — dixaioexitrjg Htipuxa, a preacher 
of righteousness) Not only was he himself righteous, but he had 
also preached righteousness to the world. — xaTaaXua/iiv, the flood) 
Although therefore the godly are saved, the wicked cannot hope 
that they shall be saved with them. 

6. XloXiii, cities) There were therefore sins of the same descrip- 
tion in the neighbourhood of Sodom, Gomorrha, etc. — TKppusag 
xaraarpoipfi, turning them into ashes with an overthrow) The words 
xaragrpiipeiv "and xaTagTpo(pri are thus used, Gen. xix. 25, 29, Sep- 
tuagint. — rikixojg, placing) [rendering them]. It was an imperish- 
able memorial of God and of the Divine judgment. 

7. Alxaiov, righteous) Gen. xix. 1, 7. — aSin/jiuv, of the lawless or 
impious) of those who sinned against nature. — h aaiXyn'cf, in wan- 
tonness) Gen. xix. 5. 

8. 'O dixaios — -^vx^v hixaiav, the righteous man — his righteous soul) 
The reflex influence of grief is elegantly expressed. Lot tortured 
himself : and the guilty men of Sodom were his torment. — '/i/j,ipaii ig 
rif/,spag, from day to day) Thus the Septuagint often renders Dl' DV. 
— 'ipyoig) by deeds, spoken of. 

9. oJ8s) knows, and remembers : even when men know not any 
aid. The instances alleged show this. There is no doubt as to the 
will of the Lord. — eusijSiTg, the godly) such as Noah and Lot, godly 
and righteous men. — puisdai, to rescue) There are more examples, 
Jer. xxxix. 11, 18, xlv. 5. — aSlxovg) the unrighteous and ungodly : 
such as many, who have been lately mentioned. — xoXa,^o/j,i]ioug) to be 
punished : a future event, and yet expressed in the present ; because 
the punishment is certain and imminent. 

10. MaXiara) chiefly. These will be especially punished. — omau, 
after) The generic description is, the walking after the flesh : the 
specific, the walking after the flesh in the lust of uncleanness. — xai, 
and) There is a division, concerning impurity and blasphemy : after 
, and government . The latter subject is treated of imme- 

VOL. V. G 

98 2 PETER II, 10. 

diately : presumptuous, etc. ; the former, pleasure, etc., ver. 13. Each 
©f the two subjects discussed has a nominative case and finite verb. 
There is a further reference to the same two subjects (heads) at 
ver. 18 : swelling : they entice. — xupioTtirog -/.arafipomuiToi,;, despising 
government) In this, which is the statement or proposition, he makes 
mention of government : shortly afterwards, in handling the subject, 
he speaks of dignities (do^ag), including the signification of the one 
in that of the other. Each of these, by an impressive Metonymia 
of the abstract for the concrete, seems to signify the angels, and 
those the fallen ones (although Home on the Epistle of Jude takes 
it of the holy angels) : for while it is here asserted, ver. 11, that 
railing judgment is not to be brought by angels against dignities, 
Jude, ver. 9, to the same purport, but in more definite language, 
asserts that this same railing judgment was not brought by the arch- 
angel against the devil. By government seems to be meant the prince 
of the fallen spirits ; by dignities, the other fallen spirits. At least 
Jude also (ver. 8) retains the singular and the plural : they despise 
government, but speak evil of dignities. Each apostle shows that he 
is speaking of creatures whom the wicked do not know or understand 
(ver. 12). The angels who sinned, still, as the creatures of God, 
have a goodness, as Gerh. says on this passage, and in their exalted 
nature, which they received from the Creator, retain the indelible 
impress of majesty : comp. Luke x. 18, 19 ; Matt. xii. 26, 29 ; John 
xiv. 30 ; 2 Cor. iv. 4 ; and this we ought to regard with reverence, 
not on their account, but on account of God. Comp. James iii. 9, 
note. For this is the most august mystery of the Divine judgment, 
which is passed upon angels : and into this no angel, no man, ought 
by his own authority to thrust himself; much less the wicked 

(Ecclus. xxi. 27, h rp xarapdgaeSai ase^ri rh 'S.aravav, aiiTbg xaraparai 

rnv -^uxfiv auTou : When the ungodly curseth Satan, he curseth his own 
soul) : and yet somehow or other these men, whom Peter aiid 
Jude point out, endeavoured to do so, turning all spiritual things 
upside down : ver. 12 ; Jude 10, 19. See the dignity of the saints, 
who shall have the power of judging angels : 1 Cor. vi. 3. See on 
Sasbout, f. 472, 480. — roX/i?)ra/, presumptuous) although Michae. 
did not presume, Jude 9. The nominative case is followed imme- 
diately by the verb, are not afraid. Many put a comma in the sen- 
tence, To\iJ,r,Tal, au6d&iig ; but thete is no reason why the substantive 
and adjective should not be joined together. AvSaBiia. roXfi&v, self- 
will produces presumption : the words oh rpifionei, which follow pre- 
sently, AeaotQ presumption.~oh rpi/j^ovm, are not afraid) although they 

2 PETER 11. 11-13. 99 

have so very insignificant strength axiA. power. — ^Xaefri//,oiJvrfe, speak- 
ing evil) JE'oil-speaking is their first crime ; the root of which is first 
mentioned, presumption, pride. So the other crime, uncleanness, 
ver. 14 ; the root of which is also first mentioned, luxury, ver. 13. 

11. "Owou) where, used for lohen. A. particle suitable for reproof: 
1 Cor. iii. 3. — ayyiXoi, angels) and moreover the archangel. That 
which Peter had in mind, as either already known to his readers, or 
as not yet to be disclosed, Jude afterwards expressed. The Epistle 
of each is in a remarkable manner parallel with the other. — Isx^^'i) 
Eight is defended by strength; and these are both in agreement 
with each other. Men are little [dwarfs] in both respects ; angels 
are greater ; God is best and greatest. — //^dt^ovig, greater) A grave 
pleasantry : greater than mere petty men. — ou <pipouei' aurojv, do 
not bring against them) that is, do not assail dignities, etc., Jude 9. — 
•irapa Kupltfi) before the Lord. They abstain from judgment, through 
reverence of the Judge and His presence. — ^Xdeprifiov) That is 
sometimes railing, which is spoken against any one with truth, but 
in an unbecoming manner. Judgment belongs to God, not to 

12. "AXoya^ t,oia, animals without reason) This differs widely fi-om 
angels, Ps. xlix. 21. — (puar/,a yiyenrifibha.) born mere natural animals, 
ignoble from their very birth, and acting in accordance with their 
origin, ^pueixug, naturally, Jude 10 ; following the natural guidance 
of their senses, in food, etc., and not knowing anything superior to 
these things, anything beyond what is natural, anything spiritual. 
There follows, in those things which they know not. — s/'s dXucnii -/.a! 
(phpav, for capture and destruction) Antithetical to men, who ought 
to have aimed ai liberty (ver. 19) and heavenly glory,. — ^Xag(pri/jbouvTig, 
speaking evil) There ought to be great caution in our language. — 
h rfi ipSop^ a'uTuv xarafiSap^eovrai, they shall utterly perish in their own 
corruption) The destruction caused by iniquity, has for its just reward 
destruction full of misery. On another subject, the Septuagint has 
ipSop^ xaraip^apnarj, thou wilt wear away, Ex. xviii. 18. 

13. Ko/j,wu/, bearing off [being about to "receive"]) willingly. — 
?iSovr}v) that pleasure which man ought chiefly to aim at.-' — '/}yovfiiiioi, 
esteeming) A similar phrase occurs, ch. iii. 15. — h n/jApif) in the day of 
your love-feasts, whatever that day in each case may be, without 
any concern, whatever to-morrow may be about to bring with it. — 

^ And which contains all things else in it. — V. g. (Counting luxxirj the sum- 
mum bonum. — E.), 

100 2 PETER n. 14-16. 

g'rrTkoi xal /^u//,oi) They are spots in themselves; disgraces, which 
provoke others to blame the Church itself. As spots most shame- 
fully disfigure the brightest objects, so do these men disgrace your 
love-feasts. — ivrpvfiuvTig) sporting themselves, so that they indulge 
themselves, and mock at others. The verb has a middle sense. It 
is used in the Septuagint, followed by h, Isa. Iv. 2, Ivii. 4. — am- 
raig^) deceivings. Jude 12, kv raig aydvaig l/j,Siv, in your feasts : 
Peter, making an important alteration in the letters, h raT; avdrai; 
auruv, in their deceivings. An anonymous writer in MS. Catena, 
praised by Mill : ou 3/' AFAnHN xa/ to /israXaSe/V aXSiv, iprjsi, arnvjui- 
■^ovvTOLi u//,Tv, aWa did, rh xaipov luplsxsiv Trig T^oj ymaTxag AIIATHS 
i'TtiTribim : It is not, he says, for the sake of love, a7id of sharing 
your salt, that they feast with you, but that they may find a convenient 
opportunity of deceit with regard to your wives. At any rate, it is 
e^'ident from this, that Peter alludes to the love-feasts ; because each 
of them adds, feasting with you, and the one, sporting themselves, 
the other, feeding themselves. — emsuoi^olifisvoi u/mv) feasting with you. 
Euai;^/a, a Splendid feast, especially a sacred one ; a^J tou il s^nv 
Toiig dvnovTag elg iv^poavvriv Tifif) tou hiou, nal ilg avieiv eccuToug xaSiivai : 
from the fact, that those who assemble at a feast in honour of the god, 
have good cheer, and give themselves to indulgence. See Eust., fol. 281, 
ed. Rom. 

14. Moi^aXiSog, of an adulteress) An adulteress has gained posses- 
sion of their eyes, that is, alluring desire. The parallel word is, 
from sin. — diXidl^ovTsg, enticing) with those eyes to disgraceful deeds 
of the flesh. — xapdlav, the heart) Besides the eyes, mention is also 
made of the heart : Ezek. vi. 9. — xardpag, of cursing) not of blessing 
in Christ, 1 Pet. iii. 9. Cursing especially follows covetousness. See 
the following verses. 

15. ''E^axoXov^rjaa.m; tTj ohS tou BaXad/jb, folloiving the way of 
Balaam) See note on Jude 8, from Isa. Ivi. — Boahp, Bosor) This and 
Bear are synonyms. Hill. Onom., pp. 700, 763, 774. Lightfoot 
(Hor. in Act., p. 270) thinks that sigma was written by Peter 
among the Babylonians by a Chaldaism for V. 

16. 'Tm^iyiov a(pum- T^opjjrou, a dumb beast: of the prophet) A 
fine antithesis. So great was the madness of Balaam, that an ass 
must speak, rather than it should pass unreproved. — &(pmov) without 
a voice of man. 

1 'ATtarais is supported by A corrected, C, Meniph. and later Syr., and so 
Rec. Text and Tisch. ; but <lya.7r01.1s by A later corrected, B Vulg. Theb. Syr. . 
and so Lachm. — E. 

2 PETER II. 17, 18. 101 

17. oItoI i'ldi, these are) From ver. 10 to 16 the character of false 
teachers has been described ; now their very plan of proceeding is 
described, which they use towards their disciples. — -Ttnyal, wells) A 
well and a cloud promise water : so these men boast v-wifoy/.a, great 
swelling words, as though they were the lights of the Church ; 
comp. ver. 10, 19, at the beginning ; but these wells and thesa 
clouds give no supply. Those great swelling words are of vanity. — 
vtpeXai,'^ clouds) impostors.^ — oT;, to wJiom) This does not refer to wells 
and clouds, but to these. The definition is put for the thing de- 
fined, asrspe; vXavrtrai, wandering stars. Comp. Jude 13, note. — 
t,o(pog rou gxoToug, the inist of darkness) Z,o<f>og is the chilling horror 
[horror algidus] with which darkness {exorog) is attended. Comp. 
note on Heb. xii. 18. — rerripriTai, is reserved) For this reason espe- 
cially, that they carry off to destruction so many souls. See the 
following verses. 

18. 'Sapxhg aesXyeiag) 'Sap^ adihyi'iag is most polluted flesh. Many 
have written assXyiiaig instead of aaiXyilag,^ by an easy slip of the 
pen into rhythm after the word smSv/j.laig. — nug hXiyag avo^ixiyovra,^ 
Tovg h -irXavp avaarpKpofihoug, those, who for a little time had escaped 
from them who live in error) rous repeated, is not put in apposition, 
but the word amifiiiymTag (comp. ver. 20) governs the clause roDs h 
irX&vri &marpi<poiJ,i\iovg, to make it known what it is that they have 
escaped ; and these amffTpi<p6fjbevoi are either the same false teachers, 
or others. There is here an accusative case governing an accusa- 
tive ; as in Luke xviii. 9, s^ouhvovvrag roiig Xoi-TTovc, despising others. 
Instead of 6X!yug, some read ovtiuc.* The copyists with equal readiness 
hastily put either of these words for the other. The compomid 
verb a'nofiiuyeiv has of itself such force, that even without the ad- 
verb ovToig, it denotes those who truly escape, ver. 20, i. 4 ; but 
iXiycog, for a short time, added to the verb, adds remarkably to the 
sense of the passage. No sooner have some escaped from those who 
live in error, than these wretched men are afiresh ensnared by them. 

' The reading xal ofii'^y^ai (and mists) is preferred by the margin of both 
Editions, and so also the Germ. Version.— E. B. 

ABO Vulg. support xai ofiiicKKi ; but Rec. Text vicpthai, with Syr. Version 
and later Uncial MSS.— E. 

2 Nebulones, dissipated impostors.- — T. 

' AB(?)C Theb. read aaihYsiai; ; and so Rec. Text and Lachm. But Vulg. 
and both Syr. Versions, and inferior, viz. cursive, MSS. read xaihyiiai ; and so 
Tisch.— E. 

* AB Vulg. read i-hiyui : C and Rec. Text Hnau with less authority.— E. 

102 2 PETER II. 19-22. 

Such haste is expressed in ver. 21 and 22, on account of which 
indeed the fool remains a fool, Prov. xxvi. 11, the dog a dog, the 
sow a sow. In the Critical Apparatus it has accidentally happened 
that I have given less weight to the reading, oX/yws, than the mar- 
gin of the text and the arguments inclined me. 

19. 'EXeuhplav, liberty) so as neither to be afraid of the devil, nor 
to loathe the flesh. — w yap th jJTr'/irai) for he by whom any one has 
permitted himself to he overcome, and has yielded himself vanquished. 
— roiru xa.! deSouXuTai, by Mm also is he held in bondage) 1 Sam. 
xvii. 9. Theocr. Idyll, xxii. 71 : 

26s /isi" £7<w, ffi) d' ifihg xsx'K'fiffia,!, t'/xf xparrigoi' 
I will be thine, and thou shalt be mine, if I gain the victory. 

20. ' A'7ro(puy6vreg, after they have escaped) This is spoken of those 
who are enticed, as in ver. 18. And these are entangled in the 
calamity of those who ensnare them : they are overcome. — /i/ao-^ara, 
pollutions) bringing corruption. — rohroii) to these, the impure. — bi, 
but) This particle marks the antithesis between two participles. — 
yjipova, worse) Antithetical to better, ver. 21. 

21. "h sviyvoueiv, than when they have known it) Understand it is, 
from it had been. — vapabahkrn, delivered to them,) Jude 3. 

22. As, but) You may wonder that they thus turn back : hut 
there is little room for wonder ; for they were before, and they still 
continue, dogs and swine. — vapoi/ilag, proverb), vt^D, Septuagint, 
•irapoi/Liai JoXo/iuvrog, the Proverbs of Solomon, Prov. i. 1 ; also xxvi. 
11, Jjavip xuav OTav iir'eXDr] ivi rr^v saurou i//,£TOv, xai /Jiier^rhg yhtirai, 
X.T.X., as a dog, when he returneth to his vomit, and becometh hateful, 
etc. Peter had frequently quoted the Proverbs of Solomon in his 
former Epistle, i. 7, ii. 17, iv. 8, 18, and now he quotes them also in 
the other. This may be added to the other arguments, which show 
that both the Epistles are the production of one and the same writer. 
— i^ipajj^a, vomii) Animals which live among men more easily con- 
tract the stomach [which takes place in the act of vomiting] than 
those which are wild. It is a word which is rarely met with ; and 
Gataker notices some traces of Iambic verse, — 

Kuwii ET/ffr^l-vj/as I'Tt' 'Ibiov i^'spafi, 

'Ti 6' ij Xovaajj-ivin S'S xiiX/ff/ia PopfSopou. 

Who would not loathe the vomit of sin ? 

2 PETER III. 1-4. 103 


1. "Hdri, now) Therefore he had lately written the former Epistle. 
The seven Canonical Epistles were written by the apostles shortly 
before their death. While they still remained alive, they had judged 
that it was less needful for them to write. — aJg, in which) (plural). 
Syllepsis.-' The meaning is, in which (second Epistle), as in the 
former Epistle. — h I'jro/MriBii, hy reminding you) eh. i. 12. Ye 
already hnow, ver. 3 ; it is only needful that I should remind you : 
Jude 5. — iiXixpivri, sincere) adulterated with no error. 

2. 'n.po(pr]TZv, by prophets) Jude 14. — tuv a'jroSToXiiiv, ij/iuv, of us, 
the apostles) In apposition, as Acts x. 41. Others read, ruv avos- 
ToXm vfiSiv,^ of your apostles ; who live among you at the present 
time, in antithesis to the ancient prophets. Comp. the apostle of the 
Gentiles, Rom. xi. 13. — tou Kuplou, of the Lord) This is to be taken 
with the apostles. 

3. llpSiroii, first) So ch. i. 20, note. — yivdaxovreg, knowing) The nomi- 
native case coheres with that ye may he mindful : comp. Acts xv. 
23, note. The righteous already knew this from the word of the 
apostles, Jude 17 and 18. — iXiiieovrai, shall com,e) in greater number 
and shamelessness. By which very thing they themselves confirm 
the truth of this prediction. — e/i'irar/.rai,^ mockers) Thus the Sep- 
tuagint renders Isa. iii. 4, CplPVO, those who perform the most serious 
matters in the most trifling manner, even when they do not employ 
joke and laughter. [They are wholly given up to mocking, having no 
foundation besides for whatever they please to do. — V. g.] — eot^u- 
[Liag* lusts) This is the origin of error, the root of licentiousness. 

4. HoS idTn, where is f) They think, either that it ought already to 

' See Append, on this figure. 

2 ABC Vulg. read ifiZu : Rec. Text, with cursive MSS. of later date, ^ftan/. 
— E. 

' The fuller reading, h i//.vaiy/^ouyi IfixalxTxi, is preferred both in the margin 
of both Editions and in the Germ. Vers., which has " lauter Spotter," or rather, 
as it is read in the margin of the Germ. Vers. " Erz-Spotter."— E. B. 

ABC (C omitting h) Vulg. add ly ifi'TraiyfioiiYi. Rec. Text, with inferior 
authorities, omits these words. — E. 

* x«ra T»f /S/«j — TTopevofiiuoi, walMng according to their own lusts) This is 
an exact description of an abandoned man, that he does whatever is his own 
I'leasure, and is not restrained by any reverence towards God. — V. g. 

104 2 PETER III. 5, 

have taken place, or that it never will take place. This is also their 
meaning when they say, all things continue as they loere. — h sirayyiKia, 
the promise) Mockers thus term it, not in respect of themselves, but 
in mimicry,' because the righteotis earnestly desire the fulfilment of 
the promise. — ahrov, of Him) Of the coming Lord, whom they dis- 
dain to mention by name. — a(p ni) {ni^ipa,i), from the day in lohich. — 
o; -raTipa, the fathers) who rested their hopes on the promise. — ■a-aura, 
all things) the heaven, the water, the earth. — ouroi, thus) An adverb 
of pregnant meaning ; that is, thus continue, as they do continue. — 
kt' apyrii KTideaig, from the beginning of the creation) These mockers 
at any rate confess, that the world did not exist from eternity. 

5. AavSdvii yap, for it escapes their notice) This is the reason why 
they thus speak. Antithetical to, let it not escape your notice, ver, 8. 
— TouTo, this) The nominative case. — SeXovrac) willing it to be so. 
Their ignorance is voluntaiy. They obstinately neglect to consider 
the deluge. — oupani — yn, the heavens — the earth) The heavens and 
the earth before the deluge were very different in quality, though 
not in substance, from their present state. — ^ffai/ ix'jraXai) had been, of 
old, just as they are now. The delrfge, and the destruction of the 
world by fire, Peter says, might have appeared equally incredible : 
and yet the former event has taken place, and the latter will take 
place. Just as the mockers were arguing against the destruction of 
the world by fire, so before the deluge men might have argued 
against the deluge. But as the argument of these last was proved 
to be groundless by the testimony of the event, so also is the argu- 
ment of the former. The urgency of the reasoning derived from 
the deluge destroys the force of the thus, as they were (o'lirw), of the 
mockers, ver. 4. The pluperfect has a backward reference from the 
time of the deluge to the time of the creation : and the word then, 
ver. 6, has also a reference to that. — If USaros xal di" vSarog, out of 
the water and by the water) A gradual process. The water had 
covered the earth i the earth emerged out of the waters ; and the 
water was serviceable for the stability of the earth, as the Creator 
formed and placed it. Water is in other cases lighter than earth, 
and earth seeks the lower parts, to such a degree, that all water in a 
straight hne from the surface to the centre of this globe, or round 
system, always has earth beneath it : but on the surface itself, the 
earth everywhere rises above the water in a greater or less degree ; 
and even this place the water yielded and left to the earth, as it 

' See Append, on Mimesis. — E. 

2 PETER 111. 6, 7. 105 

were unwillingly, and when compelled by the most powei-fiil com- 
mand of God, Ex. XX. 4 ; Ps. xxiv. 2, civ. 5-8, cxxxvi. 6 ; Job 
xxsviii. 10, 11 ; 2 Esdras xvi. 59. — exineruea, standing together) that 
is, was. The joining together and lasting duration of the earth is 
pointed out : and thus standing firmly, answers to the word of old. 
Thomas Burnet, in his Theory of the Earth, ii. 5, applies the par- 
ticiple (which in the English Version is ambiguous, standing), not 
only to the earth, but also to the heavens. By paying attention to 
this error, you will avoid many things which Burnet has raised 
upon it. — rw rou Qiou Xoyu, by the loord of God) Gen. i. 6-9. This 
is constructed with were {neav), expressed, and icas (^v), understood. 
The duration of all things is determined by the Word of God, so 
that it can be neither longer nor shorter. 

6. a/ Siv, by means of which) by means of the heavens and the 
earth ; whence the water flowed together. — o tots -/.og/jjoc, the world 
which then was) that is, the human race : for affwXs/a, destruction, is 
not here attributed to the heaven and the earth, as Burnet under- 
stands it. Comp. the end of ver. 7 and ver. 10-13. The deluge 
was universal. — a'lroj'kiTo, perished) There follows an emphatic in- 
crease of the sense by the figure Epitasis ' of judgment and perdi- 
tion, ver. 7. With this corresponds the saying, they shall perish, 
they shall be judged, Eom. ii. 12. Before the deluge God said : My 
Spirit shall not ahcays pass sentence (judgment) upon man, Gen. vi. 3. 
Judgment is reserved for the last day. 

7. O'l ds y\Jv o'jpavol, but the heavens lohich now are) The heavens are 
the same and the earth is the same, as of old (although they appear 
to have undergone no slight change at the deluge) : but the mockers 
speak as though they were not at all the same. The apostle ex- 
presses their feeling, Sk, but, makes an antithesis : by water, and, for 
or vmio fire. Fire shall refute the mockers. This verse also depends 
upon that, ver. 5. — rffl auroD) The article is rarely placed before 
auroO ;^ but it is thus placed, Heb. ii. 4 ; James i. 18. — nirieaupia- 
/j.hoi, reserved) Therefore it is that the heavens and the earth do not 

1 See Append, on this figure. — E. 

' Nevertheless the reading «ut^, which is set down by the margin of the larger 
]>d. among those not to be approved of, in the margin of Ed. 2 is put on a level 
viththe reading aiiTov; and the Germ. Vers, has "durch eben das Wort." 
— E. B. 

T^ ccvra is read by AB (according to Lachm.) Vulg. Memph. : and so Lachm. 
But Tw avroS, by B (according to Tisch.) C : and so Tisch. Stephens' Rec. Text 
omits Tip; but not so the Elzev. Rec. Text. — E. 

106 2 PETEE III. 8. 

more quickly grow old. — tu^/, unto or for, fire) The Dative. Let 
those fiery meteors be thought of, which in our time often gleam 
fiom the lofty sky.— rSv aSB^Zv, of the ungodly) these very persons, 
and the others. 

8. "El/ bi TouTo) but this one thing ; namely, that which pertains to 
this subject. This one thing only pertains to teaching in this epistle ; 
which (epistle) in other respects admonishes, but does not teach. — 
lj,n XavSaviTu) do not suffer it to escape your notice. — vfiag, you) Anti- 
thetical to them, ver. 5. He does not so fully reply to the mockers, 
as he instructs the faithful. — /i/'a ^/j-epa ■jrapa Kupicfi ok; %/>./« eVjj, vmI 
yJ'Kia. err) u; rifispa (Ma, one day is with the Lord as a thousand years, 
and a thousand years as one day, Ps. xc. 4, Septuagint, 6V; x'^'"' '^'^1 
h h(p§a'kiM7i sou, Kupii, a; fif/^ipa, ri £%^ss rjTig hiriXk, -/.al ^vXaxri iv vvxtI. 
for a thousand years, Lord, are inThy sight as yesterday, which is 
gone, and as a watch in the night. The preceding words convey this 
meaning : Thou art our refuge, Eternal God ; and not we our- 
selves, frail weak men. The reason is added : for a thousand years, 
etc. Moses describes, the eternity of God much more absolutely : 
Peter describes it in the relation which it bears to the last day, and 
to men looking for that day ; so that His eternity may itself be per- 
ceived, by which in essence and in operation, He wonderfully ex- 
ceeds all measure of time ; and that His divine knowledge may also 
be included in the idea, that knowledge to which all future things 
are present : and His Power (may be recognised), which does not 
require long delays for the performance of its work ; and His Long- 
suffering, from which all impatient expectation is absent and all 
eager haste. With the Lord one day is as a thousand years (Peter 
adds this to the saying of Moses) : that is. He is equally blessed in 
one day, or in one moment, and in a thousand years and a whole 
age : He is able to perform the work of a thousand years in one day. 
Wherefore in the following verse it is added : He is not slow : It is 
always in His power to fulfil His promise. And a thousand years 
are as one day (thus Peter, while in this clause he re-echoes the for- 
mer one, and accommodates both to the subject in hand, appro- 
priately varies the words of Moses) : that is, no delay happens 
which is long to God. As to a man of excessive wealth, a thousand 
guineas are as a single penny ; so to the Eternal God a thousand 
years are as one day : wherefore in the next verse it is added : but 
is long-suffering: He gives us space for repentance without any 
annoyance to Himself. Comp. Ecclesiasticus xviii. 10, 11. The 
sum of Peter's words is, the age-measurer (so to speak) of God 

2 PETER III. 9, 10. 107 

differs from the hour-reckoner of mortals. His gnomon^ shows at 
once all hours in the greatest activity and in the greatest repose. 
To Him the times pass away neither more slowly nor more quickly 
than is befitting to Him and to His economy. There is no reason 
why He should consider it needful either to delay or to hasten the 
end. How shall we understand this ? If we were able to under- 
stand it, there would be no occasion for Moses and Peter to add, 
with the Lord. 

9. Ou jSpadvvii, does not delay) as though the time of His promised 
coming were already present, Pleb. x. 37, note. Thus /Ecclesias- 
ticus XXXV. 17, 18, xai %pinT ii/Laidii (6 "T-^ierog) xal woirien xpiaiv xai 6 
%\ij>ioc oil fj.r\ j3pad{jv'/jj oiidh jJjTI /iaKpo6u/j,rie-/i Iv avroTg, x.t.K., the Most 
High shall judge righteously, and execute judgment ; for the Lord 
will not be slack, neither will He be patient towards them, etc. This 
passage of the Son of Sirach closely agrees with the passage ot 
Peter's epistle. — t-^s i'Ko.jyfKia.i, His promise) that is, mxa, on 
account of. The promise will be fulfilled, ver. 13, whatever these 
mockers may prate, ver. 4. — //,ax,po6v/MT, is long-suffering) For this 
reason He waits, until the number of those who shall be saved shall 
be complete, ver. 15. — r/vas, that any) not even those, who are just 
spoken of, as some men. — dmXisSai, should perish) This would be the 
case, if He did not give space for repentance. Comp. 2 Esdras viii. 
59. — ^apjjsai, may have recourse to). 

10. "h§£;) will be present. — o/' oupmol, the heavens) which the 
mockers say shall continue as they are, ver. 4. — ^o/^jjSJv, with a great 
noise) The word poTZog has letters resembling the sound of an arrow 
in its flight, the trickling of water, etc. — sToiyjTd, the elements) that 
is, the works which are in the heavens, as the following words show. 
The sun, the moon, and the stars, are often called ermyua, by Theo- 
philus of Antioch, p. 22, 148, 228, and by others, whom Wolf has 
brought together in his edition, and whom Suicer has noticed, and 
Menage on Diogenes Laertius, vi. 102, they are called elementa by 
Jerome. As at the creation, so at the destruction of the world, the 
sun, the moon, and the stars, are accustomed especially to be men- 
tioned, Matt. xxiv. 29 ; and they are certainly contained in some 
part of Peter's representation, and especially in the word elements, 
rather than Jii'e, air, water, and earth. For Peter makes mention of 
the earth separately, and under this he includes water, or even air (of 
which, however, the Scripture rarely malses mention, when speaking 

^ Gnomon properly denotes the pin of a sun-dial. — T. 

108 2 PETER III. 11, 12. 

of the nature of things) ; fire will be that, by which the elements 
shall melt away. The same word is used, Wisdom vii. 17. it is a 
most elegant metaphor. For as a letter on a parchment, so is a 
star in the heaven. — ^V/^j ^^'^ works of nature and art. 

11. Auo[j,ivu\i, since they are being dissolved) The present tense ; as 
though it were now taking place : thus in ver. 12, rrjMrai, are melt- 
ing. On the fourth of the six days of creation, the stars also were 
made, Gen. i. 16. They also shall be dissolved together with the 
earth. They are mistaken, who restrict the history of the creation 
and the description of this destruction only to the earth and to the 
quarter of the heaven which is nearer to the earth, but feign that 
the stars are more ancient than the earth, and that they will sur- 
vive the earth. It is not to the heaven only which surrounds the 
earth, but to the heavens, that both dissolution and restoration are 
ascribed, ver. 10 and 13. — M, ought you to be) This is the com 
mandment mentioned in ver. 2. Others thus place the stops — 
hfi^ag ; — iusij3sloi.i; •jrpog&ox.uvragJ' — avacTpo(paTc, in your conversations) 
[i.e. dealings and whole walk] as regards the affairs of men. — luae- 
^i!aig, in all godliness) as regards divine things. 

12. T))v irapoudiav, the coming) This depends upon looking for and 
hastening, taken together : when ye offer p7'ayers for His speedy 
coming. He who eagerly desires anything, urges forward the mat- 
ter itself, if he is able, to a speedy accomplishment. SteWoi is used 
with an Accusative, Septuagint ; Esth. v. 5 ; Isa. xvi. 5. The par- 
ticiple includes the statement of the cause, as in ver. 14. — rou OsoD, 
of God) The expression, the day of God, is of rare occurrence. For 
diei Dei {the day of God), the Latin translator, or a very early 
copyist, wrote diei Domini^ (the day of the Lord), probably for the 
sake of a more easy pronunciation. This reading was adopted in 
some Greek manuscripts, which everywhere follow the Latin read- 
ings. On the other hand, one Latin manuscript at Lovain has in 
the margin diei Dei. God grants to men many thousand days : one, 
and that the last, is the great day of God Himself.— a,' ^'v, on account 
of which) viz. coming. An instance of the figure Chiasmus, con- 
sisting of four parts : what manner of persons— looking for— on 
account of which— hut new heavens. The first part is deduced from 
the thii-d, and the second from the fourth.— ^u^oi/xE.o;- y,ax><!oh[iim) 

1 Elementum was used of a letter of the Alphabet.— E. 

' Tisch. and Lachm. read no interrogation. E. 

3 AB Vulg., in some MSS. have ©soi. But and Amiat. MS. (the oldest) 
of Vulg. have nvpiov. — E 

2 PETER III. 13-16. 109 

In other places, mpoueSai applies rather to a dry body, xaudousSai to 
a moist one. 

13. Kamiig, new) A great mystery, new heavens and a new earth. 
It is something external to God and external to man.' — sTdyyiX/j,a, 
promise) ver. 4. — h oTg biy.aioa(ivn xaroixsT, in which dwelleth righteous- 
ness) Therefore they shall not grow old. There will be a complete 
separation between good and evil. Matt. iii. 12, xiii. 3Q. The inha- 
bitants who ought to be righteous, ver. 11, compared with 6 and 7. 
In the new world, which comprises the heaven and the earth, 
dwelleth righteousness. The new world is one whole : in it (the 
whole) dwelleth righteousness. That part, which had been pol- 
luted by unrighteousness, shall be freed from pollution. 

14. UposdoxSivTig, expecting) with trembling and with joy. This 
word has a wide meaning' — ahra, of Him) God. 

15. 'Sartipiav riysTah, account as salvation) although those mockers 
account it slachiess, slowness, ver. 9. — xaSug, even as) This has refer- 
ence to the whole subject treated of up to this time. Comp. •Trif! 
•rovrm, respecting these things, ver. 16. — o aya-Trrirhg ij/iwv adi'k<pog, our 
beloved brother) Paul has not praised Peter ; but yet Peter praises 
Paul, showing that he was not offended with him, although he was 
sometimes reproved by him, and was far surpassed by him in the 
work of the Lord : respecting the love of Paul towards Peter there 
could be no doubt. — v/i^Tv, to you) Hebrews. He intimates that there 
was the less need for him to write to them at length, and expresses 
his approval of the epistle of Paul. But Paul had written to this 
purport respecting the completion of the age, which was then nigh 
at hand, Heb. i. 1, ix. 26, x. 25, 37, and to the same effect in his 
other epistles. 

16. 'Ei; ntaswg, in all) Peter wrote this epistle very shortly before 
his own martyrdom and that of Paul. Therefore Paul had written 
nearly all his epistles long before, even the epistles to those to whom 
Peter writes. Peter therefore read all the epistles of Paul, which 
were perhaps sent to him by Paul himself: nor did he take it ill, 
that Paul had written respecting Peter in such terms as he had 
to the Galatians, ch. ii. Who can doubt, that the epistles of Paul 
were, at an early period, collected into one body ? — 'itipl Tourm, 
concerning these things) Concerning the coming of the Lord, which 
is delayed through His long-suffering, but yet is near and sudden, 

' The promise is not merely of some new manifestation of God, or of some 
change in man, but of something external ; not of that which is subjective, but 
objective. — T. 

110 2 PETER III. 17, 18. 

and the things which will happen at His coming and before it. 
When Paul appeared to delay the day of the Lord to a longer period 
than the other apostles, there were some who either doubted or denied 
His coming altogether. — h oJc, in ivJiich things) — dusw^ra, hard to be 
miderstood. It is one thing to be hard to be understood, and an- 
other thing to be beyond the reach of the understanding. — nva) some 
things, not all. — a) which things, which subjects, and so even the 
writings of Paul. With this corresponds the expression which fol- 
lows, " they wrest the Scriptures^' and so even the subjects men- 
tioned in them. The one is to be understood as included with the 
other. — 0/ afhahyg, the unlearned) who are without heavenly learning. 
— dTfi^Xouaiv) twist, whereas they are straight in themselves. Thei'e 
is an instance, 2 Tim. ii. 18. — rac Xomag 'ypa(pa;^ the other Scriptures) 
It follows from this that the epistles of Paul already formed part of 
the Scriptures. Comp. has written, ver. 15. — 'jrpog, to) so that they 
seem to agree with the abandoned perception of the wicked. — ISlat, 
their own) without any injury to St Paul. — a^rdXeiav, destruction) 
ch. ii. 1. 

17. 'Tficrg) ye, warned by the injury of others. — 'KfoynuiS-MiTiq) 
hnoiving the danger beforehand. — <sT^pr/fj,ov, from your defence) 
[" Stedfastness"] Comp. ver. 16, i. 12. This defence is grace. 
Comp. Jude 21. 

18. AigavET-E, increase) the more; the more they decrease [_b 
y^apiTivMl 'yvuesi, in grace and knowledge) ch. i. 3, 8. — V. g.] — ^aepm 
aiSivoc, the day of eternity) This title agrees with that sense, in which 
the apostle employed it, through the whole of this chapter. Eternity 
is a day, without night, immixed and perpetual. 




1. "o ri\i, That which was) John writes his Epistle [which is 
furnished with a most august exordium. ^V. g.] in a simple style, 
without inscription or conclusion. He does not appear to have sent 
it abroad, but to have communicated it in person to his hearers. 
See ver. 4, compared with 2 John, ver. 12, at the end. He says. 
That which was from the beginning, for He who was, ch. ii. 13 ; be- 
cause that which occurs again immediately. When speaking of God 
and Christ, the apostle frequently uses a common name for a proper 
one by the figure Antonomasia, as He Himself, He, The Holy One, 
The True One, and periphrasis, as He who is from the beginning, etc. 
In the first clause he marks out "koyov, the Word, Himself; and then 
the things which they have heard respecting Him. — ?i/, was) even 
before He was manifested. He was with the Father : see ver. 2. — 
ai' apy^rig, from, the beginning) The phrase aw' apx^^^ from the begin- 
ning, of frequent occurrence in this epistle, is not to be taken in one 
and the same sense only, but to be explained from each passage 
which happens to be present : ch. ii. 7, 13, 14, iii. 8. In this first 
passage of the epistle, the phrase from the beginning, comprises the 
whole state of the Word of life, with the Father, ver. 2, which state 
preceded his manifestation. Compare the expression. In the begin- 
ning, John i. 1, note. Wherefore it is not an unsuitable flight of 
speech. — iJ axrix6a//,iv, that which we have heard) Hearing, the sense 
by which we receive instruction, is put in the first place, sight follows 

112 1 JOHN I. 2-4. 

by gradation. Both are reassumed in ver. B, where / say may be 
understood. John proclaims so great an amount of evidence of this 
manifestation, that it is not now necessary to adduce the prophets : 
Comp. 2 Pet. i. 19, note. He speaks in the plural number in his 
own name, and in the name of other fathers: ch. ii. 13. He appears 
to have written at a time, when many of the fathers were still alive. 
■ — s6iaffdfji,s(la, we beheld) to a very great degree.— a-sp/, concerning) 
They perceived the truth of His flesh, and in it the glory of the only 
begotten. The word luas denotes the latter, was manifested, the 
former. — rou ?.oyou rns '(oiris, the Word of life) i XSyog, the Word is used 
by itself, and the Life by itself: whence the Apposition, The Word 
the Life ; then the Word of Life ; The Word in whom was life : 
John i. 4 ; and the Life, that is eternal ; and, life eternal : ver. 2. 
Thus that title, the God of glory, includes the simple title of God. 

2. 'Epaiij/jw^!), was manifested) gave Himself in the flesh to our 
eyes, ears, and hands : John i. 14. The same word is used of His 
coming in glory : ch. ii. 28. — xal /iaprupovfini %ai aiTtayyiyj^of/iiv, and 
we testify and declare) Testimony is the genus ; there are two species, 
declaration and writing, ver. 3 and 4. Declaration lays the founda- 
tion, ver. 5—10 ; writing builds upon it, ver. 4, note. — I/jm, to you) 
who have not seen. — rnv Z,(iiV '''V" aluvwv, Life eternal) In the begin- 
ning of the epistle mention is made of that Life eternal, which 
always existed, and afterwards appeared to us : at the end of the 
epistle mention is made of the same Life eternal, which we shall 
always enjoy. This title of itself teaches, that the goodness of Jesus 
in its highest sense is not denied : Mark x. 18, note. — ?v, was) A 
repetition by the figure Epanodos ; comp. ver. 1, at the beginning. 
— -^rpog rov Tarepa, loith the Father) So John i. 1, with God. 

3. ' A-/.r)x6a,u,i\i, we have heard) This is now put after sight, because 
the declaration is principally from hearing. — -/.oimnjav — /jbid' rijj,m, 
communion — with us) the same which we have who have seen. — 
xoivuvla) that is isri. Communion, so that He Himself is ours ; He in 
us, and we in Him. — /^era rou ■rrarphs, with the Father) who sent the 
Son, ver. 4—10. — /iira rou (jioij avTou, with His Son) whom the Father 
sent: ch. ii. 1, 2. Kespecting the Holy Spirit, see ch. iii. 24, 

4. TauTa, these things) From the emphatic singular he comes to 
the plural, for the sake of greater convenience of expression. These 
things, and no other : 2 Cor. i. 13, much less, smaller and more 
trifling things, as the defenders of traditions say. — ypacpofiiv vfiTv, we 
ivrite to you) To this present the past, Z have written, ch. v. 13, 

1 JOHN I. 5-7. lis 

answers. Comp. ch. ii. 1, 12, and following verses. Writing gives 
strong confirmation. — Im, that) Enlness of joy arises from a full and 
abundant confirmation of soul in faith and love. To this, declaration 
and writing in conjunction especially tend : 2 John ver. 12. — %a/ia, 
joy) Thus also John writes in his Gospel, ch. xv. 11, xvi. 22. There 
is the joy of faith, the joy of love, the joy of hope. In this place the 
joy of faith is first noticed ; and the expression is abbreviated, your 
joy ; that is, your faith, and the joy which springs from thence : but 
there is also intended the joy of love and of hope, flowing fi-om 

5. 'H ayyiXia) Ch. iii. 11. The declaration, which relates to the 
main subject. Neither in the gospel nor in the epistles does John 
speak of the Gospel by name ; but he terms it the testimony, the word, 
the truth; and here, by a closely resembling sound, ayys'Klav, the de- 
claration. That which was in the mouth of Christ ayyikia, a de- 
claration, the apostles avayyiWrnai, declare ; for they in turn give 
forth and propagate ayyiXlav, the declaration received firom Him. 
It is called the u'ord, ch. ii. 7. — ai' auTou, from Him) fi-om the Son 
of God : John i. 18. — pSj) The Light of wisdom, love, and glory. 
What the light is to the natural eye, that God is to the spiritual 
eye. As he here calls God Light, so ch, ii. 8, he calls Christ 
Light. — axoria, darkness) The meaning of this is plain from the 

6. 'Ediv E/Vw.ttSK, if we say) To say anything at variance with the 
fact, is fraud : ver. 8, 10. So he that saith, ch. ii. 4, 9 ; if a man 
say, ch. iv. 20. To say, is to persuade one's self and others, to think, 
to bear before one's self [to profess openly], to pretend. — xoivmiat, 
fellowship) ver. 3. — h rSi smth, in darkness) Comp. ch. ii. 8-11. 
— ■TTipmaruf/'iv, we walk) by internal and external action, wherever 
we turn ourselves. — ■■\/eu86fi,B6a, we lie) A. similar expression occurs, 
ch. ii. 4. — oi TToioufiev rnv akrjkiav, vie do not the truth) that is, the 
truth has no place with us in our very action. 

1. 'Cig, as) Imitation of God is the test of fellowship with Him. — 
auTos, He Himself) God. So the Hebrews often say, Kin, He, that 
is, God. So alrhg, 1 Macc. iii. 22. — ieTiv, is) This word is more in- 
ward, and more worthy of God, than to walk. — xoivmlav e'%o/«£v, we 
have fellowship) that is. Then we truly say, that we have fellowship: 
for walking in the light certainly and immediately follows this. — 
air aXkriXm) mutual, between us and you : ver. 3 : for aXXTjXuv, 
reciprocally, does not appear an appropriate expression respecting 
God and men : comp. John xx. 17. It is however an abbreviated 

VOL. V. H 

114 1 JOHN I. 8-10. 

expression : in ver. 6, with Him, understand from ver. 7, and among 
ourselves [and one with another'] : in ver. 7, among us [one ivith an- 
other'], understand from ver. 6, with Him. Comp. John xiv. 10, 
note.— Ha;' rb oJ/j^a., and the blood) Fellowship with the Son of God 
is described. Kespecting the Hood, comp. ch. v. 6 ; John vi. 53-56; 
Apocal. i. 5. — xaSap/lei iif^ag, cleanseth us) by remission and taldng 
away : comp. ver. 9.— iraff^is, all) original and actual. 

8. 'A/iapr!av, sin) There is an opposition between those who say, 
We have no sin, and those who confess their sins (plural). He is 
therefore speaking of actual sins, which flow from original sin. In 
proportion as each person has contracted less or more, so he deems 
it necessary to confess less or more ; Prov. xxviii. 13; and that either 
respecting the past, ver. 10, or the present, ver. 8. John comprises 
in his discourses all to whom that declaration comes, both good and 
bad ; without distinction, according to their measure. But there 
were even then some who extenuated sin, and therefore also dis- 
paraged grace. — )j a'Arjkia, the truth) John often comprises /aiiA also 
together with the notion of truth : ch. ii. 4. nOK and n:iOS are conju- 
gate words. — oux 'iffTiv h rifiTv, is not in us) is not in our heart, and 
therefore not in our mouth. The fault is in us ; is ours : the glory 
belongs to God : ver. 9. 

9. 'Eaii oj/joXoy Sifiiv T&g a/iapriag ii/j^uv, if we confess our sins) This 
verse is placed between two antithetical sentences, as ch. ii. 10. For 
it is antithetical to say, I have no sin, and, I have not sinned, ver. 8 
and 10. The former is concerning the guilt of sin, which still 
remains ; the latter is concerning the actual commission. By the 
former, we deceive ourselves ; by the latter, we make Him a liar. It 
is the best plan to confess before God, who holds us guilty as sinners, 
ver. 10; and the universal necessity of this confession is here 
asserted : so that John not only says, that if we have sinned we 
must confess ; but that all have reason to say, / have sin, and / have 
sinned, and ought to confess that, although with different degrees : 
otherwise we should not need cleansing by the blood of Jesus Christ. 
— 'irisrlg, faithful) He makes good all things, which we promise- our- 
selves respecting the goodness of God. — 'ian, is) so that we expe- 
rience it, and do not make Him a liar. — xat dlnaiog, and just) so as 
to spare the sinner, and abolish the sins. Thus also Jesus Christ is 
called tJie righteous, ch. ii. 1. — a<pri, to remit) while He takes away 
the guilt. — xaSaplgri, to cleanse) so that we sin no more. 

10. 'ViudTriv voioufLiv aMv, we make Him a liar) God says, Thou 
hast sinned ; to deny this is impious. Comp. ch. v. 10. — o X6y og airoD, 

1 JOHN 11. 1, 2. 115 

His word) which is true : ver. 8. The word accuses us with truth ; 
and by contradiction it is driven from the heart. — b t^imv, in us) and 
-therefore we are liars : eh. ii. 4. 


1. Tf-Mia, fiou, my little children) The diminutive, used as a 
mark of love. Now for the first time he names those to whom he 
writes. — raura, these things) which follow. — ha /in afia^TriTi, that ye 
sin not) /j^n, lest, to be pronounced with emphasis. He fortifies their 
minds beforehand, lest they should abuse his discourse concerning 
reconciliation to a license for sinning. There is in this place ■xpo- 
hpaTila, a precautionary warning ; and a similar Im6ipa,'xe!a,^ an after- 
qualification of his previous words, eh. v. 18, note. All the Divine 
purposes, words, and judgments, have for their aim to oppose sin, 
either to prevent its commission, or to destroy it. — kav n^ aij^aprri, if 
any man sin) and lose the confidence of asking for himself; respect- 
ing which, see John xvi. 26. — irapaxXrirov, an advocate) who pleads 
our cause, so that the Father may not turn away His love from us. — 
dizaiov, the righteous) ver. 29. Jesus Christ, in the presence of the 
Father, at His right hand, chiefly from [owing to His] access to 
Him, having oflPered a sacrifice for sins, is called The Righteous^ 
John xvi. 10. His righteousness takes away our sin : and it is not 
itself lessened fi'om this circumstance, that He is the Advocate for 
sinners : Isa. liii. 11, 12. 

2. AuTog, He Himself) This word forms an Epitasis [See Append, 
on this figure] : a most powerful Advocate, because He Himself is 
the propitiation. — iXac/jiog ean, is the propitiation) The word iXaa/jibg, 
and s^iXagfioe, is of frequent occurrence in the Septuagint : it de- 
notes a propitiatory sacrifice : ch. iv. 10 ; comp. 2 Cor. v. 21 : that 
is, the Saviour Himself. There had been therefore enmity (offence) 
between God and sinners. — fi/^uv, of us) the faithful. There is no 
reference here to the Jews ; for he is not writing to the Jews : ch. v. 
21. — 'Ttipl SXou) respecting (for) the sins of the whole world. If he had 
said only, of the world, as ch. iv. 14, the whole must have been un- 
derstood : now, since of the whole is expressed, who dares to put any 

' See Append. Qn these figures. — :E. 

116 1 JOHN II. 3-8. 

restriction upon it ? ch. v. 19. The propitiation is as widely extended 
as sin. 

3. 'Ev TovTCfi yituaxof/^si) In this we know ; that is, it is thus, and 
thus only, that there is true knowledge in us. We know, that we 
know : a reflex knowledge. Spiritual marks of discernment [Gnoris- 
mata, characteristic marks] are often given in this Epistle : manifest, 
we know, ch. iii. 10, 14, 19. The Gnostics are refuted, who boasted of 
knowledge, but threw aside obedience. — 6V; iyvcixa/jbiv avrhv, that we 
know Him) as He is, the Advocate, the righteous, the propitiation. So 
ver. 4, 13, 14 ; Isa., the passage cited above. — hroXag, precepts) con- 
cerning faith and love.— r>)^£/.i£v, we keep) John viii. 51, note. 

5. AuTou Tov Xoyov, His word) the word of Jesus Christ respecting 
the Father : ch. i. 5. The precepts are many ; the word is one. — 
aXri^Si;, in truth) It is not a lie or vain boasting. This adverb has great 
force at the beginning of the clause. — jj aya.'irn tov @iou, the love of 
God) towards man, reconciled to us by Christ. — riTiXeiurai, is made 

perfect) Having obtained perfect rule, it is also perfectly known : ch. 
iv. 12. — h rouru, m this) There is a reference to the preceding words, 
hut whoso keepeth, as ch. iv. 6, from this. — h aurffl leihiv, we are in Him) 
Synonyms, with progressive gradation : to know Him ; to be in Him ; 
to abide in Him : ver. 6, knowledge ; fellowship ; constancy. 

6. Mhiiv, that he abideth) This word is of frequent occurrence in 
ch. ii. iii. and iv. It implies a condition which is lasting, without 
intermission and without end. — oplXu, he ought) by the force of that 
Divine example. Thus, we ought, ch. iii. 16, iv. 11. — za^ui himg, 
even as He) He, whom we formerly saw. Thus, as He, etc., ch. iii. 
3, 5, 7, 16, iv. 17. Believers readily supply the name ; since they 
have a breast filled with the remembrance of the Lord. — •jtifnirarnai, 
walked) while He M'as in the world. 

7. 'A'tt' ap^xrif, from the beginning) the time when you first heard 
the Gospel of Christ : ver. 24, ch. iii. 11.— » Xoyog, the word) ver. 5.— 
h rixoxiaari, which ye heard) John did not deem it necessary to repeat 
this word, as already known. He frequently says, ye have heard, for 
they had heard, before even the apostles wrote. 

8. ''EvToXriv -/.ainriv, a new precept) which is now first written to you 
in this Epistle. This passage savours of the fulness of the Spu-it in 
the apostle.— ienv aXti^ig, that which is truth) Truth, substantively, 
as in ver. 27, where truth and a lie are opposed to each other. 
Thence also 8 is put for »j, that is, the commandment {hroXn). The 
sense is : the commandment, or precept, is truth; that is, the darkness 
truly passes away, etc. As in ver. 7, to the word old, so in this ver., 

1 JOHN II. 9-11. 117 

to the word new, Its definition is immediately subjoined, what is 
the old, and what is the new. The old is that which we had from 
the beginning : the new is that which is true in Jesus Christ and 
in us. The difference of time in the words, ye had, and it is, tends 
to this. In Christ all things are always true, and were so from that 
beginning ; but in Christ and in us, conjointly, the precept is then 
truth, when we acknowledge the truth, which is in Him, and have 
the same flourishing in us. John praises the present state of those 
to whom he writes, as one even more highly favoured than that 
very state which they had had at the beginning of their hearing the 
Gospel, as Rom. xiii. 11, 12 ; whence also the old precept could 
with pleasantness be proposed to them under a new method. — or 
because. This is that precept, the love of a brother, from the light. 
Hence at the beginning of ver. 9 therefore is to be understood. 
Comp. ch. i. 5, 6. — 'Trapdyirai) He does not say 'Trapdyn, passes by, but 
Tapdyerai, is caused to pass, is changed, so that at length it is 
absorbed. The same word is used, ver. 17, where it is opposed to 
abiding. Thus Ezra ix. 2, Septuagint, mapriy^Sri av'sp/^a, to ajm, the 
holy seed was transferred, or caused to pass to the nations, and was 
mingled with them. Herodian : ovo^a 'japa^6h, a name changed, 
transferred from another, or to another. — Book I., ch. 16, and V. 7. 
The present is to be observed, as in shineth. — rh pSj t6 aXriMv, the 
true light) Jesus Christ: John i. 9. — n^ri) now, with you; but it will 
shine the more for ever : ver. 28. Comp. until now, ver. 9. — ipahn, 
shineth) On this account it was now less needful for John to bring 
forward the prophets in his Epistles than it was for Peter ; whose 
2d Epistle, i. 19, comp. respecting the day and the morning star. 
Peter, with his Epistles, stands about midway between the suffering 
of Christ and the close of the life of John. 

9 'Ek Tip <pwTi, in the light) as it were in his own element. Thus in, 
ver. 11. — ddeXfiov, a brother) a believer: 3 John, 3, 5, 10. The 
very title contains the cause of love. 

10. ^-/.avdaKov h ahTui ovK 'isTiv, there is no occasion of stumbling in 
him) The contrary is in ver. 11, has blinded. But the notion of the 
one is supplied from the other : in him who loves, there is neither 
blindness nor an occasion of stumbling : in him who does not love, 
there is both blindness and an occasion of stumbling. He who hates 
his brother, is a stumbling-block to himself, and stumbles against 
himself and everything within and without : he who loves, has a 
path firee from obstacles. 

11. 'o di fiiffuv, but he who hates) A direct opposition. Where 

118 1 JOHN II. 12. 

there is not love, there is hatred ; the heart is not empty. — 'rroZ, 
where) and whither. — sTv<pXugf, has blinded) Darkness not only sur- 
rounds him, but has also blinded him. 

12. "Eypa^^a v/j,7\i, rexvia, I have written to you, my sons) John, 
throughout the whole of the Epistle, and in this chapter, calls all to 
whom he writes, nxvta, sons ; but in ver. 13-27, he particularly 
divides them into fathers, young men, and -Ttaibia, or children. 
Wherefore nma and 'jaidla are not synonymous. Writing to Tinvla, 
his sons, ch. ii. 1, he says, at the beginning of the paragraph, I write, 
ver. 1 (comp. ver. 7 and 8) ; and here, at the conclusion, he sub 
joins, / have written ; not changing the things already mentioned, 
but confirming them again and again : ver. 12. Comp. 1 Pet. v. 12, 
I have written. Thence he suitably addresses three degrees of age, 
which are according to nature, but variously imbued with grace : 
and he addresses as fathers, those who bad witnessed the time of 
Jesus Christ engaged on earth : as young men, those who, having 
overcome the wicked one, ought also boldly to have subdued the 
world lying in the wicked one, and the lust of the world : as ffa/&'a, 
little children, those whom, after the departure of the fathers and the 
young men, the last hour was unexpectedly^ coming upon, and in it 
Antichrist. This address has a proposition or statement, and a dis- 
cussion of the subject. In the statement he says : / write to you, 
fathers : I wnte to you, young men : I write to you, itailia, little chil- 
dren: ver. 13; but in the discussion of the subject, he says, I have 
written to you, fathers, ver. 14 : I have written to you, young men, 
ver. 14-17 : I have written to you, ntaihla, little children, ver. 18-27 ; 
the word, / have written, being itself twice inserted at ver. 21 and 26. 
The method of these passages very closely resembles that of the 
beginning and conclusion of the Epistle : for ch. i. 4, he uses the verb, 
of writing, in the present tense; but in ch. v. 13 he says, Ihave written. 
Haying ended the threefold address, he returns to them collectively, 
again addressing them as nn^'ia, beloved sons, ver. 28. From this 
division the various readings in 12th' and following verses, noticed 
in thfe Apparatus, are more easily refuted.— i/^Tp, to you) The doc- 
trine of the remission of sins belongs to the fathers also, respecting 
whom we have just spoken.— ajBewvra/, are remitted) The apostle 

1 Occupo, like (p^aua, used in the sense of taking by surprise He warns 
them that the last time, in which Antichrist should appear, was about to come. 
The last tmie was m a Certain sense already come, but its decided development 
was to be after the death of the fathers and young men. T. 

2 inferior authorities read Tten^U for tski/U in ver. 13.— E. 

1 JOHN II. 13, 14, 119 

puts this summing up of the things which he has hitherto treated 
of, proceeding to other things which are built upon the remission of 
sins as a foundation. — dm) on account of. — avroii, of Himself) Jesus 

13. "On, because) Thus three times : comp. ver. 12 ; 1 Pet. v. 12, 
where the sense of because is explained by an accusative with an 
infinitive, which is more clear. He proposes three subjects, and will 
shortly treat of them ; and he here represents [gives at once] the 
summaries of those subjects, of which he is about to treat. — lyvu- 
xari, ye have known) a heavenly Father, in preference to fathers of 
flesh. — ri)D Uar'spa, the Father) and so all things, ver. 20. 

14. "Eypu'^a, I have written) In ver. 13 and 14, he passes from 
/ write to / have written : and not without reason. For by trans- 
posing the verb of writing from the present to the past, he suggests 
a most strong admonition. — on) because. — kyvdixaTi rh aw &px^^-i V^ 
have known Him who is from the beginning) He who is from the be- 
ginning is Jesus Christ. 'Apx/i is not the beginning of the Gospel, 
but the beginning of all things : ch. i. 1, note. Artemon objects, that 
God the Father might also be thus spoken of: Part ii. c. 13. I 
reply, Why not ? But the figure Antonomasia is frequently em- 
ployed by John, when he speaks of Christ. Comp. ver. 20. The 
fathers, as well as the apostle, were already alive at , that time, in 
which Jesus Christ had been conspicuous on earth : and some of 
them, as it is probable, had known Him both in person and by faith. 
Comp. ch. iii. 6, note ; 1 Cor. xv. 6 ; Matt. xiii. 16. Certainly all had 
known Him by faith, and had seen that golden age of the Church, 
to which the age of the younger men, who ought to avoid anti- 
christs, is opposed. John repeats this clause from the preceding 
verse, without the addition of more words, subjoining to the state- 
ment a treatment of the subject equally brief, and using modesty 
towards the fathers, to whom it was not necessary that many things 
should be written. The knowledge of even these respecting Christ 
is very great, comprising all things. Knowledge is assigned to 
fathers and children ; strength to young men. — 'ley^Mpol, strong) Other 
young men are strong in body ; you, in faith. — o Xoyos roy ©eou, the 
Word of God) from which is strength : ch. iv. 4. — b i/A/i ij/im, abideth 
in you) Nor can the Evil One tear it away from you, nor does Anti- 
christ endanger you. — rh mvrjphv, the Evil One) who especially lies in 
wait for youth. John appears to refer to a certain remarkable in- 
stance of virtue exhibited by the young men to whom he writes. Of 
this nature was their constancy in confession in the persecution of 

120 1 JOHN II. 15, 16. 

Domitian ; and also the return of that young man, whom the apostle, 
with the greatest gentleness, led back from robbery to repentance 
(although the apostle made that expedition not until he had returned 
from Patmos : comp. ver. 22, note), as it is most pleasantly de- 
scribed by Clement of Alexandria, in his treatise. What rich man 
can be saved? ch. 42 ; by Eusebius, Eccle. Hist., Book iii. 20 ; and 
by Chrysostom, in his 1st Exhortation to the fallen Theodore, 

ch. 11. 

15. Mil aya^arf rh xoV.tiov, love not the world) This has special re- 
ference to you, young men. Follow up your victory against the 
wicked one, in whom the world lies: ch. v. 19. — ohx eanv, is not) Con- 
traries do not exist together. — fi aya.'uri rov Uarpog) the love of the 
Father towards His children, and fihal love [of the children] towards 
the Father. 

16. nSii — !j smSufjjla TYii eapjihg, -/.a! ij Ivi6u/J,!a ruv op^aX/iSv, xai i] 
aXatonia roZ jSiou, all— the lust of the flesh, and the lust of the eyes, and 
the pride of life) The world contains all these, and nothing besides 
them. The lust of the flesh means those things, on which the senses 
of enjoyment, as they are termed, viz. the taste and touch, feed. 
The lust of the eyes means those things, by which the senses of in- 
vestigation, the eye or sight, hearing and smelling, are occupied. 
'AXalonia is arrogant pomp, when any one assumes too much to 
himself either in words or in actions. See Eaphel. It is also com- 
prised under the word, lust, in the next verse : and therefore arro- 
gance of life, is that which leads forth lust abroad, and diffuses it more 
largely into the world, so that a man loishes to he as great as possible 
in food, in dress, in plate, in furniture, in buildings, in estates, in 
servants, in his retinue, in his equipage, in his offices, etc. Comp. 
Apocal. xviii. 12, 13. Chrysostom, in the passage referred to above, 
speaks of rJv riKpov rov jSiarrA-bv, the vanity of life, and rrtv /pasraBiav 
Tou l3iou, the display of life : where he relates a youthful example of 
such insolence overcome by sacred love. Either kind of lust is the 
little fire (spark) ; arrogance is the conflagration. Even those who 
do not love arrogance of life, may possibly pursue the lust of the 
eyes ; and they who have overpowered this, yet frequently retain the 
lust of the flesh : for this prevails in the greatest degree, and to the 
widest extent, among the poor, the middle classes, and the powerful; 
even among those who appear to exercise self-denial : and again, 
unless it is overcome, a man easily advances from it to the lust of the 
eyes, where he has the means [materials for it] ; and from this to 
pride of life, where he has the opportunity [resources]. The second 

1 JOHN 11. 17, 18. 121 

is included in the third, and the first in the second. The three 
cardinal vices, pleasure, avarice, and pride, do not coincide with 
these three ; but yet they are comprised in them. Comp. Luke viii. 
14 ; Deut. xvii. 16, 17 ; Matt. iv. 3, 6, 9. And youth is especially 
commanded to avoid these three, comp. 2 Tim. ii. 22, since it might 
abuse its great vigour. Eccles. xii. 

17. Kal, and) An abbreviated expression : that is, the world 
passeth away, and the lust thereof, and he also who loves the world; 
but God, and he who doeth, etc. — muv, doing) as the love of the 
Father brings with it [requires of necessity]. — rl 6iXri/j,a, the will) 
This will requires from us self-restraint, temperance, modesty, which 
are contrary to the world. — ^eve;, ahideth) and has abiding goods, 
truly to be wished for, opposed to those three mentioned before ; 
namely, riches, and glory, and life : Prov. xxii. 4. — xaSug xal o Qiag 
tiiHi slg rhv aiojm, even as God also ahideth for ever) A various 
reading of great beauty, and undoubtedly true. It is found in Latin 
fathers of no mean authority.^ 

18. Jlaidia,, little children) See on ver. 12. The doctrine respect- 
ing antichrist is not beyond the capacity of a more tender age : 2 
John ver. 7, note. Whence also the eleventh Catechesis, or Lecture 
to beginners, of Cyril treats of antichrist. — ia-xa-rn, the last) not with 
respect to all times of the world, but in the antithesis of children to 
fathers and to young men? — %a.) %a6dii;, and even as) and it is so, 
even as ye have heard, namely, that antichrist com,es ; and, indeed, 
already there are many, etc. There is a similar ellipsis, ver. 27, 
note. — fixovaari, ye have heard) ch. iv. 3. — on, that) The particle is 
not redundant. The language is more distinct by the use of 6V;, that, 
appended to it. — o an'r/jfierog, antichrist) The Spirit had predicted 
the falling away of many from the truth of Christ Jesus the .Son of 
God ; but John does not use the word antichrist in the singular 
number except in the 1st Epistle, ii. 18, 22, iv. 3, in the 2d Epiistle 
ver. 7 : he does not introduce it at all in the 3d Epistle, in his Gospel, 

' Nevertheless it is not marked either in the margin of the larger Ed., or in 
the context of the Germ. Version (but only in a note). In fact, it wants the 
authority of Greek MSS. and Editions in its support. — E. B. 

Cypr. and Lucifer add the words, " Quomodo et Deus manet in aeternura." 
— E. 

2 There were three hours or seasons in all, of which the one both began after 
the other, and conjointly with continuous career inclined towards the end. The 
hour of the fathers and also of the youths was immediately completed. Hence 
it is to the little children that John says, " It is the last hour." In this the last 
hour we all even still live. — V. g. 

123 1 JOHN II. Vd. 

or in the Apocalypse ; nor does any other writer of the New Testa- 
ment use it. Whether the phraseology of the apostles or the language 
of the faithful led to the introduction of that word, John, about to 
cut off [guard against] the errors which might arise, wishes mention 
to be made not only of antichrist, but also of antichr-ists : and when 
he speaks of antichrist, or the spirit of antichrist, or a deceiver and 
antichrist, though he speaks in the singular number, he designs to 
point out all who are deceivers and enemies of the truth. The faith- 
ful had heard that the spirit of antichrist, and antichrist himself, should 
come. John acknowledges that, and adds, that the spirit of antichrist 
is now already in the world, that now there had arisen many antichrists. 
And as Christ is sometimes spoken of for Christianity, so antichrist is 
spoken of for antichristianity, or the doctrine and multitude of men 
opposed to Christ. There is in particular one remarkable adversary, 
who is called the Horn speaking great things, Dan. vii. 8, 20; the man 
of sin, etc., 2 Thess. ii. 3, 4 ; a beast ascending out of the bottomless 
pit, Apocal. xi. 7, xvii. 8 ; but he indeed appears to be called by the 
same name of antichrist, rather in accordance with ecclesiastical 
usage, ancient and modern, than in accordance with the sense of the 
apostle. Comp. H. Mare's Synopsis of Prophecy, Book 1st, eh. i. 4. 
John so admits that antichrist even then was come, as to teach, that 
not one only, but many antichrists had come ; a matter which he 
considers of greater consequence and more disastrous. The whole 
class of those, who have any good or evil disposition, is often ex- 
pressed in the singular number with the article. " O ayaStig avSpU'Troc, 
the good man [every man that is good], etc. Matt. xii. 35, xviii. 17; 
1 Pet. iv. 18 ; Tit. ii. 8 ; John x. 10, 12; and so everywhere, espe- 
cially in Proverbs, also 1 John iv. 2, 3, 6. Thus o -vj/suffr?);, 6 wKdvog, 
aiiTi^piaros, the liar, the deceiver, antichrist, ch. ii. 22 ; 2 John ver. 
7. Therefore antichrist, or antichnstianity, has propagated itself from 
the close of John's life through the whole course of ages, and still 
remains until that great adversary arises. — epx^"^"^') comes, from an- 
other place. The antithesis is, " Many antichrists have arisen," viz. 
from us, ver. 19. Comp. Acts xx. 29, 30. — xal nv) xal, and: m, 
Lat. hodie, to-day, Germ, wurklich, actually. This is opposed to 
mere previous hearing [of antichrists].— o^sK—lffr/V, whence— it is) 
Hence the necessity of the admonition follows. 

19. 'Eg^X^oi/, they went out) The antithesis is, they would have re- 
mained.—!! yap, for if) One who is truly faithful does not easily fall 
away : ch. iii. 9, v. 18.— aX\' ha,, but that) that is, but they went 
out, that, etc. 

1 JOHN n. 20-22, 128 

20. Kal u/j,ei'; %f/(r(ia s'^srs a'Trb tov k^m, and ye have an unction 
from the Holy One) An abbreviated expression (as Jobn i. 18, xiv. 
10, notes), with this meaning : you have an anointing (a chrism) from 
Christ ; you have the Holy Spirit from the Holy One. But the title 
of anointing (chrism) has an allusion to the name of antichrist, in an 
opposite sense : ver. 18; 6 ^piaac, 0i6g, He who hath anointed us is God, 
2 Cor. i. 21 ; Xp/oric, Christ, the Anointed, is the Son of God, Acts 
iv. 26, 27 ; Xpla/^a, the anointing, is the Holy Spirit ; Heb. i. 9. 
Ta iraih'ia, the little children, have this spiritual anointing; for together 
•with baptism, which they received, was joined the gift of the Holy 
Spirit ; and for the sake of signifying this, it appears to have been 
a subsequently received practice, from this very passage, for the bodies 
of the baptized to be anointed with oil. See Suicer's Thesaurus on 
the word yjiUiJ^a.. He speaks respecting the Holy Spirit more 
plainly, ch. iii. 24, iv. 13, v. 6. For this is often the custom of 
John, to touch upon any subject immediately, intending to handle it 
more plainly and fully after some interval. Thus, is born, ver. 29, 
comp. with ch. iii. 9 ; thus, liberty or confidence, ch. iii. 21, comp. 
with ch. V. 14. — a-B-J Tou ayiov, from the Holy One) the Eighteous, 
ver. 1, 29; the Son of God, John x. 36. See respecting the anoint- 
ing of the most Holy, Dan. ix. 24. Formerly there was a sacred 
ointment of a material nature, Ex. xxx. 25 ; now it is of a spiritual 
kind. — zai) and from thence. — •3-ai/ra) all things, which it is most 
needfal for you to know. Seducers were to be repelled with thi^ 
answer : just as a prudent man answers an importunate vender, I 
want nothing. 

21. "Eypa-^a, I have written) He did that at the end of ver. 13. 
— on, because) Thus ver. 13, note. The address is very confirmatory: 
Be assured that ye know: comp. ver. 3. — rriv aXrikiav) the truth, re- 
specting the Son, and so respecting the Father: the verse cited above. 
— irav -^luBog, every lie) The truth is ahogether true, and nourishes 
no falsehood. 

22. T/'s ; who ?) Thus, who ? ch. v. 6.- — o -^ivarris) 6 has a force 
relative to the abstract, a lie, ver. 21 ; that is, who is guilty of that 
lie and imposture ? — on, that) The chief truth is, that Jesus is the 
Christ : John xx. 31. In the Acts, Paul continually demonstrated 
this main point ; and in his Epistles he presupposed it. John often 
makes mention of this main point in his Gospel, and in this and the 
following Epistle. From which it may be inferred that these books 
M'ere not written by him altogether at the close of his life. — o dvri- 
XfiHToi, antichrist) ver. 18. The truth respecting Jesus, that He is 

124 1 JOHN n. 23-27. 

the Christ, that He is the Son of God and is come in the flesh, 
must be held in its integrity. He who denies one part respectmg 
Jesus, does not hold both Him, in His completeness, and the Father 
at the same time. The spirit of antichrist, and antichrist has done 
and does this. — tov Tiaripa xal rh Tiov, the Father and the Son) that is, 
the Son, and therefore the Father. 

23. Jiac, every one) even though he does not think that he also 
denies the Father. — ?%£;, has) in acknowledgment and fellowship : 2 
John ver. 9. 

24. ' T/^£7s, you) There is an antithesis in the pronoun : therefore 
a transposition is used, as in ver. 27. — o) that which, respecting the 
Father and the Son.^ — rixouaari, ye have heard) This is to be pro- 
nounced with emphasis. — /mv'stu, let it abide) He uses exhortation. 
Wherefore, if it abides, has this meaning ; If you shall be of the char- 
acter of those in whom it abides. — iJ o.'ts' apxnQ, that which is from the 
beginning) Now this is to be pronounced with emphasis. — xai i/x-sTg, 
ye also) in your turn. Thus, in you, in Him, ver. 27. 

25. Avrhg, He) The Son : ver. 27, 28. — ii//'Tv) to us, if we abide in 
Him. — rriv Z^oiTiv, life) The construction follows the verb going before. 
He hath promised. The sense is, the promise is life eternal. 

26. TauTa \yfa~\ia. These things have Iivritten) these things from ver. 
21. John, as his practice is, begins and concludes with the same 
form of words ; and having as it were ended his parenthesis, he con- 
tinues the 20th verse in the 27th. — 'n-Xavmrw, them who seduce) that 
is, endeavour to seduce you. 

27. Ka; u/iE??, and ye) On this depends ye have no need; a befitting 
transposition.' — iXajSiTi oat' ahrov, ye have received from Him.) John i. 
16. — h h/jiTv fjAvii, abides in you) This indicative implies a very subtle 
exhortation (to be compared with 2 Tim. iii. 14), by which he makes 
the faithful, when harassed by deceivers, thus to answer them : The 
anointing abideth in us : we do not need a teacher : it teaches us the 
truth : in that doctrine we will continue. See how pleasant the tran- 
sition is from this introduction of the language of another speaker'' 
to the direct address, in the following verse. Abides in you, ye shall 

abide 'in Him, are correlative expressions. — xal) and therefore. oii 

Xpiiav £%£?-£, ye have no need) A phrase indicative of character (or of 
courtesy), expressing the repulse of the faithful directed against de- 
ceivers. Aurapxaa. hodiSdxrctiv They who are taught of God have a 

' See Append, on Htperbaton.— E. 
2 See Append, on Sermocinatic— E. 

1 JOHN II. 28. 123 

suficiency in themselves. God is sufficient for those who are taught 
by Him. — r/j) any one, whoever he may be. By rejecting the whole 
class of seducers, individuals are the more easily ordered to begone, 
although they wish to appear more excellent than others. — diSdaxri, 
teach) Heb. viii. 11, note. — vf/jccg, yoii) You are '?raidla, little children, 
but not however ignorant. — dXX' iii, hut [it is] as) The verb sub- 
stantive is to be understood between the two particles, as between 
lut as, and as, not as, in ver. 19, 18, and ch. iii. 12 ; 2 Cor. iii. 13. 
Nor are we to think that as in this passage has not its Apodosis until 
the is, or, ye shall abide. — rh aurb, the same) at all times ; not one 
thing at one time, and another at another, but consistent with 
itself, and the same in the case of all who are holy. — di&dsxsi vi^ag, 
teaches you) The mutual communication is not set aside, but is 
approved of, in the case of those who are made partakers of the 
anointing in one body. Teaches, the present tense : from which 
arises the past, hath taught, with an eye to the future, ye shall abide. — 
mpi vdvTciiv, concerning all things) which you ought to loiow and to be 
taught. An antithesis to one and the same. — xa! ovx 'ian -vl/sD&s, and 
is no lie) like that, which they boast of. — sdlda^iv, hath taught you) 
the anointing. — /j^mTn, ye shall abide) The faithful are ordered to 
say. As the anointing hath taught us, abiding in that doctrine, we 
shall abide in the Son, and therefore in the Father also : ver. 24. 
This Future has the force of consolation and exhortation. The 
whole discourse brought down from ver. 18 to this verse, is most 
pleasantly adapted to young children, and in particular the mention 
oi teaching and anointing. 

28. Tsxtla,^ dear sons) Having now finished his address to the 
three different ages, he returns to the whole. — /j/inn, abide) — e« aWa, 
in Him) in Jesus Christ. For it is He who shall be manifested. — 
■^apprid'av) confidence, of having kept the truth (ch. iii. 21, iv. 17, v. 
14). — ij,n aig^uM/Mv, we may not be ashamed) Oh! how great will then 
be your shame, ye Jews, Socinians, and all pretended Christians, 
and whomsoever He shall deny to be His ! — •xapouslcf, at His coming) 
He places this object before the fathers, the young men, and chil- 
dren. It appears, therefore, that he wrote this Epistle before the 
Apocalypse, in which at length His coming is represented as put off 
to a greater distance. Tertullian supposes that the Epistle was sub- 
sequently written. 

1 The word fiov, which was set down by the margin of both Editions among 
the readings not to be approved of, by some chance or other has crept into the 
Germ. Vers. — E. B. 

126 1 JOHN II. 29.-111. 1-S 

29. 'eAv ilbriTi, if ye ^now)Froiii the mention of the future mani- 
festation of the Son and the sons of God, he derives a new discus- 
sion on sin and righteousness.— S/xa/o's lar,) Jesus Christ is Righ- 
teous : ver. 1, iii. 5 and 6.— y/vw-rxErs) ye acknowledge.— ^rag) every 
one, and he alone.— /eysv.^ira/, is born) The righteous produces the 


1. AiduKiv, hath given) not only hath destined and conferred, but 
also hath displayed. — rexm eioH, sons of God) What is greater than 
God ? what relationship is nearer than that of sons ? — nXtiSSJ/Mu, 
should be called) should be so, together with the title : which appears 
empty to the world. — dia rotro, on this account) A consequence, as 
ver. 13. The word, behold, is to be opposed to the world, which de- 
spises the righteous. — jJ/iSr, Its) who are like God. [But if those 
who have no regard for God hold thee in any account, there is rea- 
son for thee to feel alarmed about thy state. — V. g.] 

2. ' Ayantriroi) beloved by me, because the Father loves us. — vDv) 
now, at present. The antithesis is, not yet. In this verse it must 
be especially seen, what words are to be pronounced with a fuller 
sound : now, not yet, what, like Him. —, sons) This is repeated 
from ver. 1. — t/ iso/MiSa) what ice are about to be further, by the 
power of this sonship. This what, by Epitasis [see Append.], sug- 
gests something unspeakable, contained in the likeness of God, 
which so exalts the sons of God, that they become as it were gods. 
— o'l'da/Mv) we know, in general. — pavsfcoir], shall be manifested) The 
same word occurs, ch. ii. 28. — ofioioi aurip, like Him) God, whose 
sons we are. — 6V;, since) From beholding comes resemblance, 2 Cor. 
iii. 18; as the whole body, the countenance, and especially the eyes 
of those who behold the sun, are sunned. — 6-^6/jbi6a, we shall see) 
Sight includes in its notion all the other kinds of senses. — aMv, 
Him) God. — xccduii sen, as He is) tliat is, manifestly. 

3. T;}i» eX'irlda, hope) He has treated of faith, and he will treat of 
it again : in the next place, he will treat of love ; now he speaks of 
hope. — eV aura, in Him) in God. — ayw'^s/, purifietli) This mention 
of holiness is appropriate after speaking of sight, which is delighted 
with purity. — ixttng, Fie) Jesus Christ : ver. 5. 

1 JOHN III 4-8 127 

4. 'o -jroiZv rriv a/iaprlav, he that committeth sin) There is an anti- 
thesis to this in, he that doeth righteousness, ver. 7. Ho/eft is to do, 
to exercise. — Kai, also) by that very fiict. — rrtv uvofjilav, iniquity) 
avofila, iniquity, has a somewhat more dreadful sound, especially in 
the ears of those who greatly esteem the law and will of God, than 
afj-aprla, sin. From the law is the knowledge of sin. There is a 
kindred expression, eh. v. 17, all unrighteousness is sin. A crooked 
line is seen of itself; but it is more conspicuous when compared 
with the ruler. By this expression the philosophical [notion o/] sin 
is most befittingly refuted. — xa,!, and) Nay indeed, not only is the 
nature (principle) of sin closely connected with that of iniquity, but 
it is the same. Thus -/.at, and, ch. v. 4, and yap, for, ch. v. 3. — 
jj afjiapria edrh i) avofiia, sin is iniquity) Sin is the subject, inasmuch 
as the whole discourse treats of it. The antithesis is. He that 
doeth righteousness is righteous : he that doeth righteousness, is 
not considered uvo/iog, unrighteous, but he has the testimony and 
praise of righteousness : ver. 7, comp. with Gal. v. 23 ; 1 Tim. 
i. 9. 

5. 'EipavepiiSri, ivas manifested) in the flesh. — rcig a/j,apT!ag ri//,Siv, our 
sins) inasmuch as they are especially displeasing to Him. — app, He 
might take away) John i. 29, note. — h aurip, in Him) The sentence, 
He is righteous, ver. 7, has reference to this. 

6. Ou;)/ afj^apram, sinneth not) In him the good of righteousness is 
not overcome by the evil of sin. — ou;>^ lupaxiv aMv) hath not seen 
Him in spirit ; although perhaps, as to personal appearance, he hath 
seen Him in the flesh : or even, though he hath seen Him in 
spirit, at the very moment of sin he becomes such, as though he had 
never seen Him in any way. — oudi 'iyvuxiv aurbv, nor known Him) in 
truth ; although perhaps he hath formerly known Him personally. 
Light and knowledge produce likeness to God : ver. 2. 

7. Mrjdilg •aXavdrcii, let no man lead you astray) He deceives, who 
thinks that he can be accounted righteous without the deeds of 
righteousness. — [dlxaiog iori, is righteous) Deut. vi. 25. — V. g.J 

8. 'E/c Tou Sia^oXou, of the devil) as a son : ver. 10. The word born 
is not however here employed, nor seed, but works. For from the 
devil there is not generation, but corruption. — acr' apxns, from the 
beginning) from the time when the devil is the devil. He seems to 
have kept his first estate but a very short time. — a/j-aprdvn, sins) An 
abbreviated expression : that is, has sinned from the beginning, and 
is the cause of all sins, and still goes on sinning : he sins (with guilt 
becoming heavier from day to day), and induces others to sin : he 

128 I JOHN III. 9, 10. 

is never satiated.^ The because in ver. 8 is in antithesis to the because 
in ver. 9. — ih rouro, for this purpose) The devil does not make an 
end of sinning : to destroy sin, is the work of the Son of God. — 
r(i spya, the works) wliich are most contorted [perverse], and to un- 
ravel which, was an occasion worthy of the Son of God. 

9. ' A/jt,apT/av oCi ■roiBi', doth not commit sin) The sentiment is imme- 
diately increased in weight : and he cannot sin. To each proposition 
its own because is added : to the one, in respect to the seed, or the 
regenerate man ; to the other, on the part of God Himself. — g^ip/ia 
avrou h aiirOj fiivsi, his seed remaineth in him) In him who is born of 
God, there remaineth the seed of God, that is, the word, with its 
peculiar efficacy, 1 Pet. i 23 ; James i. 18 ; although sin often en- 
deavours, by a furious attack, to overthrow the regenerate. Or 
rather, it may be taken in this sense : the seed of God, that is, he 
who is born of God, abideth in God. ^■jr'ep/ji.a, born. Such persons 
are truly D''n^S ynr, the seed of God, Mai. ii. 15. — ob bhrnrai, he cannot) 
The possibility of his sinning is not absolutely denied ; but this is 
affirmed, that the new birth and sin cannot exist together. Thus, 
how can he, iv. 20, compared with Apocal. ii. 2 ; Acts iv. 20. The 
matter is, as in the case of an abstemious man, who cannot drink 
wine, and in various kinds of antipathy {i.e. natural aversion). 
Gataker has made this elegant paraphrase : The regenerate man does 
not sin : he proposes to himself, as far as possible, a life free from 
sin ; nor does he ever spontaneously give hvfnself up to sin. And if 
at any time, contrary to the purpose of ^ his mind, he shall have 
offended, he neither rushes headlong into sin, nor does he continue in 
it; but having acknowledged his error, he immediately returns in haste 
to his former course as soon as, and as far as, he is able.— Vosih., 
ch. 33 ; where he adds the similitude of the magnetic needle, which 
always points to the pole, is easily turned aside from this direction, 
but always reseeks the pole.— 1;^ roD &,oy y.y'mnra,, is bom of God) 
The former words, of God, have greater emphasis in the pronuncia- 
tion ; and this being observed, it is plain that the same thing is not 
proved by the same, the beginning of the verse being compared with 
the words here at the end of it. 

10. -Ev r.iru., in this) This is to be referred to the preceding 
words.— ;ca/ fi^ &ya-^S«, and he ivho does not love) A transition from 
the genus, or the whole to a part. 

' But this the great sinner shall be shut up, in the abyss, as in a prison : 
then, m fine, punishment shall be inflicted on, him in the fire.— V. »-. 

1 JOHN III. 11-17. 129 

11. ' kyyiXia, the announcement) An appellation most characteristic 
of Gospel liberty [as contrasted with the bondage which the law 
gendereth]. He never applies this appellation to the law. 

12. Ouxadug) not as. An ellipsis. See ch. ii. 27, note. — Kdi'v, Cain) 
The Scripture speaks more mildly respecting Adam himself, than 
respecting Cain and persons like him. — h rod -rovripou, from the Evil 
One) Afterwards 'Kovrtpdi, evil. It is antithetical to, of God, ver. 10. 

13. ' Khik(poi /iou, my brethren) In this one passage only he calls 
them brethren, in antithesis to the world without, and in his re- 
peated mention of the brethren. At other times he says, beloved, my 
dear children, ch. ii. 7, i. 12. — ij,i(Si7; has in hatred) as Cain hated 
even his brother, [viz. with a murderous hatred : for its bad works 
are reproved by your righteous works. — V. g.J 

14. MsTal3iPr)>ia/jt,sii, loe have passed") We had therefore been in death. 
— Jx rou DoivaTov, from death) spiritual. — slg rnv Z,(^n^, into life) spiritual, 
and also eternal : in the following verse. The language again is 
reciprocal : we are in life, and life is in us ; ver. 15. — on, because) 
A judgment [a criterion drawn] from the effect. — /mivsi, abides) is 
as yet. 

15. ' AvDpu-jToxTone, a murderer) as Cain. All hatred is an attempt 
against life : but life [spiritual] does not assail life [physical]. He 
who hates his brother desires either that his brother or himself 
should not live. Hence duels.^ — fji^mvaav, abiding) Eternal life is in 
very deed in him who believes and loves. 

16. Tnv ayd-Trriv, love) the nature of love. 

17. Thv jSlov Tou xodfiov, the substa7ice of the world) An instance of 
the figure Litotes : in antithesis to lives, ver. 16. — xXiiar}, shall shut) 
whether asked for aid, or not asked. The sight of the wretched at 
once knocks at the hearts of the spectators, or even opens them : 
then a man freely either closes his bowels of compassion, or opens 
them more fully. Comp. Deut. xv. 7. — rd evXay/ja, his bowels) 
Together with his bowels a man's substance is also closed or opened. — 

1 Whereas ver. 16 desires us to lay down our life for the brethren, duels re- 
quire one (awful to say !) to risk liis own life rather than not deprive another of 
his life. This is the part of desperate insanity, far removed from bravery. We 
may suppose that *he devil himself wonders how men, bearing also the Christian 
name, can have fallen so low. It is to be lamented that the men of chief 
authority in the world, with all the power that has been entrusted to them by 
God, either are not able, or not willing, to suppress duels. One single atrocity 
of this kind has power to involve in the direst guilt before God the whole 
human race, the whole assembly of Christians, or a whole camp of soldiers. 
-V. g. 

VOL. V. I 

130 1 JOHN III. 18-20. 

ri ayairn roij &eoij) that is, love towards God : ch. iv. 20. — /^ivn, abides) 
He said that he loved God : but he does not now love : ver. 18. 

18. Aoyifj) in idle word: it is opposed to in deed. — /Xwffir?)) by a 
pretending tongue : it is opposed to in truth. 

19. 'Ek ToiiTifi, in this) Hence depends we know and shall tranquil- 
ize ; and to this refers, since He is greater, ver. 20. — Jx rrji aXrihla;, 
of the truth) Of expresses the beginning or origin : E,om. ii. 8. For 
the truth makes love also true : ver. 18. — 'ifivpoghv ahroii) before Him 
who knows all things in truth, -we shall tranquilize our hearts in 
prayer: ver. 22. — 'Triigo/nv, we shall tranquilize) so that they shall - 
cease to condemn. The same word is used, Matt, xxviii. 14. — raj 
xapdiag rifiuiv, our hearts) The word avvsldtjeig, conscience, is used by 
Peter and Paul alone of the sacred writers : nor is it used in the 
Septuagint more than once, and that in another sense, Eccles. x. 20. 
For the Hebrew :h is rendered xapSia, the heart, for instance, 
1 Kings ii. 44, viii. 38. And so John nowhere uses the word amil- 
hns'i, conscience ; but here he implies it, in making mention of the 
heart: for it is the conscience which is tranquilized, and which 
condemns. Comp. Apparatus,^ p. 588. 

20. "On iav) whatever : Col. iii. 23, note : nearly equivalent to o ih, 
afterwards in ver. 22. "Whatever, or in whatever things, our heaH 
shall condemn us, that we shall be able to tranquihze. Or rather, if 
you prefer to take on and lav separately, you will have to repeat 
because after the sentence, understanding T say, as is very often 
done. — xarayivuexri, condemn) not respecting our entire condition, 
but respecting one or two failures or errors. This word is to he 
pronounced with emphasis : but in the following verse the emphasis 
falls upon the word heart— on fi,s!t^m, because greater) Conscience is 
weak, and knows something of ourselves only, not without trem- 
bling; nor has it the ability to pardon : but God is great, knows all 
our affairs, present, past, and future, and those of all men ; and has 
the right and the will of pardoning. This by itself does not yet 
tranquilize our hearts ; but while the righteous acknowledge this 
very thing, and confess their faults, and appeal from conscience to 
God, who is greater than it, and endeavour in no matter to with- 
draw themselves from the omniscience of God, they attain to tran- 
quility, ch. i. 9. See examples, Ps. Ii. 8, with the context 5 Ps. 

> Lachm. reads y»^«>e()«, with ABC ; Tisch. and Rec. Text, y<„<i™„f.,„, with 
Vulg. alone of the oldest authorities. C Vulg. have r<i, ^^plU, .. so Tisch. and 
Rec. Text. B and corrected A Syr. and Theb. have r^. ««^S/«, ; so Lachm 

1 JOHN III. 21-24.-IV. 1, 2. 131 

xxxii. 5, xix. 13, xc. 8. — yndexn, knows) nor however does He con- 
demn (xarayivuigxii). In the Greek there is a pleasant change^ of the 

21. Mil -/.aTccyntioxfi, does not condemn) either as never injured, or 
as again appeased. — 'Trappyjalav, confidence) in asking. This is re- 
peated, ch. V. 14, 15. This confidence far excels that tranquility 
which is expressed by the verb migofnv, we shall tranquilize. 

23. Tffl hofhaTi) on the name. Comp. Heb. vi. 10. — ■/.a.^ois, as) 
This particle belongs to the verbs, we should believe and hve? 

24. 'E;t Tou Uviv/jLUTog, from or by the Spirit) This is the first men- 
tion of the Holy Spirit in this Epistle, in accordance with the Divine 
economy here, as also in the Gospel of John, ch. xiv. 1-3, 26. And 
in this verse there is a kind of transition to the discussion respecting 
the Holy Spirit, which follows immediately in the beginning of 
ch. iv. It is given to us by the Spirit, and it is the Spirit which is 


1. Havrl) every spirit, which presents itself. — mibfiari) spintf by 
which any teacher is influenced. — doxi/jidt^iTs, try) according to the 
rule, which is given in ver. 2 and 3. — rnXKoi) many, as at other 
times, so in that age also. A dreadful crop of heresies sprung up 
in those times. John zealously contends against them. If he were 
alive at this day, he would be called by some too severe. — ■^suSo'rrpo- 
(pntai, faUe prophets) 2 Pet. ii. 1 ; Matt. xxiv. 11, 24. — i^iXriXuSagm, 
have gone out) firom their places. They have entered into the 
world : 2 John, ver. 7. — xog/iov, the world) which is easy to be de- 
ceived : ver. 4 and 5. 

2. Tiv(f)g}iiTi,^ ye know) Respecting the heresies of that age there 

' An instance of the figure Paregmenon, by which cognate words, both simple 
and compound, are joined together. See Appendix. 

* iifilii, to us) This pronoun, tliough expressed in the Germ. Vers., is re- 
garded by the margin of both Greek Editions as spurious. — E. B. 

ABO Vulg. Memph. Lucif. add ^fiju : so Lachm. Tisch. omits it, with inferior 
authorities. — E. 

^ The reading ■ytumx.irai (is to be known), which in the margin of both Ed. 
is left to the decision of the reader, is preferred in the Germ. Vers. — E. B. 

Tiiimxirxi is read by Vulg. and Syr. of the oldest authorities ; but ymmxiTs, 

132 1 JOHN IV. 3-9. 

are recent and easily accessible writings : the Apostolic Church of 
Buddeus, and the Disputations of Lange, etc.— ^S.-, every) ihe 
discourse is respecting the spirits of that time : for at other times 
false prophets also impugned other heads of doctrine respectmg 
Jesus Christ.— ttSi' irnvtj.a, every spirit) The Spirit of God is one 
only : but from Him every true teacher has his own peculiar in- 
spiration, which is called ^i/sD/ia, spirit. — ofioXoysT, confesses) ynth. 
the assent of the heart and mouth. By this word the doctrine is 
presupposed as already ratified and confirmed. — iv mpxl, in the 
flesh) He Himself, therefore, is something more than flesh. The 
heresies, which deny the truth of the flesh of Jesus Christ, pre- 
suppose, and by this very thing conflrm. His Deity, since they were 
not able to reconcile with this His flesh, as worthy of it. — iKjjXvUTa, 
who is come) On this advent the whole doctrine respecting Christ 
depends ; for that advent partly presupposes, partly embraces, and 
partly draws after it, this doctrine : ver. 15, note. 

3. Th) that is, Tnv/j-a, the spirit. — xal vuv, and now) ch. ii. 18, note. 

4. "X/is/i, ye) who acknowledge Jesus Christ. — ve\ir/.rixari, ye have 
overcome) ch. v. 4, 5. — [auroi)?, them) the false prophets. — V. g.] — o h 
v/i/i, who is in you) God. — o h rffl xoa/j^u, who is in the world) the 
spirit of antichrist, or the evil one. 

5. AuTol) they themselves. — ix rou ■/.6e/ji,ou XakoZei, speak of the world) 
They derive their language from the life and perception of the 
world. — axovii, heareth) on account of its agreement with them. 

6. 'Eff/ifi', we are) Understand, on this account we speak fi'om 
[of] God. — Jx TouTou, from this) which is stated in ver. 2—6. 

7. ' Aya'jrZ/Miv, let us love) From that very doctrine, which he has 
just defended, he now derives an exhortation to love. See ver. 9. 
The love of God is shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy Spirit : 
ver. 2 ; Rom. v. 5. — fi dyd'Tni, love) All love is fi'om God. 

8. Oux. 'iym, knoweth not) Is not born of God, and knoweth not 
God. — 6 &shg ayairr) sarin, God is love) dyd'ffri, without the article, 
as in ver. 16. This brief sentence imparted to John, even during 
the mere time which he took in writing it, more delight than the 
whole world can impart. 

9. 'Ev f!//,T>i, in us) that is, the love of God, which is now in us, 
throughout our whole spiritual experience. — Sn, because) This mo- 
tive of love is derived from ver. 3. From that which is said in ver. 3 
respecting Jesus Christ, who is come in the flesh, mutual love is 

by ABC Memph. Theb. later Syr. Iren. and Lucifer, the weightest authorities. 
— E. 

1 JOHN IV. 10-17. 133 

inferred, ver. 7 : the consequence is proved from the love of God 
towards us, who sent His Son, that we might Hve. It is a froof of 
the love of God towards us : it is a motive to our mutual love. 

10. "Eotiv, is) This denotes something prior to His manifestation. — 
rhv Qihv, God) who is most worthy to be loved. — ri/j,a;, us) who are 
most unworthy. 

11. 'O @ehg, God) who owes nothing. 

12. 'O @ihe, God) otherwise invisible. Comp. ver. 20. — h tif/^Tv 
fjisvei, dwelleth in us) This is treated of in ver. 13—16. — TiriXiiaiJjhrj 
krh, is perfected) accomplishes all things, which follow upon the 
expiation of sins. This is treated of, ver. 17-19. 

13. "On ix., because of) Where the Spirit of God is, there is God. 

14. Kos/ ri//,iTi) and we ourselves. Thus John xv. 27. — rska/iiSa 
xa} /j,aprupoufiiv; have seen and do testify) This is inferred from that 
which follows, we have known and believed, ver. 16. By the word, 
we have known, the first knowledge is marked, as it appears, as it is in 
the German Kennen lernen, to become acquainted with. For there is 
a kind of hiowledge which is antecedent to faith : and faith is ante- 
cedent to /j^aprupiav, testimoni/. But the word, we have seen, denotes 
the full /oocZ of the eyes, in beholding. — rh r'lh, the Son) There are 
two foundations and proofs [tests] of our dwelling in God, and God 
in us : the foUowship of the Spirit, and the acknowledging of the 
Son of God : ver. 13, 15. 

15. 'O T/os roD @iou,'the Son of God) and therefore the Saviour of 
the world, ver. 14. 

16. Kai rifiiTg, and we) A repetition [in beginning a fresh sentence], 
by the figure Anaphora [See Append.] Comp. ver. 14, note. There 
is also an increase of the force by Epitasis [See Append.] : where- 
fore h n/Mv, shortly afterwards, properly means in us [not to us, as 
Engl. Vers.], as appears by a comparison with the end of the verse. — • 
\_sv Tji aya'Tfi, in love) viz. the Divine love. — V. g.J 

17. Ms6' riij,uv, with us) The love of God in itself is always the 
same, and perfect : but with us TirO^iioirat, it is brought to its con- 
summation, rising more and more from its descent to us. — ha) to 
such a degree that. — irappnu'ia", confidence) The opposite term is fear. 
— h, in) Thus, in, Rom. ii. 16, note. — fi/jt^'^pa, the day) most terrible 
to others, more so than the day of death itself — r^s xplffsoii) of the 
last judgment. — on, because) The Secawse has reference to rourw, this. — 
ixims hgTi, He is) Jesus Christ is love, in heaven ; which is silently 
opposed to the world. By the words, in heaven, however, I suppose 
His previous dwelling in the world : the word is, on the other hand, 

134 1 JOHN IV. i8-21.-V, 1. 

shows certainly the present state of Jesus Christ. — niiiri l<six,tv, we 
are) who love God. See the next ver. ; John xv. 10.— ii/^ rw xoV^c^ 
rourou, in this world) which is void of love, and fears judgment. 
The mention of the world is an argument that the word He denotes 
Jesus Christ. Comp. ver. 9. 

18. *6'/3os, fear) which shrinks from God and the day of judgment. 
The condition of men is varied : without fear and love ; with fear 
without love ; with fear and love ; without fear with love. — a/a-);, 
love) towards God. — nXua, -perfect) To this refers, is brought to its 
consummation. — -/.oKaeiMlyiuhas torment) For it distrusts: it imagines 
to itself and sets forth all things as unfriendly and opposed to it; 
it flees from and hates them. 

19. 'Aya'Tw/iEi'') we love, driving away fear. — tt/pStos riya.'Krieev, Ee 
was the first to embrace us with love) How much the more hereafter ? 
Therefore fear is cast out. 

20. "Oi/ iupaxi, whom he hath seen) In this life we are held en- 
thralled by the external senses. — vSJg dumrai, how can he) A modal 
expression [See Append, on MoDALiS Sekmo) : It is impossible that 
such a man should love God, in the present. 

21. Tnv hroKriv, the precept) which must be kept by those who love 
God : Matt. xxii. 39. [He who loves not his brother, does not keep 
the commandment as to ipiXadiXfla, and therefore does not love 
God.— V. g.l 


1. nag, every one) The scope and design of this paragraph is plain 
from the conclusion, ver. 13. — -/.a,! ttSs, and every one) He who does 
not love his brother, does not love God : ch. iv. 20. He who loves 
God, loves his brother also. With great elegance the apostle so 
places the mention of love in this part of the discussion, that faith, 
which is the beginning and end of the whole discussion, should be 
referred to (regard should be had to faith) at the close.— ;(«;) also. 

1 The omission of the pronoun eiinoa, although expressed in the Germ. Vers., 
is reckoned among the more estabhshed readings by the margin of both Editions. 
— E. B. 

AB omit airo'i/. Vulg. in some MSS. has "Deum." Araiat. MS. has "in- 
viceni." Vu]g. makes ay«B-Sf4£j Ut us love, diligamus : not we love. Bee. Text 
has eivTov, with inferior authorities E. 

1 JOHN V. 2-7. 135 

iTopy^, spiritual love, is great towards any brother. Where there is 
aversion, the new life is immediately injured. — rh yiycvvri/j,ivov, him 
ivho is begotten) An Enthymem, the conclusion of which is : He that 
believes delights in the love of all who love God ; and in turn loves 
them : ver. 2. 

2. Koii, and) h diet, duon. Comp. ver. 3. 

3. BapiTai obx i'lsh, are not grievous) to the regenerate, who love ; 
and in themselves. In themselves they are pleasant : but the ex- 
pression, not grievous, is in contradiction and opposition to those who 
think them grievous. 

4. Ilav rh ysysmri/jLivDv, everything which is born) John iii. 6, note. 
— rhv xoff|U.ov, the loorld) which is opposed to keeping the command- 
ments of God and to the knowledge of Jesus Christ, and all things 
which the world presents in one's way to invite and terrify. — j) vixn, 
the victory) The more faith grows strong in the heart, the more does 
the world yield. — ?j mens, faith) See the efficacy of faith. 

5. T/'s km, who is he ?) Every one that believeth, and none but he, 
overcomes. He esteems nothing in comparison with the Son of God. 

6. olroi esriv, this is He) We shall presently see this verse in con- 
nection with those that follow. 

7. "Oti rpiTg ilaiv o) /j-aprupouvrsc Im' rSjs y^$ — Iv rCi ovpavSi, u Xlarrip xai 
6 Xoyog (o T'lhg) xai rh IIiiiv/jm- %ai o'l rpiTg h sldiv, Because there are 
three who bear witness on earth —in heaven, the Father, and the Word 
(the Son), and the Spirit : and these three are one) I have long ago 
explained the form employed in the margin of my edition, and 
blamed by some one, although the whole dissertation in the Appara^ 
tus itself was prepared for a true vindication of the passage. Now, 
since this most brilliant passage has again and again come under my 
consideration, I will first enter into a gleaning of criticisms, and will 
bring forward some chief points "^ lirom my Apparatus, according to 

' These, indeed (although regularly inserted in the second Edition of the 
Appar. Crit. by Burk), I did not thinli fit to omit in this remarkable passage, as 
I did in the case of the other critical annotations. My doing so will, I am confi- 
dent, be pardoned, or even welcomed, by those readers who are not possessed of 
the App. Crit.— E. B. 

The only Greek MSS., in any form, which support the words from h ru olpxacc, 
6 TLarvip, to finprupoiiiires h rfi yri, are — 1. The Cod. Montfortianus at Dublin, 
palpably copied from the modern Latin Vulgate [as the fact, that the articles 
before Trar'/ip, 7i.6yos, and •jri/evfix are clumsily omitted, shows], and brought for- 
ward as an authority to compel Erasmus to insert the words : Erasmus terms it 
Codex Britannicus. 2. Cod. Eavianus of Berlin, a transcript from the Coni- 
plutensian Polyglot, imitating even its misprints. 3. A MS. at Naples, with the 

136 1 JOHN V. 7. 

the order of the subjects there discussed ; by which critics may, if 
they please, be invited to a more full discussion of the matters of 
which we have there spoken, as the truth shall require : but the last 
of those subjects will lead us to a much more pleasing contemplation, 
that of interpretation. 

I. Many persons confine their critical investigations within the 
limits of this one passage ; or at any rate wish to commence them 
with this passage. They act as though any one should begin the 
study of Geometry with squaring the circle. Such persons scarcely 
find ground on which to stand ; but he who has penetrated through 
other intricacies, will be able to find a way here also, and to set at 
rest the minds of others, as far as they are teachable. Here it is 
only by changing the course that the harbour is gained : the pre- 
sent passage requires a peculiar method of treatment. 

II. Not a few of those, who rightly and religiously defend this 
very expression, are too eager in seeking out and employing sup- 
ports even of such a kind as have no strength. That has occurred 
to a distinguished man, Leonard Twells, whose miscellaneous pro- 
duction Wolf has translated from English into Latin, and with a few 
corrections, has put forth on this passage, pp. 300—313. I read and 
attentively considered Twells before the publication of my Appa- 
ratus : Wherefore, when I proceeded with more of self-distrust than 

words added in the margin by a recent hand. 4. Cod. Ottobonianus 298, in the 
Vatican, a Greek and Latin MS. of the 15th century, in which the Greek is a 
mere accompaniment of the Latin, and is quite peculiar (ex. gr. a^d to? oOpxi/ou). 
The words were first edited in Greek by tlie Complut. Editors, 1514, a.d. ; and 
then by Erasmus, not until his third Ed., 1522, a.d. And so, through Stephens 
and the Elzevirs, the Rec. Text has adopted them. All the old Versions, as 
well as Greek MSS., reject them. The oldest copy of the Latin Vulg. contain- 
ing them is Wizanburgensis, 99, of the 8th century : also the codex in the 
monastery of H. Trinity of Cava, near Naples, of the 8th century : also Cod. 
Toletanus: also Cod. Demidovianus of the 12th century. But Cod. Amiatinus 
and the oldest MSS. of the Vulg. omit them. All the Greek Fathers omit 

A Schoimm, quoted in Matthsei, seems to me to account for the origin of the 
words, wliich probably did not arise from fraud : oi rpels Si iWs:, dp<!tui><.ms, 'in 
aifijio-Kcc ra,vra,riis rptoclag, "He uses Tfils in the Masculine, because these 
things f the Spirit, the water, and the blood) are symbols of the Trinity." This 
also is plainly the reference of Cyprian, 196, " De Patre et Filio et Spiritu 
Sancto Scriptum est, Et hi tres unum sunt." There is plainly in the genuine 
words, which use rpei; in the masc, though the antecedents to which it refers 
are neuter, some mystert/ or symbol ; and that the Trinity was the truth meant, 
seems not an unnatural inference. The more recent Latin Vulg. embodied in 
the teoct what was probably a marginal comment, made not without reason.— E. 

1 JOHN V. 7. 137 

lie did, I did not do so without good reason, and I would have the 
reader imagine that there is matter for deliberation. I am not aware 
that anything new needs particularly to be supplied : I will mention 
a few points, which bear upon the subject. 

III. As the Complutensian editors, on the authority of Latin manu- 
scripts, omitted in ch. ii. the former part of ver. 14, and in ch. v. 
the last clause of ver. 8, although they found them in Greek manu- 
scripts, so they restored this very seventh verse, although not con- 
tained in the Greek manuscripts ; thus they allowed themselves 
singular liberty in this Epistle. The undisguised confession of 
Stunica, respecting the Latin manuscripts here employed, is of more 
weight than all suspicion respecting two Greek Vatican manuscripts, 
one of which did not contain the passage, while the other suggested 
it to Stunica himself, or his colleagues. That the Spanish editors 
here followed the Vatican copy, Erasmus does not plainly assert, as 
Twells understands him ; he only says, if I am not mistaken. If 
Amelotus afterwards read the sentence in the Vatican Manuscript, 
we must see that it does not in this instance Latinize.-' 

IV. Erasmus obtained from Britain, by the instrumentality of some 
one or other, a leaf. He himself distrusted it : he related the causes 
of his distrust, which were not unreasonable. Nothing but mere 
spontaneous credulity can make from this source an adequate (re- 
liable) British mannscript. The Complutensian editors gave one 
Greek version of the sentence from Latin writers ; the British writer 
brought forward by Erasmus gave another ; the Greek translator of 
the Council of Lateran another ; the interpolator of the Montfortian 
Manuscript another. 

V. That the sentence was read by the Stephens in no Greek 
manuscript, the margin of the Latin Bible of Eobert (Stephens) of 
itself proves. 

It is altogether unnecessary to quote the editions of the Stephens 
and the others. All the rest followed Erasmus and the Compluten- 
sian edition in omitting or expressing the sentence. 

VI. There is no great number of Greek manuscripts in which the 
epistles, for instance those of John, are contained : and of those 
which are now extant in considerable numbers, with very few ex- 
ceptions none exceed the age of a thousand years ; the rest are con- 
siderablj'', or even much more, recent. Therefore it is the less re- 

1 That is, Bengel suspects that the Greeh of the Vatican MS., if indeed it 
contains, as Amelotus says, this passage as to the three heavenly witnesses, must 
be interpolated from the Latin MSS., and not from original Greek MSS. 

138 1 JOHN V. 7. 

markable, that the sentence in Greek is scarcely found at present in 
the Greek manuscripts ; and I have ascertained that we must add 
to these the royal Hafniensian Manuscript, the Ebnerian, and all 
those of Palis (Journal des Savans, June 1720), and many, whicli 
the celebrated La Croze (in his History of Christianity in India, p. 
316, 2d Edit. Germ.) says that he has seen. In the Florentine 
manuscripts, which that illustrious man, John Lamius, mentions in 
his book respecting the learning of the Apostles, ch. 13, there are 
found twelve which contain the General Epistles, and yet are with- 
out this clause ; but all of them were written after the ninth century. 
We ought, on the other hand, to value the more highly the supple- 
mentary authority of that most ancient Version, the Latin Vulgate,^ 
from which this sentence was read and quoted by many fathers in a 
continued series, and afterwards was introduced into the copies of 
other languages, and at the present time is extant in the Latin 
manuscripts of the New Testament. 

It is conjectured, but without any reason, from his silence, that 
Valla had read the clause in his Greek manuscripts. Valla also 
passed over (without notice) a remarkable difference in ver. 6, where 
in the Greek copies the reading is rh Jinv/j^a (the Spirit), in the 
Latin, Christus {Christ). And in ch. ii.. Valla had without doubt 
read in the Greek copies the former part of ver. 14, which is want- 
ing in the Latin copies;^ and yet he passes it over in silence [et tamen 
in paus^ est]. He has been very sparing in his notes on this Epistle. 

The Council of Lateran, in that sentence, as it is found in some 
copies, does not refer to the whole of ver. 7, but to the clause of ver. 
8, afjd these three are one : which clause, being met with in ALL the 
Greek copies, even of itself demonstrates that the Council is not 
speaking of Greek, but of Latin manuscripts, of which some only 
have the clause in question. 

The Montfortian, or Dublin, or Hibernian copy, to which so much 
weight is attached in certain quarters on account of this clause, is 
new, and Latinizes ; being written in the West, as is proved by the 
Latin division into chapters. That the Berlin Manuscript is of no 
weight apart from the Complutensian editors, the candour of the 
people of Berhn admits. 

1 In the absence of the oldest Greek MSS. we have a valuable substitute for 
them in the Vulgate. 

2 Some MSS. of Vulg. omit JV/iai^a -;,«. ^«t. to doxiis. In Beza's Latin, the 
last clause of the 13th ver., " scribo vobis, pueruli;\ etc., is the tirst clause of 
ver. 14.— E. 

1 JOHN V. 7. 139 

VIII. To the Greek Fathers, who did not read the clause, is to be 
added Germanus of Constantinople, as his View of Ecclesiastical 
Affairs shows. The negative argument, in such an inquiry, cannot 
be rejected. It is of no weight in the case of one or two ecclesiasti- 
cal writers only ; it is of weight in the case of a great number, when 
they omit a clause so remarkable, and so singularly adapted to decide 
controversies. If the Africans in such numbers quote it, how is it 
that the Asiatics in as many instances refram from quoting it ? The 
latter did not read it ; the former did. 

XIX. John Lmnius, in the treatise already quoted, pp. 260, 266, 
284, mentions the Latin copies of the Florentines which do or do 
not contain the sentence. Moreover, so great is the antiquity, and 
so great the authority of the Latin Version, wherever TertuUian, 
Cyprian, and a portion only, but these forming a continuous series, 
of the Fathers follow it, that we are fully justified in depending upon 
it, and are not compelled to remain in suspense, although it is not 
yet clearly ascertained, what the following ages read in different parts 
of the East. They who have at hand those more abstruse versions 
are easily led to disparage too much the Latin Version, which is too 
much extolled by the Romanists. 

XXI. The Florentine Manuscript, and that Laurentian one 
[= Amiatinus] which we have quoted from Burnet, is the same, if I 
mistake not, with that which John Lamius describes in the book 
quoted, p. 265. Other Latin manuscripts of the Florentines are 
added, which have that order of the verses, pp. 258, 268, 285. 
A writer also of the eighth century, Etherius, Bishop of Axima 
in Spain, has it, who in his first book against Elipandus, re- 
viewing a great part of this Epistle, thus sets forth the two 
verses : Because there are three, who hear witness on earth, the water 
and the blood and the Jlesh ; and these three are one : and there 
are three, who bear witness in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the 
Spirit ; and these three are one in Christ Jesus. Cornelius Jansenius, 
in his Commentary on the Harmony of the Gospels, chapter 144, 
has imitated those who follow this reading, whether manuscripts or 
Latin Fathers. Tlie seventh verse, in the judgment of Cameron, is 
to be enclosed in a parenthesis, and the sixth to be joined with the eighth. 
There is no need of a parenthesis : the sixth verse is of itself con- 
nected with the eighth. 

XXII. That Manuel Calecas, a Dominicai7, and the Lectionaiy 
of the Greeks, in this place undoubtedly interpolated, edited by 
Venetians, follow the authority of the Vulgate translation, ia 

140 1 JOHN V. 7. 

by no means surprising. Tlie Armenians formerly did the same 

XXIII. That Basil the Great made use of rare (that is, having a 
few copies much resembhng one another, which were peculiar in their 
class) manuscripts of the Epistles, is plain from the Apparatus, p. 
690 ; and he lays open to us a trace of this dictum of John, when, in 
his fifth book against Eunomius, he says : God and the Word and 
the Spirit, one Deity, and alone to be adored. It is scarcely possible 
for more weight to be assigned to the Dialogue, which is attributed 
to Maximus, than is assigned to it in my Apparatus. That author 
undoubtedly owes his knowledge of the clause to the Latin copies 
of the Africans : whether he found it afterwards in Greek copies, is 
for the consideration of the learned. 

Now I wish the reader attentively to compare together the great 
number of manuscripts, which Gerard of Mastricht brings together 
in his Notes on this passage, and the fourteen Greek witnesses which 
Twells enumerates in the 302d page of Wolf, and, on the other side, 
the things which I have supplied instead, in the 3d and subsequent 
paragraphs. You will say that an essential service will be rendered 
by him who shall prove, by any means whatever, that there are in 
existence even but one or two witnesses of Greek authority. He 
who shall bring forward credible witnesses from Greek antiquity, 
will deserve the gratitude of the Church. 

XXV. They who defend the clause are not therefore necessarily 
bound to know, or to bring forward, the cause why it is wanting in 
so many copies. Let the cause of the omission be less certain : still 
the omission, and moreover the genuineness of the clause also, is 
certain. He who has lost and found a choice treasure, even though 
he knows not how it was lost, yet recognises and recovers it. The 
suspicion of an hiatus in this passage, arising from a similarity 
of ending, will, as I think, be slow in coming to an end. I fre- 
quently, throughout this work, notice what influence similarity of 
ending is accustomed to have in the production of hiatus ; but that 
this cause cannot possibly avail in the present instance, I have, unless 
I am mistaken, proved in the Apparatus, p. 765 [Ed. ii. p. 474]. 
But another, and not unreasonable conjecture, as to the manner in 
which the clause came to be expunged, is subjoined in the same 
place. On the other hand, it can by no means be regarded as a 
patch stitched on by the Latin Fathers, who are, some wanting the 
clause itself, others rejoicing in it ; some known, others unknown or 
lost ; some of great antiquity, others more recent. Indulge sus- 

1 JOHN V. 7. 141 

picions In every way ; but you will effect nothing. At so early a 
period, so seriously, so universally, through such a perpetual series 
of ages, do they bring it forward. 

XXVIII. This last thesis leads us to the exigesis of this most 
precious passage, in which the 7th verse, when compared (1st) with 
the context of the whole Epistle, and especially (2d) with the 8th 
verse, is vindicated, upon the strongest grounds of internal probability. 

(1.) There are some who think that it is not easy to ascertain 
the design and arrangement of this Epistle : but if we examine it with 
simplicity, this will be laid open to us without any violence. In this 
letter, or rather treatise (for a letter is sent to the absent ; but here 
the writer seems to have been among those to whom he was writing), 
St John designs to confirm the happy and holy communion of the 
faithful with God and Jesus Christ, by showing the marks [cinoris- 
mata, by which they may be known] of their most blessed state. 

There are three parts : — 

The Exordium, ch. i. 1-4. 
The Discussion, ch. i. 5-v. 12. 
The Conclusion, ch. v. 13-21, 

Let the text itself be consulted. 

In the Exordium the apostle establishes authority for his own 
preaching and writing from the appearance of the Word of Life ; 
and clearly points out his design (ha, that, ver. 3, 4). The Conclu- 
sion (that we may at once clear out of the way this point) corre- 
sponds with the Exordium, more fully explaining the same design, a 
recapitulation of those Marks being made by the thrice-repeated we 
know, ch.Y. 18, 19, 20. 

The Discussion itself contains two parts, treating — 

I. Separately, 

a. Of communion with God, in the light, ch. i. 5—10 : 

b. Of communion with the Son, in the light, ch. ii. 1, 2, 

and 7, 8. 
A special application being subjoined to fathers, young 

men, and little children, ch. ii. 13-27. 
Here is interwoven an exhortation to abide in Him, 

ch. ii. 28-iii. 24; 
That the fruit arising from His manifestation in the 

flesh may extend to His manifestation in glory. 

142 1 JOHN V. 7. 

c. Of the confirmation and fruit of this abiding by the 
Spirit, ch. iv. throughout : 
To which subject ch. iii. 24 prepares the way, to be 
compared with ch. iv. 13. 

n. By a Summing up, or comprehensive statement (Congeries) 
of the testimony of the Father and Son and Spirit : on 
which depends faith on Jesus Christ, the being bom of 
God, love towards God and His children, the keeping of 
His commandments, and victory over the world, ch. 
V. 1-12. 

The parts often begin and end in a similar manner; just as the Con 
elusion answers to the Exordium. See above on ch. ii. 12. Some- 
times there is a previous allusion in some preceding part, and a re- 
capitulation in a subsequent part. Every part treats of the Divine 
benefit, and the duty of the faithful : and the duty is derived from 
the benefit by the most befitting inferences, of love towards God, of 
the imitation of Jesus Christ, of the love of the brethren : and 
although many things may appear to be repeated without order, yet 
these same inferences are formed in the most methodical manner, 
by regarding the subject in a different point of view from different 

The seventh verse therefore contains a recapitulation, which not 
only treats of the Father and the Son, but also of the Spirit. What 
the sun is in the universe, the needle in the mariner's compass, or 
the heart in the body, that is the 7th verse of chapter v. in this dis- 
cussion. First take an edition without this verse, and then an edi- 
tion which contains it ; and you will easily perceive what is required 
by the whole tenor of John's discourse. 

(2.) The connection of the verses is indissoluble, in this text : ver. 
6. This is He who came by water and blood, Jesus Christ, not in 
water only, but in water and blood : and it is the Spirit which beareth 
witness; because the Spirit is truth. 7. Because there are three that 
bear witness on earth, the spirit and the water and the blood ; and 
these three agree in one. 8. And there are three that bear witness in 
heaven, the Father and the Word and the Spirit; and these three are 
one. 9. If we receive the witness of men, the witness of God is 

Lest any confusion should arise, we remind the reader, that that 
which is spoken of by us in the further consideration of this passage, 

1 JOHN V. 6. 143 

as the Itli verse, is that which treats of those who bear witness on 
earth ; and that the 8th verse is that which treats of those who bear 
witness in heaven. And we take for granted this 8th verse, partly 
as already confirmed by critical arguments in the Apparatus, and 
partly as about to be further confirmed by exegetical arguments. 

6. olrog iSTiv) This is He. John sets forth the reason why he 
ascribes victory over the world to him who believes that Jesus is 
the Son of God : namely, because in truth that faith in Jesus as 
the Son of God has invincible strength, from the testimony of men, 
which is sufiiciently strong, but much more from the testimony of 
God, which has complete strength. — o sXSiiv, who came) He does not 
say, 6 ipxii/J-ivog, comitig, in the present, but o iXSHiv, in the aorist 
tense, having the force of the preterite : as ch. i. 2, l<pavipuSri, was 
manifested; iv. 2, iXriXviora; and below, ver. 20, ^'xs;. For ^'xw, in 
the present, does not signify I come, but lam come (ver. 20, note) : 
whence John adds in the same place, and hath given, in the preterite. 
Jesus is He who ought to have come, on account of the promises 
respecting Him ; and who is truly come : and this the spirit, and 
the water, and the blood do testify and prove. — 6i' xiduTOi xa! al/ji.aTog, 
hy water and blood) The water signifies baptism, which John first 
administered, hence called the Baptist, and sent to baptize in water 
for this reason, that Jesus might be manifested as the Son of God : 
John i. 33, 34. Moreover baptism was also administered by the 
disciples of Jesus : John iv. 1, 2 ; Acts ii. 38, etc. The blood is 
certainly the blood of one, and that Jesus Christ, which was shed 
at His passion, and is drunk in the Lord's Supper. — 'lijuous 6 Xpisrbc, 
Jesus the Christ) Jesus, who came by water and blood, is by this 
very fact pointed out, as the Christ. — om iv rSi vSan /iotov, not in 
water only) He just before said, by ; He now says, in. Each particle 
is opposed to ^lup/s, apart from : 1 Cor. xi. 11, 12 ; Heb. ix. 7, 12, 
25. The apostle shows, that the words immediately preceding are 
used with due consideration. The article rffi has the force of a re- 
lative. By seems to refer more particularly to the water, and in to 
the blood : for John, who baptized with water, preceded the coming 
of Jesus, and Jesus came by (through) water : but Jesus, when He 
had finished the work which the Father had given Him to do, be- 
stowed the blood ; therefore He had before come in blood. — aXX' h 
Tlf) lidari xai rijj aiuari, but in water and blood) He not only under- 
took, when He came to baptism, the task of fulfilling all righteous- 
ness, Matt. iii. 15, but He also completed it by pouring out His 
blood, John xix. 30; and when this was done, blood and water 

in 1 JOHN V. 7. 

came forth from the side of Jesus Christ, being dead on the cross. 
The same chapter, ver. 34. — xal rh nnu,u,d ian ro /j,apTvf>ouv, and it is 
the Spirit that heareth witness) He heareth witness of Jesus Christ : 
ver. 5, ii. 22 ; 2 John, ver. 9. — 6V; rh Unv/Ma. ieriv h aX'/ikia, because 
the Spirit is the truth) The apostle declares what he here means by 
the word Spirit, namely, the truth. But what does he mean by the 
word truth ? There is no doubt but that, in this professed enume- 
ration, he embraces in some way all things which appertain to the 
testimony concerning Jesus Christ, except the Divine testimony 
itself. We shall collect these testimonies from the writings of St 
John and others of the New Testament. The Scriptures testify of 
Jesus Christ, John v. 39, that is, Moses and the prophets, John v. 
46, i. 46 ; Acts x. 43 ; John the Baptist testified, John i. 7. After- 
wards the apostles bare testimony, John xv. 27 ; 1 John i. 2, iv. 14 ; 
Acts i. 8, ii. 32 ; and especially the writer of this Epistle, John xix. 
35. Now when the apostle collects the testimonies concerning 
Jesus Christ, as concerning Him who is come, he by no means over- 
looked the Gospel. He indeed never calls it the Gospel ; he generally 
calls it the- testimony. But in this passage it would be inconvenient 
to say, there are three that hear witness, the testimony, and the water, 
and the blood ; therefore, instead of testimony, he says the truth ; the 
truth, namely, not only with respect to knowledge, but also with 
respect to its publication : and he distinguishes the truth by the name 
of the Spirit; with which subject the predicate, to bear witness, ele- 
gantly agrees. Let the name of Spirit be thoroughly weighed : 
ch. iv. 1, 2 ; 1 Cor. xiv. 12 ; Apoc. xix. 10 ; John vi. 63. In this 
Spirit the prophetic testimony also of the Old Testament is con- 
tained, together with its fulfilment and demonstration. The apostle 
says, Jesus Christ came both by water and by blood : he does not 
here say, and the water and blood are they which hear witness. 
Again he says, with remarkable emphasis, KAI ro nviufid, ssri TO 
/jiaprvpouii, ii is the Spirit which bears witness : he does not say, Jesus 
Christ came by the Spirit, or in the Spirit ; for the Spirit was bearing 
witness, even before the coming of Christ, through many ages : 
but the water and the blood were most intimately connected with 
His very coming. And the testimony is more properly ascribed to the 
Spirit, than to the water and the blood : inasmuch as the Spirit of 
itself has the power of bearing witness, and the water and blood 
obtain and exercise the same power, when the Spirit is added to 

7. "Or/ rpiTi ilsiv o'l //.aprvpouvrig, because there are three bearing 

1 JOHN V. 7. 145 

witness) The participle, bearing witness, used instead of the noun, 
witnesses, impHes that the act of bearing witness, and the effect of 
the testimony, are always present. Before also he had spoken of 
the spirit, in the neuter gender, rh wviuf^d kri TO MAPTTPOTN : 
now he speaks in the masculine gender, there are three who bear 
icitness, of the spirit also ; at the same saying, that the water and 
the blood bear witness, also in the masculine gender. Those femi- 
nines, faith, hope, charity, are said to be three (trio), in the neuter 
gender, 1 Cor. xiii. 13; huthere Tuidf/^a, vbup, aipa., all of the neuter 
gender in Greek, that is, the spirit, the water, and the blood, are 
•rpsTg /jbaprvpouwig, in the masculine gender. To be bearing witness is 
properly applied to persons only : and the fact that three are de- 
scribed, by personification, as bearing witness on earth, just as 
though they were persons, is admirably adapted (subservient) to 
the personality of the three who bear witness in heaven ; but yet 
neither the spirit (that is the truth of the Gospel), nor the water, 
nor the blood, are persons. Therefore the apostle, advancing from 
the preceding verse to the one now present, employs a trope, 
adapted to the brevity of the discourse, so as to say this : There are 
three classes of men (ver. 9, compared with John v. 34), who dis- 
charge the office of bearing witness on earth ; (1st) that class of 
witnesses in general which is employed in preaching the Gospel ; 
and, in particular, (2d) that class of witnesses, which administers 
baptism, as John the Baptist and the others ; and also (3d) that 
class of witnesses, which beheld and puts on record the passion and 
death of the Lord. There is therefore a Metalepsis,^ and that of 
a most weighty kind: viz. one wherein (a)' by a Synecdoche of 
number, instead of the whole class of witnesses, there is put one 
who witnesses ; as though it were said, a prophet, baptist, apostle : 
for although these three functions might often meet in one man, 
yet of themselves they were divided : comp. Eph. iv. 11 : and on 
that account the Metonymy is the more suitable, on which presently. 
The degrees of these three functions are found, Matt. xi. 9, 11, 
where however the word prophet is used in a more restricted sense. 
(b) By Metonymy of the abstract term, instead of those who bear 
witness, as auTO'jrrai -/.a! hnr/jpirai (eye-witnesses and ministers), the 
spirit itself, the water, and the blood, are mentioned. — kv rjj y^, on 
earth) See below. — rh rrviv/jia, xal ro vSaip, ncol TO aj/jba, the spirit, and 
the water, and the blood) The apostle changes the order : for where- 

' A twofold or manifold trope. See Append, on the iigure. — K. 
vol.. V ^ 

Ue 1 JOHN V. 8. 

as before he had put the spirit in the third place, he now puts it in 
the first place, according to the natural order. The spirit, as was be- 
fore said, bore witness before the water and the blood ; and the spirit 
bears witness even without the testimony of the water and the 
blood, but the water and the blood never bear witness without the 
spirit.— ;ca/ 0/ rptTg 'J; rh 'iv ih,v, and these three agree in one [concur 
towards one end]) The Prophet, the Baptist, and the Apostle are 
equally of the same earthly nature of themselves (comp. are one, 1 
Cor. iii. 8), and are ordained altogether to one end, to testify of 
Jesus Christ, as of Him who is come into the world. Comp. iha, 
ili rl, Luke V. 17. Tl h, with the article, denotes not so much one, 
as the same thing. 

Does this interpretation of the 7th verse seem somewhat weak 1 
This complaint will presently be of service to our argument. 

8. Ka! rpiTg iidiv o) //.aprupouvrig, and there are three that bear wit- 
ness) The testimony of the spirit, and the water, and the blood, by 
a remarkable gradation and addition of strength (Epitasis), is cor- 
roborated by the additional testimony of three who give greater tes- 
timony. Comp. altogether John iii. 8, 11. — h ra ohpavip, in heaven) 
See below. — o Tlarrip, the Father) Under this name the name of God 
is also understood ; as under the name of the Word (respecting 
which, however, see what shortly follows), the Son is understood ; 
according to the nature of the relatives. Comp. 1 Cor. xv. 28. — 
Aoyoi, the Word) The name. Word, is remarkably adapted to the 
testimony. The Word testifies respecting Himself, as respecting 
the Son of God. Apocal. i. 5, xix. 13. Some of the Fathers in 
this place write Filius (the Son), according to the more firequent 
usage of Scripture. And even the Florentine and lieutlingensian 
Latin Manuscripts have this reading (Filius). — to JjHv/ia, the Spirit) 
In this passage, and everywhere throughout the Epistle, John, when 
speaking of the Holy Spirit, understands the epithet Holy. Jesus 
Christ, before His passion, spake openly of His own testimony and 
that of the Father : there is added, especially after His glorification, 
the testimony of the Holy Spirit : ch. ii. 27 ; John xv. 26 ; Acts v. 
32 ; Rom. viii. 16. Wherefore, as before a pair of witnesses was 
urged, John viii. 17, 18, so now there is a Trinity. — xa/' olm oi 
Tpitc, 'ill ilei, and these three are one) The preceding verse has, and these 
three agree in one : now it is said, these three are one. There is a 
carefully weighed difference of expression, although in other places 
I'lf is either inserted or omitted indifferently. These three are one : 
just as the two, the Father and the Son, are one. The Spirit is 

1 JOHN V. 8. 147 

inseparable from the Father and the Son : for unless the Spirit 
toirether with the Father and the Son were one, it would be right 
for us to say, that the Father and the Son, who are one, together 
with the Spirit, are two : but this would be opposed to the entire 
sum of the Divine revelation. They are one in essence, in know- 
ledge, in will, and moreover in the agreement of their testimony : 
John X. 30, 38, xiv. 9, 10, 11. The three are not opposed con- 
jointly to the other three, but separately, each to each, as though it 
were said. Not only does the Spirit testify, but the Father also, John 
V. 37 : not only the water, but the Word also, John iii. 11, x. 41 : 
not only the blood, but the Spirit also, John xv. 26, 27. Now it 
becomes evident how necessary is the reading of the 8tli verse. It 
was impossible for John to think respecting the testimony of the 
spirit, and the water, and the blood, and add the testimony of God 
as greater, without thinking also of the testimony of the Son and 
of the Holy Spirit, and making mention of it in an enumeration so 
solemn ; nor can any reason be imagined why, without the three 
who bear witness in heaven, he should mention those that bear wit- 
ness on earth, and those as three. Enumerations of this kind are 
usually not single, but manifold, as Prov. xxx. ; how much more so 
in this place ? The 7th verse, of whatever importance it is, has a 
respective force, and tends to this object, that there should be a pro- 
gressive advance from the 6th verse to the 8th ; and here lies the 
advantage of the complaint above noticed. Whether the 7th verse, 
respecting the three that bear witness on earth, be compared with 
the preceding or with the following verse, the 8th is necessary. For 
the 6th verse and the 7th have some things the same, and some dif- 
ferent. Those which are the same, are only repeated on this 
account, that they may be adapted to the 8th verse : those which 
are different, and either vary the expression, or add something more 
to the sentiment, have a still plainer reference to the 8th verse. For 
instance, in the absolute expression, the Spirit only is said to be 
bearing witness : in the respective (relative) expression, the water 
also and the blood are spoken of. In like manner the 7th and 8th 
verses have some words in common ; in others, when the expression 
is changed, the sentiment itself introduces something different, as in 
one, and one. The Trinity of heaven, archetypal, fundamental, un- 
changeable, plainly supports the triad of witnesses on earth, in an 
accommodated sense. The apostle might either have fixed the num- 
ber of those who bear witness on earth as greater ; comp. ver. 9 ; 
or he might have referred [reduced] them all to [under] one spirit ; 

148 I JOHN V. 7, 8. 

comp. ver. 6 ; but lie reduces them to a triad, solely with reference 
to the three who bear witness in heaven. From the circumstance, 
that the Father, and the Word, and the Spirit, are properly three, 
and are bearing witness, and are one, the same things also are, by a 
trope, predicated of the spirit, and the water, and the blood; 
although it is evident of itself, that the things thus predicated are 
of themselves less applicable to the subjects spoken of: and this has 
been perceived by those who, in the verse respecting the spirit, and 
the water, and the blood, have changed the masculine (tres) into the 
T\&xtQV (tria)} See Apparatus, pp. 750, 755. If there is any rela- 
tion between those who bear witness on earth and those who bear 
witness in heaven, the arrangement of the words, the spirit, and the 
water, and the blood, requires, that the spirit be referred to the 
Father, the water to the Word, and the hlood to the Spirit : but this 
is confirmed only by the express reading of the Father, and the Word, 
and the Spirit : in the absence of which reading a variously fluc- 
tuating allegory has changed the order of the words. See Appar., 
pp. 757, 764. The apostle, in asserting that the commandments of 
God are not grievous, deduces their observance not only from the 
sacraments, but chiefly also from faith in the Sacred Trinity, as the 
Lord Himself does. Matt, xxviii. 19, 20. This whole paragraph 
shows, on the part of John, a perception derived from God, and a 
style worthy of this perception. They who do not admit the 8th 
verse, can give no suitable explanation of the 7th. They reduce the 
Metalepsis, which we noticed above, into an open Catachresis :^ but 
the 8th verse being admitted, the Metalepsis is altogether softened 
down, and the order in which the spirit is placed, before the water 
and the blood, is explained, and an account is given of all- the 
words. In short, there is an intimate connection between both 
verses, a complete rhythm, an inseparable parody (correspondence 
between the verses) ; and the one without the other is as a compound 
period, or a poetical strophe, where the half is wanting. 

7, 8. 'Ev rfi yy,- iv rc3 ovpavS, on earth : in heaven) The testimony 
is not given in heaven, but on earth : but they who bear witness, 
are some on earth and some in heaven ; that is, the former are of 
an earthly and human nature, the latter of a divine and glorious 
nature. Moreover, because they who are witnessing on earth, and 

1 Origen 4 t43c says " The disciple Jolm has described the spirit, the water, 
and the blood, rurp,u (neuter) ,1, h y«o>..«, the three things, as concurrino- 
m one. ■ — E. ° 

^ See Append. 

1 JOHN V. 9. 149 

they who are witnessing in heaven, bear witness concerning Jesus 
Christ, and a true witness is present and not absent, not so much 
with reference to those to whom He witnesses, as witli reference 
to the things which He witnesses : therefore they who are witness- 
ing on earth, are said to witness concerning Jesus Christ in such a 
manner that their testimony chiefly has to do with the dwelling of 
Jesus on the earth, so that it may be testified that He ie the 
Christ : whence He Himself is said to have come by water and 
blood, that is, to- have come into the world ; though the state of 
His exaltation is not excluded from this testimony, especially during 
the life of the apostles. But they who are bearing witness in 
heaven, bear witness of the same Jesus Christ, so that their testi- 
mony is chiefly concerned with the heavenly glory of Jesus, the 
Son of God, exalted to the right hand of the Father, without ex- 
cluding His state of humiliation. Undoubtedly the testimony of 
water (for instance), or of baptism, chiefly administered by John 
before the death, or rather before the manifestation, of Jesus Christ, 
as He walked on the earth ; whereas the testimony of the Paraclete 
was reserved until the glorification of Jesus Christ. Whence the 
Lord had said respecting the apostles, fiaprtjpiTre, ye bear witness, 
in the present ; but respecting the Paraclete, fjMpTupr,sii, He shall 
bear witness : John xv. 27 [reading with the best authorities /iaf>- 
rupiTre, not as Engl. Vers., Ye shall bear witness'], 26. 

The seventh verse therefore, together with the sixth, contains a 
recapitulation of the whole economy of Jesus Christ, from His bap- 
tism until the day of Pentecost, Acts ii. The eighth verse con- 
tains a summary of the Divine economy from His exaltation and 
thenceforth : see John viii. 28, xiv. 20 ; Matt. xxvi. 64. Where- 
fore Christ,' on His ascension, commanded to baptize in the name 
of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost : Matt, 
xxviii. 19 ; and the Apocalypse commences with announcing grace 
and peace from the Sacred Trinity. 

Since these things are so, a new argument arises, that the ar- 
rangement of the verses, which first makes mention of the witnesses 
on earth and then of the witnesses in heaven [not vice versa, as 
Engl. Vers.], is to be preferred, as containing a gradation most 
suitable to the subjects themselves. 

9. El, if) From that which is undeniable, and yet of smaller 
consequence, he draws an inference to that which is greater.: — tuv 
avSpu'jruv, of men) in the case of any business whatever, John viii. 
17 ; and in administering the very testimony of the spirit, and the 

150 1 JOHN V. 10-13. 

water, and the blood. For although they do that by the Divine 
institution and command, yet they themselves continue men • 
John V. 34, iii. 31- — h iJ^aprvp'ia roD 02oi;, the ivitness of God) the 
Father : whose Son is Jesus. See the end of this ver. But, to- 
gether with the testimony of the Father, that of the Son and of the 
Spirit is pointed out as divine and heavenly, because it is opposed 
to the testimony of men, in the , plural. The testimony of the 
Father is, as it were, the basis of the testimony of the Word and the 
Holy Spirit, just as the testimony of the Spirit is, as it were, the 
basis of the testimony of the water and the blood. — /is/^wv Jor/n, is 
greater) [and therefore much more worthy of acceptation. — V. g.] 
John v. 36. 

The sum of the things which we have spoken is this : The Greek 
copies which contain the Epistles, including those of St John, are 
neither of such number, nor of such antiquity, that they ought to 
prevent the reception of the verse respecting, the Three which bear 
witness in heaven, since it stands altogether upon a peculiar footing. 
This verse rests upon the authority of the Latin translator, and that 
almost alone ; but he is an authority of the greatest antiquity and 
genuineness : and he is followed from the first by manj' fathers, 
through a continued series of ages, in Africa, Spain, Gaul, and 
Italy, accompanied viih an appeal to the reading of the Arians, 
which concurs with xt. In fine, the context itself confirms this 
verse as the centre and sum of the whole Epistle. — aurj) krh, this is) 
Is altogether engaged in [altogether turns upon"] this. 

10. 'Ek laurffl,^ in himself) in the inner man. 

12. 'O E%ci)i') he who has,. in faith. — rhv Tih, the Son) The verse 
has two clauses : in the former, the Son only is mentioned, vnthout 
the addition, of God ; for the faithful know the Son : in the other 
this addition is made, that unbelievers may know at length what 
a serious thing it is not to have Him. — 'ix,^!, has) In the former 
part of the sentence, the word has is to be pronounced with em- 
phasis ; in the second, the emphatic word is life. 

13. Taura, these things) which are contained in this Epistle. The 
verb, I write, used in the exordium, ch. i. 4, now in the conclusion 
becomes the preterite, / have written. — roTg^ vianUvaiv ih rf omi^a 

1 The reading h abr^ is preferred by the decision of Ed. 1 and 2. The sense 
remains the same. — E. B. 

B (judging from silence of collators) and Rec. Text support h iaurZ : so 
Lachm. A and (according to Lachm.) C support «w? : so Tisch.— E. 

2 This order of the words rests on the decision of the larger Ed.": the dif- 

1 JOHN V. 14-16. 161 

roD T/oD ToiJ 010V, unto you who believe in the name of the Son of God) 
The sum of verses 5—10. — ha, sldiiTi an ^m^k e'x*''^ aliiviov, that ye may 
know that ye may have eternal eternal life) This is derived from ver. 
11. — Kal ha msnvriTs, and that ye may believe) namely, under the 
nearer hope of life. This is derived from ver. 12. We ought 
altogether to be in the faith. 

14. KuTGc TO fsXTifiu avrou, according to His will) A most just con 
dition, of very extensive application. [The pronoun aurotj has 
reference to God. — V. g.] 

15. 'Eav o'ldaf^ii) if we know. 'Eav sometimes takes an indicative, 
of past time ; and it does so here to give strength. — £%o/jf.£i', we have) 
even before the event itself (comp. 1 Sam. i. 17, 18) ; and we know 
that the event itself is not from chance, but obtained by prayers. 

16. 'Edv Tig, if any one) The most important of all cases is added, 
that you are able to pray even for another, in a most serious matter : 
comp. ch. ii. 1. — "dfi, shall see) This sin can therefore be known by 
the regenerate. — a,a,apTdvovTa &/MapTlav, ^^ -irpiig SdvaTO'j, sinning a sin, 
not unto death) A sin of any kind, provided that it is not unto 
death. — fj,ri, not) a form of excepting (Matt. xix. 9), has greater Iforce 
than oil, not, ver. 17. As long as it is not evident that it is a sin 
unto death, it is lawful to pray. — SdvaTov, death) Respecting the 
disease of which Lazarus died, but shortly afterwards was raised 
from the dead, it is said, It is not unto death, John xi. 4, note : but 
Hezekiah was sick niDP, unto death, Isa. xxxviii. 1, had he not 
recovered by a miracle. But John is here speaking of death and 
life, as ch. iii. 14. Moreover what is meant by a sin unto death, is 
declared from the opposite, in ver. 17, where the subject is, all un- 
righteousness ; the predicate consists of two members, si?!, and that 
coming short of death. Therefore any unrighteousness, which is 
committed in common life, is a sin not unto death. But sin unto 
death is not an ordinary or sudden sin, but a state of the soul, in 
which faith, and love, and hope, in short, the new life, is extin- 
guished : when any one knowingly and willingly embraces death, not 
from the allurements of the flesh, but from the love of sin, as sin. 

ferent order which occurs in the Germ. Vers, follows the decision of Ed. 2. 
— E. B. 

The words after vft,7ii, viz. To7f ■zitsTtvovaiv down to roii ©soD, are omitted by AB 
Vulg. Memph. Theb. and both Syr. Versions. Rec. Text adds them after ifiia, 
without any of the oldest authorities. Lower down Rec. Text has x,al 'ha, ■Tcm- 
TiiriTi, with more recent authorities. But A Vulg. and almost all other Versions 
have 01 'irKmiovTi;. B has To7f 'TrwTtioviji". — E. 

152 1 JOHN V. 16. 

It is a deliberate rejection of grace. A man puts from him life, 
while he commits this sin : how then can others procure for him 
life ? Yet there is also set forth [there is such a thing as] a sin that 
is to the death of the body ; for instance, in the case of the people, 
for whom the prophet thrice made entreaty, he is forbidden to make 
entreaty : Jer. vii. 16, xi. 14, xiv. 11, xv. 1, 2. Yea, even Moses 
himself committed a sin unto death, of this nature ; unto death, 
not to be made the subject of entreaty: Deut. iii. 26; comp. 
1 Sam. ii. 25, iii. 14, respecting the house of Eli; and, on 
the other hand, respecting the averting of sins and diseases by 
means of prayer, James v. 14—18. — airrissi, he shall ask) namely, 
'TrappriaiadT^g, he loho has confidence. — huicni, He will give) namely, 
God, when entreated. — airfi, to him) the brother. — ^mv, life) There- 
fore he who sins unto death is in a state of death, and yet he sins 
further unto death. — rcTg) I?, that is, as far as relates to those who 
sin not unto death. — 'ienii a/j^a^Tia, -rpig Sdvarov, there is a sin unto 
death) The chief commandment is faith and love. Therefore the 
chief sin is that by which faith and love are destroyed. In the 
forAer case is life ; in the latter, death. The sin, however, which is 
here pointed out, is not such as we call mortal, as are all the sins 
of the unregenerate, ch. iii. 14, and some sins of the brethren who 
relapse : and these alone properly need that life should be given to 
them. — Oil — Xsyca, I do not — say) for / say — not. An expression 
full of character, and Attic. God does not wish that the righteous 
should pray in vain : Deut. iii. 26. If, therefore, he who has com- 
mitted sin unto death is brought back to life, that proceeds entirely 
from the mercy [the mere prerogative] of God. — Uihni, for it) The 
word here has the force of removing. — iparrigri) He just before used 
the word a/V^itfs;. There is a difference between the two words:' 
John xi. 22, note. Here we are enjoined not only not ahiTi, but 
1 AWm, like ' peto/ is more submissive and suppliant, and expresses the seek- 
ing of the inferior from the superior. But ipur^a, like ' rogo/ implies a certain 
equality or familiarity in the asker, with him from whom the favour is sought : 
therefore nowhere in the New Testament does it express the prayer of mere 
man to God ; but is appropriated to Christ, who, on the other hand, never uses 
alravficti. Here 1 John v. 16 may seem an exception ; but its change from 
a.k«iau of the earher clause to Ipari)^^ is a strong confirmation of it: "If any 
man see his brother sin a, sin not unto death, he shall ash or leg, ahJurii, and 
He (God) shall give him (the petitioner) life for them that sin not unto death. 
There is a sin unto death. I do not say that he shall request or intercede 
(authoritatively), ipmiia^, for it." The Christian is not to assume the authority 
which would be implied in making request for a sinner who has sinned the sin 
unto death ; Mark iii. 29 ■ 1 Sam. xv. 35, xvi. 1. See Trench, Syn. N. T.— E. 

1 JOHN V. 17-19. 153 

not even iptarav. ^EpujTrisri is as it were the generic word : alnn is 
the species, as it were, of a more humble Idnd. Not only aiTsTv is 
removed, but also the genus. This species, aiTih, does not occur in 
the prayers of Christ. A/Ve/V is suitable to the case of one who is 
as it were conquered, and a criminal. 

17. Uaga adiKia) all wickedness. Instances of sin not unto death 
are of constant occurrence in life. — xai, and) and that too. The 
enunciation is this : Every wickedness is sin, (but) not (necessarily 
sin) unto death : but lest any one should interpret that too lightly, 
he prefaces it with the words, is sin. 

18. 0'ida//jiv, we knoio) An instance of the figure Anaphora :'■ see 
the next verses. — 6V; irag, that every one) Now he takes care that 
no one abuse, verses 16, 17, to the purpose of (carnal) security. — 
yiyimriijjhoi) Shortly afterwards yevr/ihls. The Perfect has a loftier 
sound than the Aorist. An old lexicon says, w-v)/wv)];coV£;, ^eya- 
o'^mrifavTs; de, //,ixp6v. Not only does he who has made great ad- 
vancement in regeneration, but any one who has been born again, 
keep himself. — TrripsT eauTov, keepeth himself) he is not wanting to 
himself from within. — oh-)(^ avTirai, toucheth him not) The regenerate 
is not ruined from without. The wicked one approaches, as a fly 
does to the candle ; but he does not injure him, he does not even 
touch him. The antithesis is lieth, ver. 19. 

19. 'E)t, from) An abbreviated form of expression : We are from 
God, and we abide in God;,5M^ the world is from the wicked one, 
and lies wholly in the wicked one. — h rw movripa xeTrai, lies in the 
wicked one) [Therefore the world can no more touch the sons of 
God, than the wicked one, in whom it lieth. — V. g.] The wicked 
one, comp. ver. 18, is opposed to Him that is true, ver. 20. The whole 
world [and this universally, comprehending the learned, the respec- 
table, and all others, excepting those alone who have claimed them- 
selves for God and for Christ. — V. g.] is not only touched by the 
wicked one, but altogether lies (Germ, bleibt liegen, lies motionless), 
by means of idolatry, blindness, deceit, violence, lasciviousness, 
impiety, and all wickedness, in the evil one, destitute both of life 
from God and of biamlag, understanding : see 1 Cor. v. 10, xi. 32. 
Tlie dreadfal condition of the world is most vividly portrayed in 
this brief summary. No other commentary is needed than the 
world itself, and the actions, discourses, contracts, strifes, brother- 
hoods, etc., of worldly men. [That men of the world do not perpe- 

' See Append, on this figure. — E. 

154 1 JOHN V. 20, 21. 

trate worse things than the worst, is rather to be wondered at, than 
that they act in the worst way. They esteem themselves happy in 
their own wretchedness, and the sons of God as destitute of what is 
for their welfare. — V. g.] There is an antithesis in abides, as ap- 
plied to God and the saints. Ye that are regenerate have what ye 
pray for : ch. ii. 2. [Ye have reason to desire to fly forth from the 
world to God. — ^V. g.] 

20. "H/C£/) is come. Thus, jjx&i, Mark viii. 3, note. — d'sdaxiv, has 
given) that is, God : for in the preceding clause also the subject 
is by implication God, in this sense : God sent his own Son : and to 
this is referred auroD, of Him, which presently follows. — didvomv, 
understanding) not only knowledge, but the faculty of knowing. — 
rbv aX'/jSmv, the True One) Understand, His Son Jesus Christ: as 
presently afterwards. Whence it is perceived with what great 
majesty the Son thus entitles Himself: Apocal. iii. 7. — olro;) This, 
the True One, the Son of God Jesus Christ : to whom the title of 
Life eternal is befitting. — ^wj) aliiviog, Life eternal) The beginning 
and the end of the Epistle are in close agreement. 

21. ^uXd^are savroiig, keep yourselves) in my absence, that no one 
deceive you. The elegance of the active verb with the reciprocal 
pronoun is more expressive than (pvXd^aah, be on your guard. See 
on Chrysostomde Sacerd. p. 423.— d'^o rwv ilioiXoiv, from idols) and 
not only from their worship, but also from all communion and appear- 
ance of communion with them : Apocal. ii. 14, 20. 



1. 'O Trpig^uTipog, The Elder) This Epistle also has three parts: — 

I. The Inscription, ver. 1-2. 

II. The Commendation of those who practise hospitality : 
in which — 

1. He approves of the former benefits of Caius, ver. 


2. He draws forth the commendation itself, introducing 

reasons and examples on both sides [of a good and 
of the opposite character], ver. 6-12. 

III. The Conclusion, ver. 13-15. 

— Tafui, to Caius) Cains of Corinth, who is mentioned Horn. xvi. 23, 
either closely resembled this Caius, the friend of John, in his hos- 
pitality, or he was the same person : if he were the same person, he 
either migrated from Achaia into Asia, or John sent this letter to 

2. ' Aya.'KriTi, beloved) This expression occurs three times, in ver. 2, 
5, 11. — 'iTipt Tavrav, respecting all tJdngs) that which relates to all 
parts [in all respects]. — thoboZsSai, to prosper) in property, etc. — 
iyiaUiiv, to be in health) in body. — xaOug, even as) Where the soul 
is in health, it is possible for all things to be m health. 

156 2 JOHN 2, 3. 

even in addressing illustrious persons, in preference to appellatives. 
But the Elder elegantly interposes, between his own name^ and that 
of the lady, a word denoting the spiritual relationship, from which 
this short Epistle proceeded. The word Ku^/a again occurs, ver. 5. 
The Syrian Version retains the proper name : and the Synopsis of 
Athanasius^ says, ypA<pu Kvplcf, he ivrites to Cyria, where he uses the 
proper name, but omits the epithet ixXexrri, elect. But it frequently 
happens that proper names and appellatives are confused with one 
another. See Wesseling, Probabil., p. 199, etc. — ouj, whom) This 
refers to the mother and her children. — Iv aXrikici, in truili) Love is 
not only true love, but it rests on the truth of the Gospel : ver. 3, 
at the end. — Tavrss, all) The communion of saints. 

2. A/A, on account of) Construe with aya'xu, I love. They who 
love in truth, also love on account of truth.— dJi) //.ivovfav, which 
abides) which still is. It is followed by the future, shall be. Tijv 
/j,siiou(sat — xal 'idrai, resolve into, WHICH abides, and shall be : 1 Cor. 
vii. 37, note. 

3. "EffT-a;, shall be) ''n\ A prayer, together with an affirmation. — /is/ 
■j/aSk, with you) See the App. Crit. Ed. ii. on this passage.^ The Latin 
Version has vobiscum, with you : and this is properly consonant with 
the salutation. Comp. 3 John, ver. 2. — x'^fh '^'^^"S; ^'Pm, grace, 
mercy, and peace) Grace removes guilt ; mercy removes misery ; peace 
expresses a continuance in grace and mercy. — ilpm, peace) even 
under the assaults of temptation. — Kvplov, Lord) This is the only 
passage in which the Epistles of St John contain the title of Lord, 
which is well adapted to a salutation.' He usually calls Him the 
Son of God. — IV aXfjklcf, xal dyd-ryi, in trutJi and love) Respecting the 
former he speaks in ver. 4 ; respecting the latter, in ver. 5. St Paul 
is accustomed to use the appellations, faith and love, for truth and 
faith are synonymous : and the Hebrew n»S is constantly translated 
in the Septuagint by either word. Comp. 3 John, ver. 3, the truth 
that is in thee. 

' The "Synopsis Sacrte Scriptura" is included in the writings of Athanasius, 
but has no claim to be considered his. It is however a valuable relic of anti- 
quity. See Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography T. 

' B (according to Lachm., not so Tisch.) Vulg. Elzev. Rec. Text, have hrcci 
^iff^ it^u,. But A and later Syr. omit the words. Stephens' Rec. Text has 


'UV. — E. 

3 But the margin of both Ed., even in this passage, prefers the omission of 
the word Yi.vptov ; and the Germ. Vers, omits it altogether.— E. B. 

AB Vulg. Theb. Syr. omit it. Rec. Text supports it, with Memph. and later 
Syr. alone of the oldest authorities. — E. 

2 JOHN 4-8. ' 157 

4. EZpnxa, I have found) A thing rarely found at the present day, 
a joy rarely experienced. — h ruv t'ixvuv gov, of thy children) Cyria had 
at the least four children. Comp. ver. 1 with 4. John had found 
these children in the house of their maternal aunt, ver. 13. — ;catos, 
even as) The rule. 

5. Ouj/ iig — xuivriv, not as — neio) Love performs both pages :' truth 
produces nothing else. 

6. Aureu, of Him) the Father, ver. 4. — h ahrr\, in it) in love. 
This verse contains a very pleasing Epanodos.^ — mpmarriTi, ye walk) 
He had just before said, that we walk. Now the second person an- 
swers to the verb, ye have heard ; that is, from us the apostles. 

7. "On, because) The reason why he bids them keep the things 
which they have heard from the beginning. — rnXXol, many) 1 John 
ii. 18, iv. 1. — iiBiiX^ov) have entered. The world is averse from 
God and Christ, busily intent upon its own husks : but to oppose 
God and Christ is of the leaven of Satan. — lpx,^/Mvov, who came) Thus 
Ip^o/Jisvav, 3 John, ver. 3. Comp. eXriXMra, who is come, 1 John iv. 
2. — olroi iariv, this is) A gradation. This very person is the charac- 
ter of a great impostor and antichrist. No other of a more dreadful 
appearance is to be sought. — irXanc, a seducer) opposed to God.^ — 
ai/Ti^pigrog, antichrist) opposed to Christ. The warning against anti- 
christ belongs even to women and young men : ver. 4, 5. Antichrist 
denies the Father and the Son ; and does not confess that Jesus 
Christ is come in the flesh. 

8. 'EauToug, your own selves) in my absence. — ha ij,rj a'TroXiaviri, 
x.r.X.) I think that the apostle wrote : iVa fj,ri a'roXeffriTi a ilpydgaeh, 
aXXd //^leSh 'xXnpn A'TroXdlSui/Msv, that ye lose not the things which ye have 
wrought, but that we receive a full I'eward.^ Whence some have put 
the whole admonitory sentence in the second person, others again, 
afterwards, in the first person. — aXXci,, but) There is no half reward 
of the saints ; it is either lost altogether, or received in full. There 
is a direct opposition. We must however consider the differ- 

' The Old as well as the New Testament love to God, and love to our neigh- 
bour — E. 

2 Repetition of the same words in inverse order. See Append. — E. 

3 The margin of the 2d Ed. and also the Germ. Vers, are in consonance. But 
in respect to the second member, the Germ. Version is at variance with the 
opinion here given, for it retains the second person ; and in this very particular 
confirms the observation of the Gnomon, which presently follows, on the word 
»AX£». — E. B. 

AB Vulg. Iren. Lucif. read d.Tro'hianrt and a7roX«;3nT£ : Eec. Text, with in- 
fi-'rior authorities, diroxidafnii and a.'noKi.^u^tu. — E. 

158 2 JOHN 9-13. 

ent degrees in glory. — sXripjj, full) In foil communion with God : 
ver. 9. 

9. 'O '^apa^aimv, he who transgresseili) from perfidy. — h rr} Maylr\ 
raxi Xpiirroij, in the doctrine of Christ) in the doctrine which teaches 
that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God. — olroi) he, I say. 

10. "'E.p-)(iTai, comes) as a teacher or brother. — ravrriv) this, of 
Christ. — ou (p'spei, does not bring) by a true profession. — xai) and 
moreover. — ^alpiiv, salutation) Let him be to you as a heathen, to 
whom however a salutation is more safely addressed : 1 Cor. v. 10. 
He is speaking of a familiar greeting, and that of brethren and 
Christians. Salutations appear to have been more unusual of old 
among strangers and foreigners. 

11. Tap, for) Severity in love. — xoivcavii; he partakes) For he de- 
clares him to be capable of joy and salvation, even in that antichris- 
tian state. [The bearings and relations of purer doctrine are of the 
nicest kind. — V. g.J — spyois) his works : opposed to faith and love. — 
roTi mvnpoTg, evil) On the contrary, the partaking in good works brings 
a blessing. 

12. lloXXA) many things, of a joyful character. This therefore, 
which the apostle writes, was especially necessary, and admitted of 
no delay. — ov-zi ^fiovX^iriv, I did not wish) The very task of writing 
is not always pleasing to a heart full of sacred love. — Sia x'^P'^ou xal 
fj,iXai/og, with paper and ink) Taffs/vojff/s,' a lowering of the style. 
Put in antithesis to face to face. For this short Epistle, the apostle 
made use of paper, and not parchment. 

13. 'Affcra^fra/ ei, salute you) The courteousness of the apostle is 
seen, who announces the salutation in the words of the children, 
[Most delightful fellowship between the apostle and his juniors.— 

' TciTrsiuuais, as water for baptism, Acts x. 47. — V. 



1 . ' O vpia^liTtpog, The Elder) An appropriate title for a familiar 
Epistle, such as this, and the one that follows. And indeed the 
gravity of the argument, and the familiarity of the little Epistle, are 
wonderfully combined and adjusted. The parts of the Epistle are 

I. The Inscription, ver. 1-3. 

II. An Exhortation to perseverance in true love and faith, 
ver. 4-11. 

III. The Conclusion, ver. 12, 13. 

^i7CKi%Tri, elect) He calls her elect, from her spiritual condition : for 
that this name is appellative, is plain from the circumstance of its 
being attributed to her sister also, ver. 13 ; and if it had been a 
proper name, it would have been IxXkrjj, from 'ixXiHTo?. They 
were either widows, or vromen of piety beyond their husbands. But 
Kvpia [answering to the Hebrew Martha. — V. g.J, as in other places, 
so here, is a proper name, as the Psecile of Heuman teaches, T. 2, 
Book iii. art. 13, and T. 3, Book i. art. 2, Nor can any one doubt 
it, unless he is ignorant of the style of the ancients, or does not bear 
it in mind. The appellative Kvpla, a mistress, independently of the 
relation to her slaves, could scarcely be given to a queen at that time 
without exciting envy. Proper fiames were usually employed of old, 

X60 3 JOHN 3-10. 

3. 'TS.xm^, I rejoiced) This is enlarged upon in ver. i.—y&p, for) A 
healthy state of the soul is known by the works ; and the prayers of 
the righteous further this sta,te.—>ca6uc, even as) is explanatory.— ffi) 
thou ; opposed to Diotrephes, ver. 9. 

4. To'JTuii) than these, joys. 

5. n/ffrJi- ^o/Ers, thou doest faithfully) thou doest something, which 
I readily promised myself and the brethren from you. Thus what- 
ever harmonises.— I^yaff!), thou shall do) in the labour of love.— xa/') 
and, that which is of the greatest consequence, to strangers in par- 

6. 'Ei-w^r/oj H%>.r,(!'ia.i, hefore the Church) These examples were pub- 
licly mentioned, for encouragement, [in a very familiar method.— 
y. g.j_,j„xw? whem, thou shall do well) A characteristic [polite] 
form of exhortation. Thus it is used in .the past and the present 
time, to express approbation : Thou hast spoken well — Thou hast 
done well, etc., Luke xx. 39 ; Acts x. 33 ; Mark vii. 37 ; John iv. 
17, xiii. 13 ; James ii. 8, 19 ; 2 Pet. i. I'd.—'Ttpo'viiJ.-^ai, bringing for- 
ward on their journey) with provision for the way, Tit. iii. 13. Con- 
tinue to afford benefits even to the end. — dg/ws roD ©eoD, as is worthy 
of God) He, who honours such as are described in the following 
verse, honours God. 

7. ToD ov6>aro5, the name) Understand, of God: Lev. xxiv. 11. 
Comp. James ii. 7. — [l^riXhv, they went forth) either as exiles, or as 
preachers of the Gospel.— V. g.]— /ijjatv, nothing) They waived that 
to which they were justly entitled ; and either received no reward 
for their labour, or submitted to the spoiling of their goods. — anh, 
from) Construct this with they went forth. 

8. 'lunpyoi, fellow-helpers) that we may assist the truth, so that it 
may not be hindered. 

9. "'Eypa.-^a, I wrote) concerning these things. That epistle is not 
extant. — r?j UxXriglq,, to the church) of that place from which they 
went forth : ver. 7. Here is the anticipation of an objection : lest 
Caius should say. Why do they come to us ? — o (piXo'^rpunvm ahruv, 
who wishes to he the first of them) If even then, during the life of the 
apostle, Diotrephes exalted himself, what was not the case after- 
wards? — '/i,ttas,ws) who commend them, and those who are commended 
by us. 

10. 'vAv'iXidi, if 1 shall come) Ver. 14. — wo/^vfiaai, I ivill remind 
him) A Metonymia of the antecedent for the consequent : that is, / 
will notice (punish), / will set a mark of censure upon, so that he may 
feel. — Ao'ywf irovripoTc, loith inalicious words) by which he endeavours to 

3 JOHN 11-15. 161 

excuse himself. — rous ^ovXo/jjhovs, those that wish) that is, to receive us 
and them. — ixfSdX'ksi, he casts out) a great amount of insolence. 

11. To xaxhv, that which is evil) in Diotrephes. — rJ ayaih, that 
which is good) in Demetrius. — In tou GeoD, from God) who is good. 
— 'ieriv, is) as born from Him. 

12. Ari/ji,riTpi(jj, Demetrius) He seems to have been a minister who 
was a pattern of hospitality. — ri,U'iTg, we) I, and they who are with me. 
— di) yet: although Demetrius is already supplied with many testi- 
rnonies. — xa! o'l'dan, and ye know) for we do not deceive in anything. 

15. ^iXovc, fnends) Compare John xv. 15. A title seldom found 
m the New Testament, since it is absorbed by the greater one of 
brotherhood. Philosophers are mistaken in supposing that friendship 
is not prepared (formed) by faith. — -/.ar Sno^a, by name) No less 
than if their names were written. 

VOL. V. 



1. 'loiSa?, Jude) The Epistle has three parts. 
I. The Inscription, ver. 1, 2. 

II. The Discussion : in which he exhorts them to contend for 

the faith, 3 : 
And, having described the destruction and character of the 

adversaries, 4-16, 
He admonishes the righteous, 17, 18 ; 
Confirms them, 19-21 ; 
And instructs them in their duty towards others, 22, 23. 

III. The Conclusion, with a Doxology, 24, 25. 

This Epistle closely agrees with the Second of Peter, which Jude 
appears to have had before his eyes. Comp. ver. 17, 18, with 2 
Pet. iii. 3. Peter wrote that at the end of his life : from which it 
may be inferred, that St Jude lived longer, and saw, by that time, 
the great declension of all things in the Church, which had been 
foretold by St Peter. But he passes by some things mentioned by 
Peter, he expresses others with a different purpose and in different 
language, he adds others ; while the wisdom of the apostle plainly 
shines forth, and his severity increases. Thus Peter quotes and 
confirms Paul, and Jude quotes and confirms Peter. — a&eXphs Ss 
'lajtw/3ou, but the brother of James) James was more widely known, 
being styled the brother of the Lord ; therefore Jude modestly calls 
himself the brother of James. — ToTg) A periphrasis, to which the anti- 

JUDE 2-4. 1C3 

thesis answers in ver. 4. — fiyccTrn/xhoi;, beloved) The conclusion cor- 
responds with the introduction : ver. 21. — TiTr}pt)//,hoig, preserved) To 
be preserved uninjured for Christ, is a subject of joy : John xvii. 2, 
11, 15 ; 2 Cor. xi. 2. The sources and completion of salvation are 
pointed out : and this passage has a kind of anticipatory precaution 
('TTpoDtpa-jriiav), lest the righteous should be alarmed by the mention of 
such dreadful evils. — -/.y.riToTg, called) Calling is altogether the prero- 
gative of Divine bounty. 

2. "EXioi, %.T.X., mercy, etc.) in a time of wretchedness. Hence it 
is that mercy is put in the first place : the mercy of Jesus Christ, 
ver. 21 ; peace, in the Holy Spirit, comp. ver. 20 ; love, of God, 
ver. 21. Here is a testimony concerning the Holy Trinity. 

3. Ilaaav avoudriv -Troiou/Mvos) when I gave all diligence. — ypafiiv — 
eurripiag, to write — salvation) Antithetical to marked out before (fore- 
written) to judgment : ver. 4. — ■iripl, concerning) Here is the design 
of the Epistle : ver. 20, 21. There is a close agreement between the 
beginning and the end of the Epistle. — xonri;, common) by equally 
(" like") precious faith : 2 Pet. i. 1. The ground of mutual exhor- 
tation. — sciiTripias, salvation) Even severe admonitions tend to salva- 
tion. — avdyxriv isx"'') ^ could not but. — ypa-^ai hfjJh •sctpanakuv, to write 
to you with exhortation) Of all kinds of writing, Jude judged exhor- 
tation to be most salutary at that time. The word, to write, is in 
close connection with exhorting. Exhortation is introduced in ver. 
17 and 18. This is the express design of the Epistle. — l-jraymiZfaSai, 
that ye contend) It is a double duty, to fight earnestly in behalf of 
the faith, against enemies ; and to build one's self up in the faith : 
ver. 20. Comp. Neh. iv. 16—18. — aVaf, once for all) The particle 
expresses great urgency : no other faith will be given. Comp. in the 
second instatice [subsequently, " afterward"], ver. 5. — Kapabokief), 
delivered) fi'om God. — to7s ay/0/5) to all the saints, who are such (i.e. 
holy) by reason of their most holy faith : ver. 20. Construe this 
with delivered. — T/Vrs/, the faith) by which we arrive at salvation : 
ver. 20, 21. ' 

4. Uapiiaidueav, have crept in unawares) Tapa, under, by the way. — 
0/ 'irdXai ■jrpoysypa/jt./j.'emi I'lg touto rh,a,, who were of old forewritten for 
this judgment) For their coming was predicted, ver. 17; and that they 
should undergo the judgment, which he is about to describe, is evi- 
dent from the examples of punishments inflicted upon others of similar 
impurity — examples which have long been written. There is no 
reference to predestination ; respecting which, however, there is a 
similar expression, 01 ypa^iivTii il; ^mv, they who are written unto life, 

164 JUDE 5, 6. 

Isa. iv, 3 ; but he is speaking of the prediction of Scripture. udXai, 
of old, in the time of Enoch, ver. 14 ; and since he himself only 
spake it, and did not also write it, it must be regarded as an abbrevi- 
ated expression, in this sense: They were long ago foretold by Enoch, 
and afterwards marked out by the written word. Therefore comp. the 
word aei^^Ti, ungodly, with ver. 15. The meaning of £/'; is as far as 
relates to. ToDro, this, is forcibly demonstrative; the apostle already, 
as it were, seeing their punishment. The language used by Enoch 
comprises all the ungodly of the beginning and of the end of the 
world. The disposition and the punishment of all are alike. — ij/jbSiv, 
of us) not of the ungodly. — %afi;v, the grace) of the Gospel. — ron /l6mv 
liS-Kirw, the only Master) Ecclus. xviii. 33, in the Complutensian 
Edition: Kpn'smv nrappineia ev diamrri //,6iiu), i'htp vixpa naphlot, vixpSi ani- 
;^ETa/. — xal Kvpiov, and Lord) St Jude shows that the impiety of 
those whom he censures, makes attacks both against God and against 
Christ: rfiv tou ©EOT '/j/Muv ya-pit fiirarifiVTig i'li asiXynccv, xa! rm /iimi 
biamrriv xat Kupiov iiiiSiv IH20TN XPI2TON apvou//,im- who alter the 
grace of our God as relates to ["into"] lasciviousness, and deny 
our only Master, and Lord Jesus Christ. This was not observed 
by those who inserted Qiov after heiroTrjv.^ A passage exactly parallel 
occurs, 2 Pet. ii. 1, rh ayopdaavTa axiroig SeffffoDjv apvov/j,ivoi, denying the 
Lord that bought them. — dpvo-j/j^svoi, denying) Let the portentous 
fictions (heresies) of the ancient heretics, as mentioned by the fathers, 
be thoroughly weighed. 

5. ' T'Tro/j.vtjeai, to remind) In an active sense. — ildorag v//,&g, though 
you know) The Accusative Absolute, as Acts xxvi. 8. The reason 
why he only admonishes or reminds them is, because they already 
know it, and have ascertained it once for all. This expression 
answers to that of Peter, knowing this first. — aVag) once for all: ver. 
3, note. — guiac, having saved) There is an antithesis in, destroyed. 

6. 'AyyiXous, the angels) 2 Pet. ii. 4, note. — fi^ rnpyisavTag, that 
kept not) They ought therefore to have kept it.— apx^iv) their dignity; 
the state once for all assigned to them, under the Soh of God : Col. 
i. — d.-TToXi'TrovTag, who left) of their own accord. — I'diov, their own) be- 
fitting them. — ohnrripm, habitation) bright and shining, opposed to 
^o'poD, darkness. — d'/dhig, everlasting) A dreadful epithet, as here used. 
So ver. 7, almov, everlasting — rerriptiKif, He hath reserved) determined 
to reserve. 

1 ABC Vulg. and most Versions omit Qiov. Rec. Text inserts it, with more 
recent Uncial MSS., and with the two Syr. Versions alone of very ancient 
authorities. — E. 

JUDE 7-9. 165 

7. Touro;;) [in a manner like] to these, the ungodly, who are 
(loomed to undergo a like punishment. — hTopvi-Jnaeai) giving themselves 
to fornication. For the simple verb mpvsuoi, njt, the Septuagint often 
has hmpvsvtii. But here the word is peculiarly adapted to a lust 
stni more abominable. — a-KiyJoZea,! — srspas, going away after — other) 
unnatural lusts. — [^poxiivTcti, are set forth, lie before our eyes) The 
cities therefore were situated, not in the Dead Sea, but upon the 
shore. — V. g.] — biiyij^a, — li%y\fi, an example — punishment) These are 
put in apposition ; the punishment, which they endure, is an example 
of eternal fire, as Cassiodorus says : for the punishment of those 
cities is iwjt itself eternal : Ezek. xvi. 53, 55. Comp. 2 Pet. ii. 6. 

8. Mevro;, indeed) A particle setting forth and comparing the im- 
purity of such ungodly men with Sodom, whence the resemblance 
of punishment mentioned in ver. 7 is plainly seen. — h-jimaZo/j^ivoi) 
disturbed with impure and confused dreams, and from their dreams 
conjecturing the future. The words, they know not, ver. 10, are 
equivalent : Isa. Ivi. 10, 11, Septuagint, olm 'iyvtiiaav — Jvu^v/a^o/isw/ 
xoiTriv. — ovx sidoTig euviaiv, •jrdvng ra7g odoTg a'jTuv s^rfKo'Kou^YiSuv' They 
are ignorant — sleeping, lying down— they cannot understand — they all 
look to their own way? — xupiorriTa^ dignities) See 2 Pet. ii. 10, note. 

9. 'O Ss Mi')(^ariX, but Michael) It matters not whether the apostle 
received the knowledge of this contention from revelation only, or 
from the tradition of the elders : it is sufficient that he writes true 
things, and even admitted to be true by the brethren. Comp. ver. 
14, note. As answers to [ihroi. — o ap-^^ayyiKoi, the archangel) Men- 
tion is made of the archangel in this place only, and 1 Thess. iv. 16 
(where also a most important subject is treated of, the resm:rection 
of the dead) : there is no mention of it elsewhere ; so that we cannot 
determine whether there is one archangel only, or more. — In, when) 
When this dispute arose, and on what day, is not expressed : it 
certainly happened after the death of Moses. — rC bia^oXoi, with the 
devil) against whom it is especially befitting for Michael to contend, 
Apoc. xii. — &ia,Kpiv6/iivo5 hiiXiyiTo, disputing he contended) It was 
therefore a judicial contest. — ts^; tov Maaiiiii eu/iaTog, concerning the 

' By the one word hwuia^ofitvoi the character of mere natural men is very 
graphically described. A man in dreaming seems to himself to be seeing and 
hearing many things, etc. His lusts are agitated by joy, distress, fear, and the 
other passions. But he is a stranger to self-control in such a state : but as is an 
image (phantom) arising out of an image, such is the condition of such men. 
Hence, though they bring into play all the sinews of reason, they cannot con- 
ceive that the sons of light, who are awake and in the daylight, enjoy true 
liberty. — V. g. 

166 JUDE 10-12. 

body of Moses) He is plainly speaking of the identical body of 
Moses, now lifeless. In a matter full of mystery, we ought not to 
alter that part of the language which is plain, according to our own 
convenience. The devil, who had the power of death, and there- 
fore perhaps claimed the right of hindering the resurrection of 
Moses, made some attempt, whatever it was, against the body of 
Moses.' — om iroKiLrjSi, did not dare) Modesty is an angelic virtue. 
The greater was the victory at length given to Michael : Apoc. xii. 
7. — The Synopsis of Sohar, p. 92, n. 6. It is not permitted man igno- 
miniously to rail at a race opposed to Mm; that is, evil spirits. — Schoett- 
genius. oltx. — aXX' ws, Kom. ix. 32. — ^Xae^^/iiag, of railing) that is, 
j3xdcipy]/j,ov, railing, 2 Pet. ii. 11. — iitiTi/jiriaai eoi, punish thee) An 
instance of the Divine reserve. — Kiipiog, the Lord) and none but He. 
To His judgment the angel assents beforehand [in advance] . 

10. "Oaa) all things, which. — ovu o'lhaei, they are not acquainted 
witfi) This is said of spiritual things, belonging to God and the 
saints. — (pvamSis, naturally) by their natural faculties, respecting 
natural things, by a natural mode of knowledge, and a natural 
appetite. That which is physical is here opposed to that which is 
spiritual, ver. 19. — svisrawai, they^ knotv) A more subtle knowledge 
is conveyed by the former expression, o'iSagi, they are (not) acquainted 
with. — pkipovrai, they perish ["corrupt themselves"]) Comp. the 
following verse. 

11. Oual, woe!) Jude alone of the apostles, and he in this pas- 
sage only, threatens a woe, from a threefold reason, which follows 
immediately. To the same purport, Peter calls them accursed 
children P — rou Ka/V, of Cain) the murderer of his brother. — roD 
BaXaa/A, of Balaam) the false prophet. — /Mshu) for reward. — i^ix^- 
Snsav) they have been poured forth, like a torrent without a bank.— 
avTiXoyla, in the gainsaying) n3i-|», Septuagint, avriXoyla,. — roS Ko^s, of 
Korah) thrusting himself into the priesthood. 

12. 'Ev rati ayd-Kaii vfj.Zv, in your agapce [love-feasts']) in your 
banquets by which brotherly love is nourished. — gmXddii) As there 
is a Paronomasia between Peter and Jude on the words ayd'jrais and 
dmrai;, SO there is an instance of Homonymia^ between the same 
writers in the words e-jrTXoi, 2 Pet. ii. 13, and amXddig, in this passage : 
for amXddis may be taken for " spots" (maculai), as the Vulgate 

' For a full discussion of the subject, see Michaelis' Introduction, by Bishop 
Marsh, vol. 6.— T. ^ 

'■ Accursed children— literally, sons of cursing, maledictionis filios T. 

» For HoMONTMiA and Paronomasia, see Append.— E. 

JUDE 13, 14. 167 

renders it : comp. ver. 23 : ■whence Hesychius has emXdkg, fisfiiag- 
(lim, polluted, at the same time showing a Metonymia^ in this place. 
But he also says, e'XiXii.hi, a'l inpii-^dij,i)iai T~f\ 6aXdggji -rsTpai, the rocks 
which are surrounded hy the sea. Moreover STiXdc also denotes a 
storm ; and this very notion, of which we have remarked an ex- 
ample on Chrysostom, respecting the priesthood, p. 375, is approved 
by CEcumenius. Let the reader make his choice. This metaphor 
is followed by four others ; from the air, the earth, the sea, the 
heaven. — emtvaypiinni apo'/Sws, feasting themselves without fear) 
Sacred feasts are to be celebrated with fear ; [which is opposed to 
luxury. — V. g.] Feasting is not faulty in itself: therefore without 
fear ought to be connected with this verb. — laurous, themselves) not 
the flock. — ihipa f)Sm-!T(iipit&) ^Shaiv, that is, fj.riv, the last part of the 
month : thus <p6iv6vupov, the end of the autumn : thence ShSpov (p^mvu- 
pivm, a tree of such art appearance as that which presents itself at the 
end of the autumn, without leaves and fruit. There is here a grada- 
tion, consisting of four members. The first, and flowing from it 
the second, has reference to the firuit : the third, and flowing from 
it the fourth, has reference to the tree itself. — axapnta, without fruit) 
trees which produce nothing serviceable for food. — Di) twice ; that 
is, entirely : with reference to their former state, and their Christian 
state. — ixpiZfli^hTo,, plucked up hy the roots) This is the last step in 
the process here mentioned. 

13. 'ETapfi/^ovTa, foaming out) swollen through plenty : Isa. Ivii. 
20. — Aaripig 'jrXa\inTa,i, wandering stars) It has been ascertained in a 
more recent age, that planets are of themselves dark (opaque) bodies, 
shining with borrowed light. St Jude, even at that time, fi-om his 
divine light, conveyed this meaning. For it is plain, from the sub- 
sequent mention of darkness, that the allusion is not merely to the 
etymological derivation of wandering stars [ofkavrirai, Th. 'ir'kavd.ofiai, d 
wander"] (although this is also suitable). Comp. 2 Pet. ii. 17. And 
the same reason shows that it is not to be understood of the ignis 
fatuus. Aristotle plainly distinguishes between o/ doxouvreg asripig 
biamn, the stars which. appear to dart through the heavens, shooting 
stars, and oi '^KavriTcu aarepic, the planets. Book i. Meteor, ch. 4 
and 6. — oJg, to whom) As before, in the case of the clouds, trees, and 
waves, so now to the wandering stars, an appropriate description is 
added, with reference to the Apodosis. 

14, Uposip^Teugi) acted as prophet. — xa! rouroig, even to these) not 

' See Append. 

168 JUDE 15. 

only respecting these, and not to the antediluvians only ; for he says, 
all: ver. 15.— E/35o/ioe, the seventh) The antiquity of the prophecy is 
shown, ver. 4 ; for it appears to have been the earliest respecting 
the coming of the Judge. There were only five fathers between 
Enoch and Adam : 1 Chron. i. 1 ; and the translation of Enoch 
took place earher than a.m. 1000 : and this very title is peculiar to 
Enoch, and of frequent use among the Hebrews. The seventh from 
Adam, is, an expression not without mystery ; for in him who is thus 
described, freedom from death and a sacred number are combined : 
for every seventh object is most highly valued. The Fragment of 
Enoch, indeed, relates a tenfold septenary : inasmuch as those un- 
godly men, who were overwhelmed with the deluge, hi^ivm hrl l^^o- 
•MTKOwa. yen&c, iig rag vd'Trag i-rjg yn;, shall be bound to dark valleys of 
the earth for seventy generations, even until the day of their judg- 
ment. See Heidan. de Orig. Err., p. 174. — a^^rh ' Ahafi, from Adam) 
The first coming of Christ was foretold to Adam ; the second to 
Enoch. The seventh from Adam prophesied the things which shall 
close the seventh age of the world. — 'Erwx, Enoch) Who shall de- 
termine, whether St Jude took this also from some ancient book, or 
from tradition, or from immediate revelation ? If from a book, 
it is however judged to be different from that against which 
Bangius disputes, in his Treatises on the Origin of Letters, espe- 
cially p. 94. Comp. Suicer's Thesaurus, P. i. col. 1131. — Kvpiog, 
the Lord) The name of Jehovah was already known in the time of 
Enoch. — 111 aylai; fiupidaiv, amidst holy myriads) of angels : Matt. 
XXV. 31. A mysterious ellipsis^ was suitable to those early times. 

15. Kpleiv, judgment) Enoch looked forward beyond the deluge. — 
■/.aTo, iravToiv, against all men) who have sinned. A general descrip- 
tion (the genus). — i^iXiy^ai,^ to convince) The conviction, which 
there was even then, will be completed in the judgment. A pro- 
cess of conviction is employed against those who are unwilling to 
know. — 'Tta.vra.g roig aSi^iTg, all the ungodly) A particular description 
(the species). — sXaXriSat, have spoken) ver. 8, 10. — x-ar aurou, against 
Himself) even though they had not thought that all their ungodly 

1 A mysterious ellipsis : i.e. an ellipsis intentionally hiding the details, not 
revealing that which we now know, that it shall be with holy myriads of angels. 
— T. 

2 However the simple iTisyJa; is considered preferable in the margin of both 
Ed.— E. B. 

ABO Vulg. ("arguere") read iT^iy^ai : but Rec. Text, i^i-hiyiai, with 
modern and cursive MSS. — E. 

JUDE 16-21. 169 

sayings [with which also the sons of the Lord and His servants are 
assailed, Job xlii. 7 ; Mai. iii. 13. — V. g.J were directed against 
Him. — cf./jLo.prai'Kol a,aij3ii'c, ungodly sinners) A sinner is bad ; aai^rig, 
one who sins without fear, is worse. 

16. Toyyvsral, murmurers) against men. — /j,ifi,'^!/j,oipoi, complainers) 
against God. — ■jopi\j6iJ.ini, walking) with respect to themselves, ver. 
18. — feu/ia^oi/TEs ■spoaoiva) having merHs persons in admiration. So 
the Septuagint translates CD''3a NK'J and C3'3a Tin, on either side 
[either in a bad or a good sense]. 

17. 'X/i6?s bi, ayaitTiro], but ye, beloved) Thus also ver. 20. — /j,v^(!SnTi, 
remember) They therefore to whom Jude writes had also heard the 
other apostles. — a-jroariXm, apostles) Jude does not exempt himself 
from the number of the apostles ; for in the next verse he says, to 
you, not, to us. 

19. oItoi) these. He shows that the characters of these are such 
as have been foretold, ver. 18. — o'l a-Trodiopit,ovrsg) iauroiis is understood, 
though this also is added by some : ^ Isa. xlv. 24, Septuagint, 
als^uvS^eovTai 'xdyrig o'l apopl'l^ovTig (diopi'l^ovTeg is the reading of the 
Vatican edition) alrov;' All that separate themselves shall be ashamed. 
They separate themselves from God, and from living communion 
with the Church ; yet not from its outward fellowship, ver. 12, at 
the beginning. Comp. Hos. iv. 14, ITiS'' ; [Prov. xviii. 1 ; Isa. Ixvi. 
5; Luke vi. 22. — V. g.J — -^vxi'mI, animal) who are influenced 
by the animal nature only, without the spirit. — 'jrnijjj.a ^ij 'i^ovrii, 
not having spirit) Therefore the spirit is not an essential part of 

20. Ae, but) Separating, and building yourselves up, are opposite 
terms ; also animal, and in the Holy Spirit. — aymTaTti, most holy) 
than which nothing can be more holy. The superlative singular, 
with great force of exhortation and urgency. — h Ill's u^ar/'Ay/w wpoa- 
iu^ofiim, praying in the Holy Spirit) Eph. vi. 18 ; Zech. xii. 10 ; ~ 
John iv. 24. Jude makes mention of the Father, the Son, and 
the Holy Spirit : he also makes mention of faith, of love and hope, 
in this and the following verses. — Tpogiv-^o/j,^}, praying) The atten- 
tion of the righteous is requisite, but much more their prayers, by 
which they obtain Divine assistance. 

21. 'EauToCj, yourselves) He who defends himself first, is able then, 
and not till then, to preserve others. The following verses. — wpos- 

^ A Vulg. and Lucifer omit savTovs : and so Stephens' Rec. Text. But B 
(judging from the silence of collators) C and later Syr. add it : and so Elzev. 
Rec. Text.— E. 

170 JUDE 22-24. 

iiX^fj^ivoi, waiting for) They, who build themselves iip, are able to 
wait with confidence. — 'iXtog, mercy) Opposed to fire, ver. 23. — I'lg, 
unto) To be construed with waiting for. 

22. Kal, and) He who has already taken measures to secure his 
own interests, may take measures for the interests of others. 

22, 23. oils (ih ekiy/iTi diaxpivofihoug- ou; ds guZ^iti sx irvphg ap-!Ta- 
Zpnii' oSs b't IXeiTri h po/Sw,"- Some indeed, who are hesitating, con- 
vince ; but save others, snatching them from the fire ; hut on others 
have pity with fear) The apostle enumerates three descriptions of 
those, whose safety the righteous ought to consult : and the first 
class is deficient in understanding ; the second in disposition, and 
that vehemently ; the third in disposition, but in a less degree. 
Therefore, 1st, conviction, or a demonstration of good and evil, ought 
to be applied to those who are harassed with doubts, and hesitate in 
uncertainty and perplexity. 2d, Those whom the fire has already 
nearly seized upon, ought to be grasped by any part, with rapid 
effort, and thus preserved. 3d, They are to be treated with mercy 
and gentleness, who can be led back into the way by fear alone, 
and a kind pointing out of the danger. See App. Grit., Ed. ii., on 
this passage. — /Mnovvng, holding in hatred) This strictly coheres with 
sXsiTti, pity. He says. Wretched men must be rescued in one way 
from the fire,' and in another way from the mud. It is sufficient 
for these last to be treated with mildness, fear only being applied : 
these, being almost untouched by you, may perceive fi-om this very 
circumstance your hatred and loathing even of the mere surface of 
impurity. — xal, even) not only the fiesh itself, which they pollute, 
ver. 8, but even the garment. — hviXtiifihov y^iTma,, the spotted tunic) 
The tunic is the whole outward habit of life, in which we are affected 
by others. The phrase resembles a proverbial one. 

24. ^vXa^ai avroiii a<!rTa!(STovg, to keep you^ free from stumbling) in 

' "E'hiyX.iTi is read by AB corrected, C (according to Lachm., but not so 
Tisch.), Vulg. Mempli. B has tTieare : Ree. Text, i-KaHn, with inferior Uncial 
MSS. and later Syr. 

Aiaapivopihovs is read by ABC Vulg. Syr. later Syr. Memph : but Rec. Text, 
Ziaxpivifiii/oi, with inferior Uncial MSS. 

Oi?f is eXeare h (po'/3p is the reading of AB Vulg. But Rec. Text omits these 
words, except that it inserts h (po'/S^j after oyf Sf and before Ix irvpo;, in opposi- 
tion to ABO Vulg., which omit these words in that place. C and both Syr. 
Versions, however, omit ovs §s IXeare, and merely put h (p6^a after a.p^ii.l'oiirH. 
— E. 

^ Why it is that both here and in the Germ. Vers, the pronoun auroiis has 
been translated by you (" euch "), this very note of the Gnomon indicates : to 

JUDE 25. 171 

coiitradistinction to those ungodly men. Auroie, for if/^&g, refers to 
the preceding announcements, as Matt, xxiii. 37. — xuTivtiwiov rni &6^ni 
airoij, before the presence of His glory) before the presence of Him- 
self, when He shall he revealed most gloriously. — a/iu/ious, without 
fault) in your own selves. This is antithetical to, free from 

25.^ Aoga nal fisyaXciiavvri, glory and majesty) This refers to the 
only God. — xpdrog xal l^oiiir/a, might and power) This refers to, who 
is able. 

wit, the reading vfcxg does not seem a probable one according to the decision of 
both Greelc Ed.— E. B. 

AiiTovg is the reading of B (according to Tisch.) and Stephens' Ree. Text. 
'Tfici;, in Vulg. and Elezev. Rec. Text. A has iiftcis. — E. 

' The words, iid 'Itimu Xpiirrov tov Kuplou ijfiav, which immediately precede, 
have been received into the Germ. Version with the sanction of Ed. 2. — E, B. 

ABC Vulg. support the words. Rec. Text with modern MSS. omit them. 
— E. 




I have prepared two Commentaries on the Apocalypse at the same 
time ; the one in German, separately published/ for the sake of those 
who, although they are unacquainted with Latin, are yet searchers 
after the truth ; the other in Latin, which is this last part of the 
Gnomon of the New Testament. Do not imagine, Reader, that 
these differ only in language : there is a much greater difference be- 
tween them, on account of which they may be used together, or rather, 
they ought to be so used. That treatise in German is full, regular, 
and without intermission ; but these annotations in Latin exhibit a 
kind of miscellaneous gleaning, which is also serviceable in its class. 
For I judged, that the testimonies of antiquity, the explanation of 
Greek phrases, critical supplements,^ and the refutation of false opi- 

1 The first edition of this came from the press a. 1740 ; the second, mthout 
any change in the principal matters, and furnished with a new Prologue, A. 
1746 : respecting the others, which were published after the death of my sainted 

father, as also respecting the Sacred Discourses on the Apocalypse which followed, 
A. 1747, 60 erbauliche Reden, of which likewise several editions are now pub- 
lished, there is no reason why I should speak. There is only one thing which I 
wish those unacquainted with it to know.— '&s waren keine ofifentliche Pre- 
digten (wie man sie sehon genennet hat), sondern Vertrauliche Vortrage, die in 
sogenannten Erbauungs-Stunden gemacht worden. E. B. 

2 These here, for the greatest part, on account of the reasons alleged li„ mv In- 
troduction, / have now removed : why I have not thought, however, that s'ome, 
though inserted in the Apparatus, should he cut out, the matter speaks for itself. 
~E. B. 


nions, would be set forth more conveniently in Latin than m my 
vernacular language. Therefore the things which are there more 
difPusely explained, are here only touched upon : the things which 
were scarcely introduced there, are here more copiously treated. 
The two commentaries are altogether distinct : each is something 
complete in its own way.' He who shall use the two together, will 
say that they are like one work, but he will reap a double advantage. 
2) But is criticism, you will say, inculcated here also? I am 
more weary of this kind of labour than I may appear to many. For 
when Eobert Stephens divided the text of the Apocalypse into more 
than 400 verses, the mere revision of the Apocalypse before requii'ed 
from me a labour of perhaps as many days (if any one is not aware 
of the importance of this labour, let him pardon me). I am unwill- 
ing to exaggerate, by setting forth, in an ambitious manner, how 
protracted a task it is to compare the printed editions, and the most 
important of them word by word, to revise the edition of Kuster 
from that of Mill itself, to examine the Greek and Latin Manuscripts, 
to arrange the extracts of Manuscripts brought forward by others 
from various quarters, to consult the Versions, to search the Greek 
and Latin Fathers, to adjust the punctuation ; and yet I thought 
that this very labour ought not here to be wholly concealed. For it 
is most properly requu'ed from those who would give a just opinion 
in a matter of this kind, that, in addition to their other qualifications, 
however excellent, they should be readily conversant with the read- 
ing and purport of the Manuscripts, Versions, and Fathers, and be 
thoroughly acquainted with the character of these witnesses, their 
number, their points of agreement and disagreement, and the weight 
due to their testimony, at one time greater, at another time less : and 
that they should not suppose that the passages on which they have 
fallen, can be explained separately by a hasty judgment, but that 
they should rather seek for the settlement of differences from the 
generally-agreeing results of the whole investigation. To this point 
the Foundations of criticism on the Apocalypse, in the Apparatus, from 
page 776 to 789 [Ed. ii. p. 487, and following], have a manifest re- 
ference, in which I have entered into a consideration of the Apo- 
calypse as a whole, and that in no cursory manner ; and have thus 
prepared light and strength for the critical examination of separate 
passages which follows in the same treatise. I have given a sum- 

' No one will on this account think that the whole of that German Commentary 
was to be set forth to the readers of the Gnomon, by that plan in which I inserted 
short notes upon the Vers. Germ. — E. B. 


mary of the Foundations in a second Defence;^ and I will here 
repeat a part of that summary. " Erasmus, as he himself admits, 
had only one Greek Manuscript on the Apocalypse, by Jo. Capnio, 
and the commentary of Andreas of Csesarea, with which the text (r), 
xii/j^m) was interspersed. From that, he says, WE TOOK care that 
the words of the context should be written down. And smce the 
book was mutilated, he supphed the text, in a hasty manner, from 
the Vulgate, which was not yet revised ; and he did this without great 
care, since he did not very highly esteem this prophecy. Stephens, 
who was a man of learning, but overwhelmed with business as a 
printer, published, word for word, the text of the Apocalypse as given 
by Erasmus, though it was of such a character, especially in his last 
edition, which so many other editors have followed. This is evident 
to the eye. But before these two, that is before the Reformation, in 
the Complutensian edition, a text of the Apocalypse very remarkable, 
and of signal eiEcacy as to its testimony against the Papacy, and one 
which we ought by no means to disparage, came forth in the midst 
of Spain, and was spread far and wide in other countries of Europe. 
Afterwards the Oriental languages and Versions were studied : the 
most ancient Latin Version was restored, in which I gained a glean- 
ing similar to that which my Apparatus exhibits : and many Greek 
and Latin Fathers, and those too. Fathers who. make copious and 
strong allusions to the Apocalypse, have been brought to light and 
examined. Greek Manuscripts of the Apocalypse, so rarely met 
with in former times, have been procured in considerable numbers 
and at different places ; and of two, which came into my hands, one 
fortunately contained the same commentary of Andreas of Csesarea ; 
by the aid of which I more accurately perceived in what part Eras- 
mus was correet, and in what he was at fault. And the Alexandrian 
Codex^ (which is a matter of great importance) has been introduced 
into the West — a manuscript which is acknowledged by true critics 
to be incomparable, on account of its antiquity, and in the Apocalypse 
especially, on account of its purity and authority. And Erasmus 
and Stephens, if they were alive at the present day, would most 
gladly avail themselves of these aids furnished by God, and more 
readily so than the whole band of their followers ; and they would 
with one mouth declare, that the text of the Apocalypse is presented 

1 App. Crit. Ed. ii. P. iv. N. ix. 

2 Marked usually as A. It was given to Charles I. by Cyril Lucar, Patri- 
arch of Alexandria, and afterwards of Constantinople ; now in the Brit. 
Museum. Edited fac-simile by Woide, 1786. — E. 


to US in its purest state, not by those editions which they themselves 
published with such difficulty, and which others after them perpe- 
tuated with such scrupulous exactness, but by loth classes of editions 
conjointly, and indeed by the whole of Christian antiquity, and the 
Marrow of its documents. These are all the foundations on which 
my criticism is based. In such a manner not only many passages of 
lesser, though undoubtedly of some, weight, but also some of the 
greatest importance, having reference to the Divine economy, are 
renewed afresh in the Apocalypse by the eoyal peoclamation of 
Jesus Christ to those who love His appearance. Many good souls 
now acknowledge this. They give thanks to God, and turn the 
matter to their own use." Since the matter comes to this point, I 
do not think it burdensome, and I consider it my duty, to note down 
by the way further observations, which, from time to time, of their 
own accord occur to me, perhaps more than to any other man, how 
ever learned, even when I am engaged on other business ; and to 
add vindications of their truth, where there is occasion to do so. 

3) To those resources, which I employed in the Apparatus, is now 
added a commentary upon the Apocalypse, attributed to Apringius, 
respecting whom it will be useful to make some remarks. Aprin- 
gius, whom many call Aprigius (some use other slight variations 
of the name), was Bishop of Pax Julia, in Spain, about the year 540. 
His Commentary on the Apocalypse, quoted by Isidorus of Seville, 
and by others, was regarded by some as lost. But Garsias Loaisa, 
according to Fabricius, says, " There is extant a great vMrh in MS. 
on the Apocalypse." But when I had seen the Gothic Legionensian 
Codex, written in the thousand and eighth year, 1 perceived that no 
certain knowledge was to he gained from thence respecting the name of 
the author, hut that the work was composed for the gratification of a 
certain jSiterius. Moreover the author says in his preface, tliat he 
has collected his writings from the hooks of Victorinus, Isidorus, and 
Aprigius. Another copy on parchment, transcribed at Barcinona, 
in the year 1042, /j"om another copy of greater antiquity (perhaps the 
Legionensian), was brought from Spain into Denmark in the pre- 
ceding century. At Arna, in that country, by the permission of 
Magnceus Islandus, a professor at Copenhagen, the well-known 
abbot /. L. Moshemius formerly copied the book : and he informed 
me, that the original MSS. were destroyed in the fire at Copen- 
hagen ; he however obligingly sent me as a present his own copy, 
most accurately derived from them. In that MS. the name of 
Apringius occurs throughout : and this very treatise, at the begin- 


ning and end, is attributed to the Bisliop Apringius. However, it 
plainly appears that the work is interpolated. In one place, John 
is said to have written the Apocalypse during the reign of Claudius ; 
in another place, during that of Domitian. The number 666 
(DCLXVi) is reduced to the word DICLUX, of which device Ambrose 
Anshert professed himself the inventor, two or three centuries after 
Apringius. The Commentary of Apringius himself, in his own 
name, in one or two places is so intermingled with that of the rest, , 
that the preceding parts must be assigned for that very reason to 
other authors. I am not at present concerned to say anything as 
to the character of that commentary : Moshemius, in accordance 
with the object which he then had in view, in most instances wrote 
out the text, interwoven with the commentary, in such a manner, 
that he expressed only the first and last words of the paragraphs ; 
but still the readings of many passages are brought to light, which 
here and there show the integrity of the Vulgate translator, and 
everywhere confirm my own opinions, formed before I had any 
knowledge of Apringius. Where I quote Apringius by name, the 
reader will remember that the readings of the Copenhagen copy are 
those meant by me, although the identical readings of Apringius 
can scarcely be distinguished from the rest : nor is it of great con- 
sequence, since the interpolations themselves are of sufficient an- 
tiquity, and some of them are taken from authors perhaps more 
ancient than Apringius, and agree either with the text of Apringius 
himself, or with that of other Latin copies of the New Testament. 
We can undoubtedly collect here and there the Spanish reading of 
the Latin Apocalypse, which is scarcely to be met with elsewhere. 

4) Moreover, my edition of the New Testament with critical 
apparatus came into the hands of John Christopher Wolf, of pious 
memory, before he published his fourth volume of Curs on the New 
Test. : therefore he especially paid attention to my annotations in 
the Apocalypse. 

He would sometimes, as I believe, have arrived at a diff'erent 
judgment, if the haste, of which his excellent work bears traces at 
the close, had allowed more accurate consideration. He has indeed 
frequently confirmed my opinion by his own suffrage : and this 
agreement of a man most highly praised, ought to cause many to 
lay aside the prejudices which are so common in cases of this kind. 
In other places, he has expressed his disagreement with my opinions, 
or at any rate his doubt ; at the same time mentioning his reasons, 
with the courtesy of a theologian. I have thought that such things 

APOCALYPsa, 177 

ought to be declared by me again and again on this account, that I 
might contend with one who is dead, not more in arguments than 
in kindness. I do not now repeat, in one place, the explanations 
which I have given on that ground-work; they who have any 
interest in the matter may read them in my Apparatus. At each 
place separately, I have given such admonitions as were befitting : 
from which the attentive reader would not, as I hope, depart without 
profit. For respecting those passages, in which the controversy 
turns on the expression, I have not said much, but I have more 
carefully vindicated some most important readings.^ 

5) Nor however does this gleaning of criticisms overwhelm, much 
less exclude. Exegesis, which is the object at which I chiefly aim in 
this book. You may say that the treatise is composed of two 
threads. For I have made it my aim, that this part should not 
turn out too meagre, and that it might not be out of character with 
the weighty consideration of the other books of the New Testament 
in this Gnomon, the exegetical part of which has frequently been 
quoted in the critical Apparatus even on the Apocalypse. I have 
indicated by their titles only, forcibly and concisely, the principal 
subjects comprised in any portion of the prophecy. I have made 
my own treatise more clear, by examining in many places the 
opinions of a distinguished commentator, D. Joachim Lange. But 
you will remember that a fuller explanation of the arguments and 
emblems is to be sought for from my German commentary. 

6) I introduce here, at the veiy threshold, a Synopsis of the whole 
Apocalypse, which is natural, as I hope, and serviceable. 

The Apocalypse contains :— 

I. The Inteoduction : 

1. The title of the Book, . . Ch. i. 1-3 

2. The inscription, . . . 4-6 

3. The sum and substance, . . 7, 8 

4. A glorious vision, in which 
THE Lord Jesus 

a. instructs John to write, . '. 9-20 

b. stirs up THE AlfGELS OF THE 

SEVEN CHURCHES, at Ephesus and 

" Which readings are to be sought in the 2d Edition of this very App. Ciit., 
as I have said. — E. B. 

VOL. V. M 


Smyrna and Pergamos, and at 
Thyatira and Sardis, and at Phila- 
delphia and Laodicea, to prepare 
themselves in a befitting manner 
for His coming, promising future 
blessings " To- him that over- 
cometh." .... Ch. ii, ui. 

II. The shewing of those things which shall 
come to pass. Here in one continued 
vision is set forth : 

1. Generally and universally, all power 
in heaven and in earth, given by 
Him that sits on the throne to the 
Lamb, on the opening of the SEVEN 
SEALS of the sealed book, ch. iv. v. 
In the first four seals are comprised 
visible things, towards the east, 
and west, and south, and north : 
ch. vi. 1-8 : in the remaining three, 
invisible things ; ch. vi. 9. etc. 
The seventh, as being of greatest 

a. has a special preparation, . ai!. 

b. contains silence in heaven, 
seven angels with trumpets, 
and a great burning of in- 
cense, . . . viii. 1-6 

2. A particular judgment, by which, 
under the seven an^gels and 
THEIE teumpets, the kingdom of 
the world is convulsed, until it be- 
comes the kingdom of God and of 

Here are to be considered, 

A. The first four angels, with their 
trumpets, . . . viii. 7-12 

B. The three remaining angels, with 
their trumpets ; and the three 
woes, by means of the locusts, 
thehorsemen,andthebeast,viii. 13,ix. l,etc. 


The trumpet of the seventh angel 
is the most ample : from which 
is to be noted, 

a. The oath of the angel concern- 

ing the consummation of the 
Divine mystery under the 
trumpet of the seventh angel ; 
and the approaching change 
of the great city, . . Ch. x. xi. 

b. The trumpet itself, and under it, 

I. A summary and setting 

forth of events, . . xi. 15 

II. A previous giving of thanks 
on the part of the elders 
for the judgment, . 16-18 

III. The judgment itself, . 19 

Here are related — 

a. The birth of the man-child, 

and the casting out of 
the original enemy from 
HEAVEN, . . xii. 1-12 

b. A delay on the eaeth, 

the third horrible woe : in 

1. The woe itself is stirred 

up : 1. by the dragon, . xii. 12 

2. by the two beasts, xiii. 

2. In the meantime men 

1. are admonished by three 

angels, . . xiv. 6 

2. are gathered together by 

the harvest and vintage, 1 4 

?). are afflicted by seven 
plagues or vials, and 
invited to repentance, . xv. xvi. 

3. The great whore, together 

with the beast, suffers ac- 
cumulated calamity, . xvii. 

c. A royal victory, in which those 

enemies are removed out of the 
way, in inverted order. For, 

, xvin. XIX. 


1. The great whore is judged, 
and the Idngdom of God 
prevails, . • Ch. 

2. The beast and the false pro- 
phet are cast into the lake of 
fire, . . • xix. 

3. The devil is bound, . sx. 
d. The kingdom freed from all 

hindrances. For that king- 
dom, after the former steps, in 
succession before the trumpet 
of the seventh angel, ch. vii. 9, 
and especially after those men- 
tioned under it, xiv. 1, 13, xv. 
2, now altogether flourishes. 

1. The nations are not led 
astray by Satan, but are 
fed by Christ, . . xs, 3 

2. Those vpho have a part 
in the first resurrection 
reign together with Christ, 4 

3. Gog and Magog are de- 
stroyed ; and the devil, 
having been loosed for a 
short time (chronus), is 
cast into the lake of fire, 7 

4. The dead are judged, . 1 1 

5. The new heaven, and new 
earth : the New Jeru- 
salem, the kingdom which 
remaineth for ever and 
ever, . . . xxi. xxii. 

III. The Conclusion, exactly answering to the 

introduction of the Book, . . xxii. C-21 

The well-known D. Joachim Lange has also prefixed a Table to 
his Commentary on the Apocalypse. Whether that of his, or mine, 
sets forth the genuine connection of the pronhecy, I wish those to 
declare who understand the matter. 

7) He who shall take the trouble to fix in his mind my Table, 


and to take the more palatable Notes, apart from the critical, 
although they sometimes coalesce, and, though they are few, 
thoroughly to weigh their force, will certainly, as I confidently 
trust, derive some advantage, and will not only avoid the vague in- 
ventions of many, but will also acknowledge the assistance which it 
furnishes towards a true interpretation. We resolve the prophetic 
times into those in ordinary use at their respective places : but the 
demonstration of this fact (and it ought to be sufficient to have 
mentioned this once for all) is given especially at ch. xiii. 18. 


1. ' AroxdXv^ig) The Latin Fathers term it the Revelation, and 
they dq so with propriety : for matters before covered are revealed 
in this book. No prophecy in the Old Testament has this title : it 
was reserved for the Revelation of Jesus Christ in the New Testa- 
ment, [and for it] alone. It is a Manifesto, as the term is, and that 
of the kingdom of Christ. — 'irtdou Xpierov, of Jesus Christ) The title 
is prefixed by [uninspired] men, ' AvozaKv-^^ig 'Iciianov rou &eoX6yov. 
This title is ancient indeed,' but it presupposes doubts respecting the 
writer of the Apocalypse, which arose a long time after the age of 
the apostles ; it also presupposes the introduction into the Church of 
the surname, " the Divine," and its being assigned to John ; and it 
implies that there were other Apocalypses, from which this true one 
was to be distinguished. The surname, Divine [as attributed to 
John], almost supersedes that of Apostle. It is indeed John, the 
apostle, who wrote this book ; but the Author^ is Jesus Christ. By 
prefixing the name John, the ancients wished to distinguish the 

' And therefore also not rejected in the title of Vers. Beng. — E. B. 

- See Erkl. Offenb. Ed. II. p. 154, and the next, and comp., if you think fit, 
my Beleuchtung, etc., § 2, pp. 4—8, § 33, n. 4, p. 149, and the next. Nor is it 
so insane a thing to attribute special weight to this book, as indeed the celebrated 
Ernesti deems it., for instance. Bill. th. Noviss. T. T. p. 689. For more easily, 
for example, could either Matthew compensate for the loss of Marie, or one of the 
Pauline Epistles for the loss of another, than any book of the New Testament 
could supply the place of those things which were revealed at a later time in the 
Apocalypse. — E. B. 


true Apocalypse from the many apocryphal books. Apocryphal 
gospels and epistles presuppose others that are canonical, and so 
apocryphal apocalypses presuppose a genuine Apocalypse. Arte- 
mon. de Init. Evang. Joh., p. 88, 140, and following, affirms, 
and not without reason, that no one ever rejected the Apocalypse 
before Cuius, a Eoman presbyter, atid the Alogi, but that it was 
received by all. The Lord taught the apostles many things before 
His departure ; but those which were unsuitable for present narra- 
tion He brought together into the Apocalypse. On which account, 
in the ^thiopic New Testament, the Apocalypse is not inappro- 
priately placed immediately after the four Evangelists. — htl^ai, to 
show) This verb again occurs, ch. xxii. 6. And thus the parts of 
this book everywhere have reference to one another. Altogether, 
the structure of this book throughout breathes a Divine art. And it 
is in a certain measure its pecuharity, that it comprises in a perfect 
compendium future things in great number, and in this number 
things widely differing ; things close at hand, far distant, and inter- 
mediate ; very great and very little ; dreadful and salutary ; things 
repeated from old prophecies and new ; long and short ; and those 
interwoven with each other, opposed to one another and in agree- 
ment, mutually involving and evolving one another ; having refer- 
ence to each other from a little or a great interval, and so at times 
as it were disappearing, broken off, suspended, and afterwards un 
expectedly and most seasonably returning into sight ; and to these 
things, which are the subject of the book, the structure of the book 
itself accurately corresponds. Therefore, in all its parts, it presents 
an admirable variety, and most beautiful involutions, and at the 
same time the greatest harmony, which is strikingly illustrated by 
the very irregularities, which appear to interrupt its course. And 
all this is done with such an amount of exactness, that in no book 
more than in this would the addition, or taking away, of even a 
single word or clause (ch. xxii. 18, 19), have the effect of marring 
the sense of the context and the comparison of passages together, 
and of turning aside the most sacred boundary lines of the book. 
And this is especially remarkable, that when it gives but a slight 
indication of the greatest things out of the ancient prophets, 
whereas it more copiously explains those that are new, it still keeps 
the most exact proportion. And since these things are so, a true 
and full analysis, whatever it is, will not fail to appear too ingenious, 
and therefore to incur the suspicion of those who love simplicity, 
and especially deserve to attain to the knowledge of the truth. But 

APOCALYPSE 1. 1. 183 

in truth the Apocalypse proceeded from the mind of God, if one 
may use the expression ; and, amidst the greatest simpHcity, it most 
worthily represents His 'TroXwolxiXov, manifold -wisdom, in the economy 
of so many ages of the New Testament. And therefore he who 
wishes to reject an interpretation on account of the various matters 
which flow into that interpretation from the context, will violate that 
very simplicity, which is especially in accordance with the Scriptm-es. 
This- is certainly to be guarded against, that' the acuteness of man 
should not think this subject given to it as a field for its exercise, 
and should not, from observing the nice and accurate adjust- 
ment which exists in one or two points, reduce all things into a 
system pleasing to itself. "We ought to keep to that which is writ- 
ten, to that alone, to that altogether ; and so to observe, as it is 
shewn. — nTg dovXoig aurou, to Sis servants) He, who does not permit 
the things which must come to pass to be shewn to him, is wanting in 
the duty of a servant. Would that those holy men would think of 
this, who are so intent upon everything which is most excellent, that 
they regard the shewing of these things as a hindrance ; whereas it ' 
is able to advance the servants of Jesus Christ in every good work. — 
& SiT yiv'eaSai, which must come to pass) There are those, who acknow- 
ledge that some use in teaching or comforting may be derived from 
this book (which use not even Bossuet would deny), but so acknow- 
ledge it, that they proceed no further. They not only put aside 
meanwhile a part of the special prophetical sense, as the venerable 
D. Weisman has done, with the greatest sobriety, in his dissertation 
respecting the excellent teaching of the Apocalypse as to faith and 
morals (in the same way as Theological Systems cite the Apocalypse 
in every passage or article) ; but in reality they entirely reject the 
whole of the prophetic sense, and applaud themselves for so doing. 
And not only do they themselves fail to enter into the understand- 
ing of this book, but they also prohibit, deter, and jeer at those who 
are entering. But let them take care, lest they offend, or err from 
the very scope of the book. These things which have reference to 
teaching and exhortation are contained in other books ; but the 
Apocalypse especially shows the things which must come to pass ; 
and that too with such seriousness, that a very great oath is inter- 
posed, ch. X. We ought not to invert this scope : in short, we ought 
not to separate the things which God hath joined together, namely, 
the knowledge of future events, and therefore of future times, and 
repentance, watchfulness, etc. Holy men of all times, martyrs, etc., 
have had a perpetual succession of expectations arising out of the 


Apocalypse ; anil although, in the particular hypothesis,! ^.fjey y^pyg 
not then able to discern the times, yet in the general thesis they had a 
most real and present advantage from it, whilst their error was not 
injurious to them. Do others defend the general and fundamental 
truth set forth by Christ in the Gospel ? They do well. But they 
ought not so to conduct themselves, as though the Apocalypse had 
not the same Author, throughout all parts of the book ; and that too 
a glorified Author. No one of those who make a wholesome use of 
the rest of Scripture, pays respect to the Apocalypse without singu- 
lar advantage : if he does not find that of which he was in search, 
he finds that which he was not seeldng. The things which must 
come to pass, are shewn in this book. If any one, in reading this 
book, shall weigh (it may be by tKe use of Concordances) the usage 
of the verb yhoiMai (some tenses of which, for instance yevigSai in 
this passage, Sylburgius ad Clenard. p. 470, derives from the unused 
form ysviof/^ai), he will retire from the consideration, not without 
delight. There come to pass sorrowful things, there come to pass 
joyful things, great and many. This book represents those things 
loMch come to pass, absolutely ; that is, the sums and series of events, 
through so many ages, to the very coming of Jesus Christ. To that 
event Daniel, to that John, extends his view, each from his own age. 
— h rd^si, quickly) A regard for Christianity brings with it a 
regard for the times also. — Paulus Antonius, in the Antithetical 
College, p. 930. Eespecting quickness, I would have you by all 
means see the note on ch. vi. 11 : from which it will be evident, 
that the interpretation of the celebrated D. Lange, respecting the 
event of the seals, etc., as being about to be quick, after many ages 
have intervened [and not imtil then], is too weak. — ^Tom. i. Gl. 
Chr. Part i., or Comm. Apoc. fol. 22. The final time itself is at 
hand, ver. 3 : and that approach gives quickness even to the advent 
and rise of the things nearer at hand, and not merely to their event 
and progress. The whole book ought to be taken as one word, pro- 
nounced in one moment. With the exception of definite times, 
which are of sufficient extent, all things are most truly done h 
rayji, quickly. Such a quickness is signified, ch. xi. 14 ; 2 Pet. i. 
14, and in many places. — laTHJ^anv, signified) The Apocalypse 
abounds with Hebraisms, in simple words, iLa.ya.ifa, comp. Gen. 
xlix. 5, where now are mentioned rman, x.r.X., and in words entirely 

' Hypothesis denotes a proposition which refers to an individual person or 
object ; thesis, an indefinite position, without any mention of persons or things. 
See 1 Pet. ii. 10. — T. 

APOCALYPSE I. 2, 3. J85 

Hebrew, as 'A^adtiiv, SaravSj, ' ApfnayfBwv : also in construction, as acrJ 
'I^ffoD Xpierou, f/^dpru; o viSTog, x.r.X., kto o Ov, x.t.X. • SO that a proper 
name is put, in the Hebrew manner, undechned {axXirov), and with- 
out the article. And here it is not said, a'TtisTiiXt, but kfifiaviv a-KosTii- 
Xac, although the verb biis,a.i preceded. And in this John seems to have 
in his mind the Hebrew 1I3D, to which the Greek word bi7^ai may 
answer : for he often joins Hebrew and Greek words. The Lxx. 
use ari/xahsii/ to express a great sign of a great thing : Ezek. xxxiii. 3. 
See also John xii. 33. 

2. "Oaa, iJdi, whatever things he saw) See App. Grit, on this pas- 
sage, Ed. ii.' " Oaa eJdi, luhatever things he saio, John bare record of, 
since in this very book he bare record of all things which he saw, 
and nothing hut what he saw. He does not, however, say that he 
bears record, but that he hare record : because at that time, when 
the book was read in Asia, he had now completed the writing of it. 
Lampe ought not, on account of the tense of the verb ifiaprjprige, 
bare record, to have doubted whether John was the writer of ver. 1, 
2, 3. — Medit. anecd. in Apoc, pp. 255, 257. Comp. ver. 9, note. 
The particle rs, which does not belong to this place, has influenced 
him and other interpreters, who refer the verb bare record to the 
Gospel and Epistles of John. Moreover, as in the Apocalypse see- 
ing and record (testimony) are commensurate, so are the measure of 
faith and prophecy (Rom. xii. 3, 6), or, in other words, knowledge 
and interpretation, in the case of those who rightly handle this book. 
D. Antonius, in the same college, wisely discusses the Last things, 
especially from the Apocalypse, in such a manner as at once to check 
the antiprophetical disease, and the itching for ojie's oion interpretation 
of prophecy. 

3. Maxapiog, blessed) There are some who wretchedly handle this 
raost sacred book with restless curiosity. And from this it comes to 
pass that others, running into the contrary extreme, are unwilling to 
hear even the name of the Apocalypse, by which they ought to be 
stirred up : and on account of the singular multitude of unfortunate 
interpretations and conjectures which are without accomplishment, 
they distrust the book itself. Thence, whereas they wish to know 
all things, they reject the only method of knowing those things which 
the Lord shews aa about to happen. Hence they esteem the endea- 
vour to investigate the truth in this book as useless labour ; they con- 
sider sloth as moderation, silence as prudence, and they regard and 

' ABO read Zgo, only. Rec. Text adds « without good authority. — E. 


inquire about anything in preference to this, just as though it had 
been written : Blessed is he who does not read, and they who do not 
hear, etc. Let them see that they do not, in devising every pretext 
for refusing the heavenly gift, show weariness towards God (Isa. vii. 
12, 13), and that they be not found ungrateful towards Christ. 
But rather. Blessed is he icho reads, and they who hear and keep ; 
especially in our times, which are not far distant from a great change 
of affairs, as we shall see. It is better, in inquiring into the times, if 
only faith, hope, and love have the chief place in our heart, to at- 
tempt as much as possible, and to incur ridicule (Gen. xxxvii. 19), 
than, with the brave spirits of the world, to despise admonitions 
which appear paradoxical, and to be crushed with the accomplish- 
ment of the events, Dan. ii. 34, 45, compared with Matt. xxii. 44, at 
the end ; or, after the manner of the Jews, to be repeatedly expect- 
ing events already long accomplished. The Jews curse those who 
reckon the times of the Messiah : the Apocalypse Messes the good 
hearers of prophecy, which comprises the near approach of the time 
and the calculation of the intermediate times. The mournful variety 
of interpretations, it is true, increases daily : whence it happens that 
a kind of cloud is spread over the eyes of many, so that, although the 
truth is clearly placed before them, they admit it either less, or cer- 
tainly not more, than they do specious inventions. And yet there 
are not wanting aids to understanding, in the case of all who rightly 
employ them, without throwing away the hope of understanding 

I. The foundation of all is a pure text, restored from the best 

II. This book is most closely jointed: it arranges a multiplicity of 
subjects by means of seven epistles, seals, trumpets, and vials ; it 
divides each of these sets of seven into a set of four, and of three ; it 
interprets many things of itself, and declares what are the seven stars ; 
the seven candlesticks ; the Lamb, and His seven horns and seven 
eyes ; the incense ; the dragon ; the three spirits, like frogs ; the heads 
and horns of the beast ; the waters, where the whore sits ; the fine linen ; 
the testimony of Jesus ; the second death ; the Lamb's wife. It sup- 
plies usmth most convenient formulae : the first looe is past, etc. ; the 
number of a man, the measure of a man, which is that of an angel, etc. 

III. The comparing of the ancient prophets is of service ; and the 


evidence of the predictions of Jesus and the Apostles in the other 
books of the New Testament, and especially the evidence of the 
letter of the Apocalypse itself, and its own peculiar character, at- 
tempered with prophetic tropes. We will explain this particular 
point somewhat more fully. 

1) The Lord Jesus has comprised in the Apocalypse the Re- 
mainder [Supplement] of the old prophecy, which belongs to the 
times subsequent to His Ascension and the coming of the Comforter, 
and the end of the Jewish system. And thus the book reaches from 
the old Jerusalem to the new Jerusalem, all things being reduced to 
one sum and to harmonious order ; and it has great similarity to the 
ancient prophets. The beginning and the conclusion agree with 
Daniel ; the description of the male child, and the promises given to 
Sion, agree with Isaiah ; the judgment of Babylon, with Jeremiah ; 
the fixing of the times, again, with Daniel, who followed Jeremiah ; 
the architecture of the holy city, with Ezekiel, who followed Isaiah ; 
the emblems of horses, of candlesticks, etc., with Zechariah. From 
these prophets many things more fully described by them are now 
repeated in a summary manner, and often in the same words. There- 
fore reference must be had to them. Nevertheless the Apocalypse 
has a kind of ahrapxitav (self-complefeness), and is of itself sufficient 
for its own interpretation, although you may not yet understand the 
old prophets, where they speak of the same things : in fact, this often 
supplies a clue for the understanding of those. Often also, under 
the agreement which there is between the Apocalypse and the old 
prophets, there lies concealed a certain difference; and the Apocalypse 
derives its stock from some ancient prophet, on which it inserts a new 
scion. Thus, for instance, Zechariah mentions two olive trees ; John 
also has the same, but in a different meaning. Daniel has a beast 
with ten horns ; John also has the same, but not altogether in the 
same sense. Here the difference in the words, the emblems, the 
circumstances, the times, ought studiously to be observed. But the 
plan of the Tabernacle erected and described by Moses is also of 
great value. For those heavenly things, unto the example and 
shadow of which the Levitical priests served, are accurately exhibited 
in the Apocalypse : Heb. viii. 5. 

2) The Lord foretold many things before His passion; for instance, 
Matt. xiii. xxii., and those which follow ; John xiv. xv. ; but He did 
not foretell all things : for it was not yet the befitting time. Many 
things predicted by the Spirit of Christ are contained, in a scattered 
form, in the Epistles of John and the other apostles ; namely, accord- 


ing as the necessity of those primitive times required. Now the Lord 
comprises all in one short book, having reference to the earlier ones, 
presupposing them, explaining, continuing, and interweaving them. 
It is altogether right, therefore, that we should compare-' them ; but 
not to bring into comparison the fulness of these with the brevity of 

In the Evangelists Christ predicted the things vs^hich were about 
to happen before the dictation of the Apocalypse to John, and added 
a description of the Last things : in the Apocalypse he also mentioned 
intermediate events. From both, one whole as it were is made up. 

3) In this book there is set forth to view, not only a summary and 
key of prophecy, both that which has long preceded and that which 
is recent, but also a supplement, the seals having been before closed. 
Therefore it cannot but contain many things now for the first time 
revealed, and not found in the remaining books of Scripture, as 
Gomarus and Cluverus admit. They therefore show little gratitude 
towards a revelation of such dignity as this, and reserved too for 
Christ's exalted state, who, if anything is for the first time revealed 
in it, or is described in more exact and definite terms, are on that 
account more slow to value it, and more cautious in receiving, or more 
bold in rejecting it. The importance of the argument, and the short- 
ness of the book, prove that every word is of the greatest significance. 

— avayivdgxtiiv xai o'l axovovrig, lie wlio reads and they wlio hear) 
One person, and, in the first instance, he, by whom John sent the 
book from Patmos into Asia, used to read publicly in the churches 
and many used to hear. Scripture highly commends the public 
reading of itself : Deut. xxxi. 11 ; Neh. viii. 8 ; Jer. xxxvi. 6 ; Luke 
iv. 16; Acts XV. 21 rCol. iv. 16; 1 Thess. v. 27 ; 1 Tim. iv. 13. 
There would be more edification, if teachers would speak less of 
themselves, or, at any rate, if Scripture were more fully read to the 
multitude who are unlearned. — Tijs ■jrpopririlag, of the prophecy) In 
relation to Jesus Christ, it is a revelation ; it is a prophecy in relation 
to John ; and it is not until he is mentioned that the word prophecy 
is introduced. Pr-ophecies support their claims by their own, and 
therefore by Divine authority ; this is especially the case with the 
Apocalypse, which, on this account, does not quote the old prophe- 
cies, unless in a summary way, and that once only : ch. x. 7. In 
the other books of the New Testament the prophecies of the Old 
Testament are quoted, and for this reason, that their fulfilment may 
be proved ; in the Apocalypse they are not quoted. Hence it came 
to pass, that when Surenhusius, for instance, had deduced quotations 


from the Old Testament, through each of the Evav.gelists, through 
the Acts of the Apostles, through the Pauline and General Epistles, 
he had nothing to bring forward as a quotation in the Apocalypse. 
In like manner Franc. Junius brought his Parallels to an end, thus 
■writing at the conclusion : There are indeed innumerable words, many 
sentiments, and not a few arguments throughout the whole book of the 
Apocalypse, which, with the greatest dignity, savour of the Old Testa- 
ment ; but their interpretation does not appear to belong to the present 
subject ; both because the passages of Scripture aee not adduced by 
NAME (expressly), or is any particular authority alleged, from which 
they are drawn, but, for the most part, two, three, or more passages 
are most skilfully and elegantly joined together ; and also because, if 
any one should attempt this, he must of necessity undertake the inter- 
pretation of the lohole book of the Apocalypse. 

4. 'A'3-J o) Erasmus introduced kto t-oC o.^ This is the first of those 
passages in which the reviewer says, that I cannot at all be de- 
fended. And yet the reading approved of by me, acri h, is an early 
one. See App. Crit. Ed. ii. on the passage : When I pray, will they 
be moved, loho, in their ignorance, esteem the press of Stephens of more 
value than all the traces of John in Patmos ? — aith 6 &v xat 6 riv xal 6 
sp^6f/,i]iog, from Him, who is, and who was, and who cometh) In this 
salutation, James Rhenferd, in his Dissertation respecting the caba- 
listic^ style of the Apocalypse, seeks for a description of the Ten 
Sephiroth,^ three superior, and seven inferior : and he has proved 

' AC read axo o: Rec. Text, with inferior MSS., axo raij 6. 

^ The Cabalists were teachers of the Cabala, a tradition of hidden things. 
They professed to discover great mysteries in the letters of the sacred text. 
They invented the Ten Sephiroth or Cabalistic tree. See Jennings' Jewish 
Antiquities, and Lewis' Origines Judaese, vol. 3. — T. 

^ A magnificent delineation of these, a hundred years ago (1673) prepared at 
the command and expense of the Princess Antonia, of happy memory, is to be seen 
in the Deinacensian temple, which, not many years premously, Eberhard Third, 
Duke of Wurtemhurgh, the brother of that most illustrious virgin, had caused to 
be erected for the benefit of the strangers who make use of the mineral waters. 
A full description of this monument, which is called Turris Antonia, with the 
addition of an engraving, has been given by S. R. F. C. JEtinger, now Abbot of 
the Murrhardensian Monastery, s. t. (EfFentliches Denkmal der Lehrtafel 
einer weyl. Wiirtembergischen Princessin Antonia, etc., Tub. 1763. There are 
some who superciliously laugh at all such things as Rabbinical trifles ; there are 
some, perhaps, who value them too highly, almost stopping at the rind {instead of 
penetrating within). Any one may see what true auCppoavvn advises, or what the 
measure of faith permits, and the proportion of knowledge derived from the Word 
o/GOD.— E. B. 


that there is some resemblance ; but he has brought forward from 
the Cabahstic writers nothing which does not exist in a purer form 
in the writings of John. Comp. Lamp. Comm. on the Apoc, p. 
253. The Hebrew noun niri'' is undeclined ; and of that noun this 
is a periphrasis, o uv xal o riv xal 6 ip^o/jiivo;, as we shall see presently 
at ver. 8. And therefore the periphrasis also is used without inflexion 
of case. The article 6, three times expressed, gives to the Greek 
paraphrase of a Hebrew noun the form of a noun. — lirTo,, seven) The 
Jews, from Isa. xi. 2, speak many and great fJiings respecting the 
Seven Spirits of the Messiah. — Lightfoot. 

5. 'AvrJ 'irjgou Xpisrou, 6 /Maprvc, x.r.X.) In this book apposition is 
frequently used between an oblique case and a nominative. We 
have collected examples in the App. p. 778 [Edit. ii. p. 488]. In 
this manner the Hebrews dechne a nomenclature consisting of many 
words by only prefixing Mem, for instance : and in like manner the 
French, by the use of the preposition de, etc. Moreover Luke 
also has, !» rS a'l[j,aTi /j^om, rh V'TTip^ v/j.uii l%ynjvofjvi\iov, ch. xxii. 20. — tu\i 
nxpuv) The editions read, kx. tuv vixpZv.^ It is only in the Apoca- 
lypse that my text shows a reading sometimes different from the 
printed editions. I have stated the reason at full length in the App. 
p. 788 [Ed. ii. p. 498 and following], and in either Defence [App. 
Crit. Ed. ii. P. iv. N. iv. and ix.] — aya'TrSvTi^) This is the reading of 
the most ancient Alex, and of six others, not to be despised, and 
probably of a greater number, who have been overlooked by ancient 
collators. Others read aya^^ffavr;, on account of the following 
vrords, XoueavTi and smiriesv : and it is preferred by Wolf. But the 
present participle includes the force of the prseter-imperfect also. 
O'l /MffoiJVTes, 01 ayairuvTtg, o'l piXouureg, o'l So^dt^ovrig, they who hated, pho 
esteem,ed, who loved, who honoured: 2 Sam. xix. 6 ; Lam. i. 2, 8. 
Thus Matt. ii. 20, o; ^jjroDi/s-sc, they who were seeking ; 2 Pet. i. 19, 
tpaimri denotes a light which "WAS shining, for it is followed by 
Aorist 1st, biavyadrj and avarilXr}. Thus hciipovvTsg and iliv in the im- 
perfect, John ix. 8, 25, and repeatedly. And the use of the word 
ayavutTi in the present with the force of a prgeterite was so much 
easier, because two aorists follow. And so the present is used for 
the prasterite, when the prseterite follows, ch. xiii. 12. But aya- 
irZvTi is strictly a present, and denotes perpetual love, as John iii. 35, 
Uccrrip AiAIIA rov Tihv, nal mvTot, AEAflKEN h rrj ■)(iipl auTov, The 
Father loveth the Son, and hath given all things into His hand : where 

> ABOA Vulg. omit ex.. Rec. Text has no good authority for it. — E. 
2 So ABC : but Rec. Text with Vulg. ayaxtidccuTi. — E. 


the present and prseterite are joined together. In the German 
translation of the Apocalypse I have designedly translated it, who 
loves us. And such passages, as I understand, displease many. 
But the style of John and the taste of the present day are as widely 
apart as the east and the west. In translating, I do not seek to 
gratify fastidious ears, but I scrupulously follow John, who wrote 
altogether in accordance with the sense of the Hebrew. This is a 
part of the reproach of Christ.^ — auToD) I have everywhere written 
ahrou, with a soft breathing,^ even where it has a reflexive sense, 
following the example of Erasmus, who indeed, in his editions, almost 
indiscriminately edits ahrov, by way of concession to prejudices, as I 
imagine, and ahrav, even in a reflexive sense, from MSS. The rea- 
son has been mentioned once for all in the Appar. p. 453 [Ed. ii. p 
93], (Buttigius agreeing with me in his preface to the New Testa- 
ment) ; and it must be supposed to have been mentioned in each par- 
ticular passage. Compare therefore on this passage also Appar. 
Crit. Ed. ii. p. 504. As with the Hebrews T and other suffixes have 
both the relative and reciprocal force of the third person : so the 
writers of the new Testament use auTou in either sense indiscrimi- 
nately. And so in this passage, ch. i. 5, wrou altogether refers to 
Jesus Christ, who hath washed us in His own blood. 

6. Kai sTro/jjffsv) The meaning to be expressed was, os ayava fi/j,ag 
xal Iminsi- but the former verb with the postpositive' article [the 
relative lis] has passed into the participle ; the other verb has re- 
mained, and with it the article (o = 05) which has been absorbed 
must be understood. — ^asiXilav, hpiTg) Since Wolf has quoted my one 
edition [as if it were the only one], in reference to many readings, 
although they are disapproved of by himself (and I beUeve that he 
did this with the best intention), I wish the reader to remember, 
that the same readings are found in other editions cited hy me at their 

' x«J ■, and washed) In truth he who is not washed is unable to dis- 
charge the office of priest. — V. g. 

2 That indeed is done in Ed. raaj. and min. of A. 1734, hut in the Admonition 
prefixed to Ed. man. 0/ a. 1753, my sainted father thus says : — In the pronuncia- 
tion it is right to imitate the custom of the apostles in preference to that which 
is recent ; but because in the reflexive use of alroZ, not only tiros, but even 
men of great learning, find a difficulty, I have caused airou to be printed in 
almost all those passages where the editions of the Stephens' so read ; and I 
wish the more prudent to remember that this is not to be taken as a rule of 
. pronunciation, but rather as an aid to interpretation. You have a proof, reader, 
that Bengel was not one who did not know how to yield. — E. B. 

' The relative oV is sometimes thus termed, in opposition to the demonstra- 
tive 0, wliich is termed preepositive. — T 

102 APOCALYPSE I. 7, 8. 

proper jylace. I think it necessary to give tins admonition once for 
all, lest my edition of the text should too frequently appear to be 
unsupported by other editions. See App. Ed. ii. We shall see a 
similar variety of readings belovr, eh. v. 10 ; but vifhether l3ag/XiTg or 
^asiXciav he the genuine reading in that passage, BaaiXilav is un- 
doubtedly the true reading here.' For in that passage four animals 
speak, and twenty-four elders, wearing crowns, whose dignity is 
conspicuous : in this, the address is made in the name of all the 
faithful : these Christ makes priests to God and His Father ; and 
the whole body of these priests forms a kingdom, which rejoices in 
the King Himself. BaelXiiov hpariv/^a is used, Ex. xix. 6 ; 1 Pet. ii. 
9, where hpanv/jja, as grparii'/j,a, an army, is a collective noun [a 
noun of multitude]. The Apposition, a kingdom, priests, has the 
same force : although, among the citizens of the kingdom, the priests 
have the privilege of a pre-eminently near admission to the presence 
of the King. The priests of David were his sons : 2 Sam. viii. 18. 

'7. "Epx^'rai) namely, 6 ip-x/i/j^ivoi. He who is to come, comeili. 
His glorious advent at the last day is meant. — sgs/CEirjjffav, pierced) 
The Saviour and Judge both exhibited Himself, and will exhibit 
Himself, with most evident marks of the nails and spear in His 
raised and glorified body. Then the disdain and reproaches of His 
enemies, especially of the Jews, which He for so long has borne and 
still bears with wonderful long-suffering, will be for ever refuted. — 
xo-^ovrai, shall wail) without doubt through fear, as of an enemy, or 
even through a feeling of penitence in the case of some. 

8. To aX<pa -/.at ri n) We ought not here to read and pronounce 
fl as 01 /Asya ; for u /xiya is opposed to o jLi-Afa. fi, as the last letter 
of the Greek alphabet, is here opposed to the alpha. John ^vrote in 
Greek. This passage is one of great solemnity : in which a few, 
with Apringius, add ap^'n ^al riXoc,^ for the sake of explanation, as is 
thought, in the Notes assigned to Vatablus, namely, from the parallel 
passages. But let us look to the parallel passages. They are four (not 
reckoning the 11th verse, on which we shall speak below). 

I.) To aXfa xai to fl. Alpha and : ch. i. 8. 
II.) 'O '?rpSirog %al o 'igyjt.roi. The First and the Last : ch. i. 17, ii. 8. 

^ So AC Vulg. " Nos in regnum et," h. Rec. Text has /3«(7/A£?5 x«/, without 
.good authority. — E. 

2 avTif, to Himself) that is, to Jesus Christ. — V. g. 

« ABC omit these words. Rec. Text adds them, with Vulg. and Memph. 
— E. 


III.) Til aXpa xa! rh il, tj apyri xai to tsXos, Alpha and 0, The 

Beginning and the End : ch. xki. 6. 
IV.) TJ oKipa. Hal rti fl, wpuirog xal 'iiSyarac^ ri &pxn "«' rj rsXof, Alpha 

and 0, The First and the Last, The Beginning and the 

End: ch. xxii. 13. 

Therefore, in the beginning of the book, one clause is used, first 
concerning the Father, ch. i. 8, comp. with ch. iv. 8, then concern- 
ing Christ, ch. i. 17. At the end of the book the language becomes 
more copious, and two clauses are used concerning the Father, sitting 
upon the throne, ch. xxi. 6, and three concerning Christ, as coming, 
ch. xxii. 13. We shall presently see, that one sentiment is frequently 
expressed in this book in Greek and Hebrew. And that is the case 
here also. The Father is called rh ak(pa %at rh n, in Greek. He 
also, in the mind of John, who thinks, as we shall presently see, in 
Hebrew, is The Beginning and The End, which is expressed in 
Hebrew by X and n, the first and the last letter of the Hebrews. 
And the same takes place with respect to Christ. 

The fourth passage, consisting of three clauses, affords us a re- 
markable handle [argument]. Its third clause is never used without 
the first ; therefore its use is to explain the first. The second is 
sometimes used without the first ; therefore, as in Isaiah, so in 
the Apocalypse, it has its own signification by itself. The first 
and the third are applied to the Father also, ch. xxi. ; the second, 
to Christ alone, ch. i. 17. Alpha and the Beginning is God; 
as Pie Himself, the Creator and Author of all things, proposes, 
declares, and promises such great things. O, and the End is the 
Same ; as He brings the Apocalypse, especially in the trumpet of 
the seventh angel, to its accomplishment, completion, and most 
desired and glorious end. And thus also is Christ. The first 
and last of anything, in Scripture phraseology, is the thing itself, 
or the very whole. See 1 Sam. iii. 12 ; Eccl. x. 13 ; 2 Chron. 
XXXV. 27. The Greeks say in a proverb, prow and stern. There- 
fore Alpha and il, the First and the Last, the Beginning and the 
'End, is One and all, and always the Same. Comp. Ps. viii. at 
the beginning and the end, where the Design and the Accomplish- 
ment are described. Thus, in a grand sense, the end depends 
upon the origin. Under this majestic title. Alpha and n, etc., the 
Apocalypse contains in the beginning the Protest of God against 
the dragon, and of Christ against the beast and other enemies; 
and in the end, the triumph gained over the enemies. For, as the 



book advances, tlie enemies arise to assail, but are utterly destroyed, 
so that they nowhere appear. It is also a Protest against all false 
gods and false christs, who are about to come to nothing. For before 
the first revelation of God in creation, and after the last revelation 
of Him in the final consummation, there is no other God ; all false 
gods have both been set up and removed in the intermediate time : 
and so, before the coming of Christ in the flesh, and after His com- 
ing to judgment, there is no other Christ ; all false christs have had 
their being in the intermediate time. And when all things shall he 
made subject unto the Son of God, then shall the Son also Himself he 
suhject unto Him, that made all things suhject unto Him,, that God 
may he all in all : 1 Cor. xv. 28. — Kupio;, the Lord) The whole of 
this passage is majestic ; and the magnificent and full title of God 
here employed, requires fuller consideration. 

§ 1. We will only lay down the rudimentary principle : and in 
this, many observations will flow together, which may neither en- 
tirely please any one (for I do not even satisfy myself), nor entirely 
displease ; and therefore they are subjoined for the selection and 
more mature examination of any one who pleases. 

§ 2. The title has four parts [members]: 

1) K-opiog, the Lord. 

2) 'O Qiog, God. 

3) 'O (Sv xal 6 ^v -/Ml i(j!)(Ltni, Who is, and who was, and 

who is to come. 

4) 'O ■TravToxpdrup, the Almighty. It will be convenient to 

examine these parts in inverted order. 

§ 3. The fourth, o ■jravTozparup, the Almighty, in the old Testament 
answers to two Hebrew words : for in Job it is often put for ''1^, but 
absolutely, not in apposition with other Divine names : therefore a 
paralleHsm is not to be fixed there. See below, § 24, respecting the 
passage in Exod. vi. The other word, which the title o vavroxpaTup 
comprises in the other passages, is Sahaot.h. 

§ 4. Sabaoth is not a Divine name in the nominative case, but it 
enters into the nomenclature of God, when He is called Jehovah oj 
Sahaoth, God of Sabaoth, Jehovah God of Sabaoth, that is, of hosts. 

§ 5. This title does not occur in Genesis : its first beginnings are 
found in Exod. vii. 4, Twill bring forth Mine armies. My people, the 
children of Israel, out of the land of Egypt ; and ch. xii. 41, All the 
hosts of the I-.ord went out from the land of Egypt. There appeared 
to Joshua, when he had passed over the Jordan, One who called 
Himself by this title, the Captain of JehovaKs army : Josh. v. 14. 


15. Thence, in the books of Samuel and Kings, in the Chronicles, 
in the Psalms, in Isaiah, Jeremiah, and most of the minor prophets, 
before the Babylonish captivity and after it, this expression concern- 
• ing the Lord God of Sabaoth is of very frequent occurrence. The 
Lxx. translators rendered it in various ways ; but they chiefly employ 

the epithet -ravroxparup, and say, 'K-jpiag ffavroz^arii^, o Kupioi; 6 Qibg o 

■:ravToxpa.rap. This word is nowhere found in the other books of the 
New Testament, except at 2 Cor. vi. 18, and that in an express 
quotation of a passage in Isaiah. In the Apocalypse alone it is of 
frequent occurrence. 

§ 6. The word Sabaoth denotes armies or great forces, and parti- 
cularly indeed those of the Israelites ; but generally all in heaven 
and in earth, because Jehovah is the God of all : and thence o rav- 
roxpariap expresses the Almighty [All-swaying]. To Him alone all 
warfare is subservient ; and the whole agency of that warfare is 
stirred up and comes to its height in the Apocalypse. 

§ 7. Since these things are so, the Third part, 6 uv xal 6 rjv 6 
lpyrliii.iicic, cannot but answer to the Hebrew nini : for the epithet, 
6 "iravToy.pdrup, is never used, unless either Qshg or nini immediately 
precede. The former precedes, with an interval between, in the 
present : therefore niiT' is immediately preceding. Moreover either 
the three clauses taken together, 6 uv, -/.at 6 ^v, i Ipyojj^ivog, answer 
to the name nin', or the third, o Ip^/oij-i'iog, undoubtedly does so. 

§ 8. He who VKV, shall be, is called o ipyJiLivog ; and yet He is not 
called Iffo'/iEKOf, but with great skill, 6 Ip^o/Mvoc, lest there should ap- 
pear to be any detraction from His present being, and that His com- 
ing may be more clearly expressed. About to be, in Hebrew K3n, 
coming ; comp. John xvi. 13 ; and so other languages. 

§ 9. There is great dispute as to the manner in which the name 
nin'' is to be read, and how widely its signification extends. Some, 
because the points of the name DM^JS frequently, and of the name 
^jnx very frequently, are added to it, introduce other vowels, and, for 
instance, read it as irin^ lihvaeh. 

§ 10. But even if the name n'ln'' always had vowels belonging to 
the other names of God, and never its own, attributed to it in our 
copies, yet it might be read Jehovah, equally mth lihvaeh. But 
many things prove that Jehovah even must be the reading. 

§ 11. The Hebrews were careful never to pronounce the name 
nin*, except with the greatest purity ; wherefore, where the prefixes 
mtroduced a change of vowels, they very frequently substituted the 
name 'JIN, having vowels approaching very closely to nin\ But 


wherever nin; is -written, it is evidently to be read Jehovah. On this 
one account " alone they retained Scheva under Jod : as also the 
Chaldean paraphrasers do, in that very contraction in their writing, 
", which represents the name Jehovah and Adonai. As nin^_ is 
written by means of the points of the name n'^rhn, so by means of 
the points of the name ^J^K it might be written nin;;, unless it were 
of itself to be pronounced nin\ Proper names, as Jehojakim, and 
many others, which are formed irom the name nin^, and Greek forms 
of writing this name, being spread abroad among those of foreign 
lands, have been long ago collected by the learned. 

§ 12. There is an incomparable and admirable compounding of the 
name nin'' from ''n'; Shall he, and nin Being, and nin Was. This para- 
phrase of the Divine Name by three tenses flowed on to the most 
ancient Greek poets and to the Talmudical writers. Passages are 
given in Wolf, T. iv. Curar. in N. T. p. 436. But the Apocalypse 
has the greatest strength. 

§ 13. The second part, o &ih, presents no difficulty. The name 
Qihg, derived from 6ia, I place, bespeaks the Author of all things. 
But \he first, Kvpioc, requires some mention. 

§ 14. Jo. Pearson, in his Exposition of the Apostles' Creed, p. 
261, endeavours to bring the matter to this, that the word scu/j/o;, in- 
asmuch as it answers to nin'', is derived from x-jpa, I am. But the 
instances which he brings forward from the Tragic writers in parti- 
cular, all imply a kind oi fortuitous being; so that xvpa, or rather xupio, 
answers to the verb hnraf/jii, no more than it does to the verb T\iyyam 
in meaning, and to the verb mp in its very sound. He who shall 
thoroughly perceive the force of the noun ■A.vpdg, by which it not only 
denotes moral influence, but also natural stability and firmness, will 
readily acknowledge that the noun zvpiog is a suitable word for trans- 
lating the noun miT', the threefold expression of time being set aside ; 
and that it certainly denotes Him loho is. 

§ 15. As often as the noun Qilg is appended to the noun Kupiog, 
the latter answers to the proper noun nin' ; and this is its meaning 
iri the present passage also. 

§ 16. Now,' since mention is so often made of God in the Old 
Testament, and in all the instances which occur, these titles only, 
amounting to three at the most, Jehovah, God, Almighty, are accus- 
tomed to be used in one place, what reason is there for the use of 
four here in the Apocalypse, the word Kii^;os. being prefixed to the 
other three ? 

§ 17. The Apocalypse often expresses a thing in a twofold man 


ner, in Hebrew and in Greek, as vat, afi,f,y a^a&iujv, a^AXXuftiv dia.^o7.o:, 
eaTOLiSt,;- y-ariyjio, y.u.-r,-ji>fZi-i. The names of enemies are expressed in 
the twofold idiom : and previously the name of the Lord God Him- 
self is expressed in a twofold manner. 

§ 18. In the Divine title which we are considering, the first and 
second members are pnt by themselves in Greek ; but the third and 
fourth members, which have the same meaning as the two former, 
are only nsed for this purpose, that they may bring to the memory 
of the reader the Hebrew niiQS mn'. For although the noun nw 
itself might be expressed by Greek letters, vet it never was so ex- 
pressed among the people of God. The God of the Jews and Gentiles 
is described by a Greek and Hebrew name. 

§ 19. The first and third members are parallel, each having the 
force of a proper name ; to the first is added i 0£i;, to the third o 
nanrir.faT'jif, each of them being an appellative. 

§ 20. Thus far have we considered this passage separately : it now 
comes to be compared with the parallel passages. For here the ex- 
pression employed is o t5» xa/ o r,i xai 6 efy^o/isyo;, and ?» xal (Sk xat 6 
ifyi,'j.sni, ch. iv. 8 ; and afterwards, i £v xai o ^v ; and finally, 6 uv. 
See below on ch. xi. 17, xis. 1. 

§ 21. When God appeared to Closes in the bush. He called Him- 
self rrrix, / toill be. In Exod. iii. 14 He supplies this reason for His 
name : / will be what I will be, as He had said to ]\Ioses at the 12th 
verse of the same chapter, T will be vnthihee. Afterwards He Him- 
self expresses the name, commanding Moses to say, TCm^ I will be 
hdtJi sent me. The Verb rrris becomes a Noun, as 6 ?y, the Article 
being prefixed : and i ^v itself is a befitting phrase, as in Aristotle, 
evSvg rh terai xa! rb fisXy^ir,, snpov, 1. ii. de gener. et corrupt, c. 11. 

§ 22. This Xame having been proclaimed to Moses, throughout 
the same vision, and afterwards throughout the whole writing of the 
Old Testament, the name nirr is mentioned. n'riN of the first person 
might have appeared suitable there, where the Lord is speaking of 
Himself, and mn' of the third person, where angels and men are the 
speakers. And yet Moses was commanded to say, irns I will be 
hath sent me ; and the Lord also calls Himself n'n' Jehovah : and the 
name rrnx is not afterwards repeated, whereas the name n","' is of 
constant occurrence. It is plain therefore that the name n'-' adds 
to the meaning of the name TCn^^ something beyond the mere differ- 
ence between the first and third person ; since first of all the Lord 
called Himself / shall be, and presently afterwards He began to call 
Himself by the habitual titles He shaU be — Being — He was. 


§ 23. The name nini is read of old, before the times of Moses, and 
mentioned in such a manner that we may be assured that Moses did 
not, from an idiom arising not until his own time, introduce the ex- 
pression into the times of Enoch, Abraham, etc. : Gen. iv. 26, xiii. 
4, xiv. 22, XV. 2, 7, etc. 

§ 24. Again, it is plain that this revelation was made to Moses, 
and by the instrumentahty of Moses to the Israelites, by which 
revelation the name Jehovah became known to them in a new way. 
We lately quoted the passage, Exod. iii. 15. A second is to be 
added, Exod. vi. 3 : I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto 
Jacob, ''IK' Pt<3, as a God abounding in all good things : but under 
My name Jehovah I was not made known to them. In which pas- 
sage a is prefixed to the word bn, and, as denoting the aspect under 
which one is regarded, may be befittingly rendered by the French 
en, as, for instance, they say, Vivre en ChrStien. When God ap- 
peared to Abraham, He called Himself ''1^ b^, Gen. xvii. 1 : and 
from this Isaac and Jacob often so called Him. At that time also 
He was called Jehovah, but by a less solemn use. It was not until 
the time of Moses that He Himself ordered that this should be 
His name for ever, and that this should be the memorial of Him 
firom generation to generation : Exod. iii. 15. Then He made for 
Himself an eternal name, by the transaction itself : Isa. Ixiii. 12. Let 
the passage be looked to, Exod. xv. 3, and the whole of that song. 

§ 25. nini is used from nin, to be : and this name of Himself may 
be regarded either absolutely, as He who is from eternity to eternity 
is in Himself; or relatively, as He becomes known to His people in 
His character as He who is, by accomplishing His promise by the 
work itself. 

§ 26. In the former sense, the name nw was celebrated, even in 
the days of the Patriarchs ; but under the other sense, which was 
added not until the time of Moses, the Lord made Himself known 
to the Israelites, by that great work of leading them forth from 

§ 27. By such means He admirably, as it were, contracted the 
meaning of His name nin'', so that, just as God, although being 
the God of all, yet was no other, and was called no other, and 
wished to be called no other, than the God of Israel, so nin'. He 
who is, was no other than He who is to Israel, or, in other words, 
who affords and exhibits Himself to Israel. He truly said, / will 
be to you, as He afterwards said, I will not be to you : Hos. i. 9. In 
a similar manner, as often as God performed some remarkable work, 


we read that He or His name was known : Ps. Ixxvi. 1, Lxxxiii. 18 ; 
Isa. lii. 6 ; Ezek. xxxix. 7. 

§ 28. Therefore in the time of Moses He called Himself as it 
were afresh, ^^^K, / will be. He does not say, / wUl be what I was, 
I will be what I am ; but H'^ns IK'S n''n«, / will be what I will be : 
where there is implied the declaration of a benefit to be almost im- 
mediately bestowed. That is, / will be to the Israelites the charac- 
ter lohieh, by the very fact, I will be in regard to their fathers, both 
what I said to them I would be, and what it behoves Me to be to 
them, namely, by now at length fulfilling the promise which I for- 
merly gave. And thus the meaning of the future prevailed in riTiX, 
including both a recapitulation of the revelations and promises of 
God, which had been given to the fathers, and a declaration of the 
event now to be exhibited, by the bringing the people out of Egypt. 

§ 29. The name n^is, afterwards swelling out into the name 
nini, transmitted at the same time the same meaning of the future 
to the name nin'', so that in the very form of the name the future 
might be conspicuous, and from thence there might be an advance 
to the present with the past. 

§ 30. nilT' is the same precisely as 6 ifyjiij.ito'; xal 6 uv -/.al 6 rv. So 
suitable was the language of the Old Testament. But in the 
Apocalypse the order is inverted by an elegance of construction not 
to be despised, except by the supercilious ; and in ch. iv. 8 He is 
said to be riv xa! uv xal spy^^o/^ivog, where, in the natural order of 
the times, the four beasts celebrate the praises of the Lord in a 
summary form of expression, as He has exhibited Himself, and 
does, and will exhibit Himself. But here, ch. i. 4, 8, both by the 
pen of John, and by His own mouth. He is styled eSv xal ?v xat 
6 ip^o/i^svo; ; and so by a fresh idiom, but one which is founded on the 
Divine nature itself, the uv, as the principal and radical word, is 
placed first, with a remarkable prelude and token of that change, 
by which subsequently both the efy^S/mog and the rjv, as we have 
noticed, § 20, betake themselves to [pass into] the uv. 

9. 'Ev rfi ^X;-v]/£(, in tribulation) This book has most relish for the 
faithful in tribulation.^ The Asiatic Church, especially since its 
most flourishing time under Constantine, set too little value upon 
this book. You can scarcely find any trace of a quotation from the 
Apocalypse in the doctors of Constantinople : where it is quoted in 
the works of Chrysostom, this very fact is a proof of interpolation. 

' Comp. not. Gnom. on the phrase a tii yiuiirSeii, ver. 1. — E. B. 


The AMcan Church, more exposed to the cross, always valued this 
book very highly. — --/.al jSasiXiia xal Wo/xoi/??, and in the kingdom and 
in patience) These things are also joined together, 2 Tim. ii. 12. 
Patience of hope (1 Thess. i. 3) has abundant nourishment in the 
Apocalypse. The order of the words is worthy of notice : ajlic- 
tion, and the kingdom, and patience : together with the first and 
third of these, the second also is given. — lyiwiLr\-» h rfi v^iau) ysv'ssdaj h 
'Fufiri, is to arrive at Rome, 2 Tim. i. 17. John therefore in this 
passage conveys the idea, that he had been conveyed to the Isle of 
Patmos, and that, after his arrival, he had heard and seen these 
things, which he relates. Nor does the past time here used prevent 
us from thinking that the Apocalypse was written in Patmos : for 
the ancients, in writing, adapted the tenses of the verbs to the time 
at which the writing was read, and not to that at which it was 
written : Acts xv. 27, We have sent. This appears an unimportant 
observation, but it applies a remedy to great errors. — r?i xa>.ov//,svri, 
which is called) There are some who omit this participle ; and 
rightly so, as it seems.' Whether you read it or not, Patmos; 
although near to Asia, was not known to all the inhabitants of 
Asia : therefore John mentions that Patmos is an island. But 
Cyprus, a celebrated island, is mentioned by itself, Acts xiii. 4 ; nor 
is it called the island Cyprus ; much less, the island which is 
called Cyprus. — llaT/iw, Patmos) (John) was there in the time of 
Domitian and Nerva. Artemonius (in L. de Init. Ev. John, 350) 
thinks that the opinion held respecting the life of John, as continu- 
ing until the close of Domitian's reign, or the commencement of 
Trajan's, is false indeed, and had its origin in a confounding of 
two Johns. But Peter suffered martyrdom under Nero : and John 
long survived Peter : John xxi. 22. But he wrote the Apocalypse 
not long before his death. For you cannot say that one part of it 
was written under Claudius, another under Domitian or Nerva, 
since it is one Apocalypse, one prophecy, one book. Nor is Epi- 
phanius, who thinks that it was published under Claudius — that is, 
before the death of Peter under Nero — alone of the ancients to be 
preferred to Irenoeus and all the rest. The title of the Syriac ver- 
sion is still more recent. But you will ask. Why does John use more 
Hebraisms in the Apocalypse than in the Gospel ? Was it not at 
the time of his writing the Apocalypse that he became accustomed 
at length to the Greek language ? Eor he wrote the Gospel before. 

1 Hence the Vers. Germ, also omits it, although the margin of each Edition 
left a choice to the readers. — E. B. 

APOCALYPSE I. 10. 201 

the destruction of Jerusalem, but the Apocalypse after it. But in 
fact the whole style of John, and especially in the prophetical parts, 
takes its form, not from accustomed habit, bat from Divine dictation, 
the resources of which are boundless. 

10. 'E/edo/^?]!/) a sentence consisting of three members : lyid/Mri'- 
lyevo/^rir xal rj-/,ou«a : ver. 9, 10. — h rrj xupiaxf} v/J'ipci, on the Lord's 
dgy) That there is a Lordls day, and that it is so called, is plain 
even from this passage : moreover, that the Lord's day is that day 
which was called by the Gentiles the day of the Sun, which is the 
first day of every week, and which is opposed to the Sabbath, the 
seventh day of the week, is clear from the universal stimony of 
Christian antiquity. We may also learn the reason of this title 
from the Scripture itself of the New Testament. Many seek the 
origin of the title in the fact of the Lord's Resurrection on that day. 
This indeed is true, but it cannot have been the principal or the only 
reason. The days of the Lord's Nativity, of His Baptism, Transfi 
guration. Cross, Resurrection, Ascension, and Coming in glory, are 
all remarkable. Which of these is in the highest sense the Lord's day? 
The Lord's Supper is the supper of the Lord : the Lord's day is the 
day of our Lord Jesus Christ ; under which name the style of the 
apostle denotes the one day of His coming, which also is spoken of ab- 
solutely as the day, or that day. The opinion of the ancient Christians 
is not at variance with this view ; respecting which opinion these things 
are read in Jerome on that passage, at midnight. Matt, xxv : Let us say 
something, which perhaps may he useful to the reader. There is a tradi- 
tion of the Jews, that Christ loill come at midnight, in consonance with 
the time in Egypt, when the passover was celebrated, and the destroying 
angel came, and the Lord passed over the tents [of Israel] : the door- 
posts of our foreheads, too, have been consecrated with the blood of a 
Jjamb. Whence I suppose, also that the apostolical tradition has con- 
tinued, that on the eve of the passover it is not permitted to dismiss 
the people before midnight, expecting the coming of Christ : and 
when that time shall have passed, security being now presumed upon, 
all keep the festival. The Lord was expected on every Lord's 
day, although the solemn expectation of His Coming was especially 
celebrated before the Paschal Lord's day. The seventh day is a me- 
morial of the creation : the first day is a memorial of the final consum- 
mation. The former is the day of Jehovah : the latter, the day of the 
Lord. Undoubtedly, whoever perceives beforehand in his mind, 
that the first day of the week is called the Lord's day, because that 
is the day of the Lord's coming, he then, and not till then, perceives 


with what remarkable propriety it happened to John, that he should, 
on the Lord's day, both see and describe the Lord as coming. 

I once thought that the vision, which Ezekiel relates from ch. xl, 
was on the day of the Sabbath, and that that day of the Sabbath 
might be compared with the Lord's day mentioned in this passage ; 
but I now of my own accord give up that idea. For indeed, in the 
year of the world 3374, in which Calvisius places that vision, the 
"first day of Tisri was the Sabbath ; but the vision was three years 
afterwards, on the tenth day of Tisri, in the middle of the week. 
The Lord's day opens another inquiry. L-enseus, nearly a contem- 
porary writer, affirms that the Apocalypse was seen Upbg ra relti, 
at the end of the reign of Bomitian ; and, besides others, Newton , 
vainly opposes him, in his Observ. on the Ap. p. 163. See JExeg. 
Germ. p. 174. But Domitian was slain in the 96th year Dion., on 
the 18th Sept., on the Lord's day : and since IrenEeus thus accu- 
rately marks the time of the vision by the well-known death of the 
persecutor, it will be most safe to depart as little as possible from the 
very day. But what if that Lord's day in that year was the 3d 
April, that is, the paschal feast ; or the 19th Jime : comp. Ord. 
Temp. p. 389 [Ed. ii. p. 334, sq.J ; or the 18th of September itself? 
I define nothing : I follow the footsteps of tenseus. At any rate, 
the fact of the Apocalypse being given before the death of Domitian 
supplies another observation. Apollonius of Tyana was addressing 
the people at Ephesus, and in the middle of his speech he exclaimed, 
Strike the tyi^ant ; and again, Be of good courage, the tyrant is slain. 
And on that day, and at that hour, Domitian was slain at Rome. 
Whether Apollonius had been aware of the conspiracy against Do- 
mitian, or perceived from any other source what was taking place, 
the Apocalypse at the same time supplied the Ephesians with a 
much greater discovery of futm'e events, to check the followers of 
Apollonius, and to vindicate the glory of Jesus Christ. — n'Mvea 
ow/aa /iou, / heard behind me) John's face had been turned towards 
the east ; and in like manner the Lord, while He appears to him, 
directed His face to the east, towards Asia, to which the writing 
was to be sent. 

11. Aiyoverii) John often, according to the Hebrew custom, con- 
strues words with others that are nearer, though they cohere in sense 
with those that are more distant. He would have said, (favn^ 
Xiyoudar instead of which he says, eaXitijjnc, Xeyovarn. — il iSXsm/s) 
Some^ prefix 'Eyu ei/j,i tI> a xal rb fl, o irpSirog %al o 'is^arus, xa/. 
> So Rec. Text. But ABC Vulg. omit the words.— E. 

APOCALYPSE I. 12-15. 203 

See Appar. Crit. on this passage, Ed. ii. It often occurs, that not 
until after the beginning of a vision, He who appears, declares who 
He is : Exod. iii. 6. But in the present instance that impressive 
summary, 3 BXi'irns, that which thou seest, and moreover the visipn 
of John itself, was of itself equivalent to all titles ; while in ver. 
17, presently after, the express title followed. And from this very 
fountain are drawn the repeated titles which occur in ch. ii. and iii. 
Upon the whole, on a review of the verses 8, 17, these words ap- 
pear to have been introduced [by transcribers] into ver. 11, rather 
than deemed superfluous [and so omitted by them]. Learned 
men in general, at the present day, do not readily deem anything 
superfluous, and many copyists of old were of the same opinion. 
Such passages are more safely decided by the copies, than by 
arguments : and under this head the Latin translator has special 
weight, wherever competent Greek witnesses, however few, prove 
that he is not affected with his own peculiar blemishes. Would 
that all would keep this closely in mind ; it would be a very great 
advantage for the removal of many doubts. On the antiquity of 
the Latin translator we have spoken in the Apparatus, pp. 391, 
419, etc. [i.e. P. L § xxxii., Obs. vi. xx., Cons, viii., etc.] And 
this is confirmed by the remarkable agreement of the Latin Fathers 
with the text of the translator. That age was without numerous 
additions, which subsequent times have gradually introduced here, 
as in other places. — s/'s pijSXiov, in a book) To this book, which has 
such an origin, and moreover to the other books of which the body 
of Holy Scripture is composed, who is there that gives as much 
weight as the subject itself requires, preferring them to the multi- 
tude of other books ? Eccles. xii. 12. 

12. BXi-riiv rrjti (pavriv, to see the voice) to see Him, to whom the 
voice belonged ; or, an instance of Oratio Semiduplex.-' 

13. IXoBripri) b^V^, Septuagint ■rodiiprig, of the garments of Aaron. 

14. 'H %i(pa,Xri xal a.) Tfiyii) 'h ha. SvoTv: that is, the hair of His head. 
Thus John saw it. 

15. nenpa//,huj) So Vffenb. and one or two others, and the ancient 
versions. Others read •xiirvpoiixhoi.^ It is an epithet not of the feet, 
but of the word ^aXxoXiiSdvouf and therefore it is not repeated, ch. ii. 

' See Appendix. 

2 So Eec. Text. " De fornace igned," h. ■jreTvpafihij, Vulg. But AC have ' 
■s-iTTvpufteiiyis ; and so Lachm. — E. 

' This observation is less supported h/ the greater Edition than hy the margin 
of Ed. ii.— E. B. 

204 APOCALYPSE I. 17, 18. 

18. XaXyJc brass ; KltSavog, incense : ■x^a'ky.oXi^a.vog, a species of 
brass, like incense. See Bochart's Hierozoicon, at the end, where, 
in a full discussion, he explains it as white brass. Comp. Dan. x. 
6, on shining brass. Hesychius, atraga, %aXx^, 'kafi'!rf>a, SXri, Kpijrii, 
" The Cretans express by it what is wholly of brass, shining all 

17. ['fi? nxphg, as dead) Great contrition of nature usually precedes 
a large bestowing of spiritual gifts. — V. g.] — o irpSirog xai 6 ia^arog, 
the first and the last) A most glorious title. In Hebrew pinx pB'Nl, 
Isa. xliv. 6, xlviii. 12; where the Septuagint renders it, lydi ■TrpSingxa! 
iyd) fiSTa raura, <?rXriv efiou obx 'iari Qsog : and again, iyu si/mi ^t^Stos, 
xat syu ii//,i iig tov a'lcam. In both passages the translators appear to 
have considered the word 'is-)(^aTog as insufHcient to express the dignity 
of tlie speaker, and yet in fact it answered admirably to the Hebrew. 
Isa. xli. 4, 'Eyw Qihg 'ffpSiTog, xal I'lg to, iirfpyyfjjiva (C]''3^^X flX) lyJi I'lfj-i. 
The Messiah is speaking of Himself. Comp. ch. xlviii. 16. Hence 
in the Apocalypse the Lord Jesus applies this description to Himself, 
and explains it by the words which follow. Let the Form be ob- 
served : 

/ am the First, and the Last : 

and the Living One : and I became dead, and 

behold, 1 am alive, etc. 

The immediate construction, The first and the Last, declares, that 
His Life, by the brief intervention of death, was interrupted in such 
a manner, that it ought not even to be considered as interrupted at 
all. Artemonius, in his treatise de Init. Evang. Joh., interprets the 
First and the Last as the most excellent and the most abject, p. 248; but 
if this were the meaning, the order of the events would require to be in- 
verted, and that it should be written. The Last and the First. It is 
plainly a title of Divine glory, the First and the Last, in Isaiah; and 
in his writings Artemonius in vain endeavours so to bend the same 
title, that it may denote the Beghming and the End : p. 249, and the 

18. 'E/Evo/ijjii vixphg, I became dead) It might have been said, dTs- 
6a\io\i, I died : but in this passage with singular elegance it is said, I 
became dead, to denote a difference of times, and of the events in 
them. — aiuvm) Both the formula c!g nig aiSimg ruv anJimv, and the 
word a^^K, are of very frequent use in Doxologies. Therefore the 
copyists with ready pen completed that formula by writing this word 


(a.anv^), thougli there is no Doxology, as I have observed in my Ap- 
paratus. l_See Ed. 11. on this passage, where a memorable caution is 
given respecting a too great estimation of the Editions.] 


1. T^ ayyiXM, to the angel) There is a most weighty reason for 
tliese seven epistles. When the people were about to receive the 
law at Sinai, they were first purified : the same people, when the 
kingdom of God was now at hand, were prepared for it through 
repentance, by the ministry of John the Baptist; and now the 
Christian Church is furnished with these epistles, in order that they 
may worthily receive so great a Eevelation (just as the writer him- 
self had previously been prepared to receive it by his banishment 
and alarm). For the object of the writing is, that the Church, put- 
ting away from the midst of itself evil men, after due admonition, 
and evil things, may be prepared rightly to embrace and preserve 
this most precious deposit, this Eevelation of such great moment, 
which the heavenly beings themselves honour with such profound 
adorations, and also to behold great events, to receive the most abun- 
dant enjoyments, and to avoid woes ; the epistles themselves being 
interspersed with glowing sparks from the remaining part of the 
Eevelation, and those most fitted to arouse the attention and prepare 
the way for the understanding of what is revealed ; and the renova- 
tion of the Church by repentance, as is befitting, is placed before the 
sight of the rainbow, ch. iv. 3. Whosoever therefore wishes to be a 
suitable hearer of the Apocalypse, he ought to observe the admoni- 
tions of these seven epistles f for then he will learn, from the pat- 
tern which they afford, how the Apocalypse is to be applied to all 
men and all ages. Some have attempted to show that the seven 
epistles, comprised in ch. ii. and iii., refer to seven periods of the 

' Eec. Text has ajttijj, with B and Syr. But AC Vulg-. h, Memph. Orig. Iren. 
omit it. — E. 

^ I remember that, just ai the last hotirs of Ms pilgrimage (upwards of twenty 
years ago), my sainted parent earnestly recommended to his family the frequent ■ 
reading and study of the Epistles contained in the Apocalypse ; adding, as the 
reason (of his advice) : — es ist uicht leicht etwas, das einen so durchdringen 
uiid durchlautern kbnnte. — E. B. 


Church, their historical sense being either preserved, or (which is 
worse) set aside. The celebrated D. Lange, in Comm. Apoc. f. 34, 
seq., preserving the historical sense, extends the prophetical sense 
from the time of John as far as to the destruction of the whore and 
the beast. But we have shown that the applying of the seven epistles 
to seven periods is the work of human subtilty. See Erhl. Offenh. 
pp. 285-295. The epistles then plainly had reference to the seven 
churches in Asia, and especially to their angels : and whether at 
that time, when the book was sent from Patmos to Asia, other 
churches were to be compared with these seven, or not, the subordi- 
nation of these churches under Jolm is here considered ; and from 
this all hearers, of all places and times, whether good, bad, or vary- 
ing in character, ought to apply to themselves the things which 
equally concern them. Each address to the angel of the church is 
concluded with a promise, which is given to Mm that overcometh. — 
r?)5) The Cod. Alex, rffl,' and that not through carelessness. For 
it has it three times, rja li/'E^sirw ixxXriSiag- rffl sv Tlipya/j-tfi iii7iKr]<Siai (in 
Latin you might say, angelo ecclesiastico, qui est JEphesi, Pergami : to 
the angel of the church, who is at Ephesus, and at Pergamos) ; and, 
5-ffi hv Quaripoig. These are the very three angels who are partly praised 
and partly blamed : and the language is more directly aimed at 
these in the epistles, than at the other two pairs, who are without 
exception either praised or blamed. — h 'Ep'esui, at Ephesus) In that 
city Timothy both flourished for a long time, and died shortly after 
the giving of the Apocalypse. Polycrates, a bishop of Ephesus, de- 
scribed the martyrdom of Timothy : but this writing, as many 
others, has been interpolated by the diligence of the later Greeks, in 
such a manner, however, that the principal facts remained, and were 
preserved from interpolation in the more simple copies. This Poly- 
crates therefore, in Ussher de Anno Solari, f. 96, says, that the fes- 
tival of the Catagogia^ celebrated by the unbelievers at Ephesus, took 
place on the 22d day of January; and that on the third day after- 
wards Timothy was put to death by them, while Nerva was Emperor. 
Nerva did not see the 22d and 24th of January, as Emperor, except 
in the year 97, when he reigned alone, and in the year 98, when he 
reigned together with Trajan ; and died shortly afterwards, on the 

^ AC have ra: B, tvi;. — B. 

2 A festival in honour of Aphrodite. It was supposed that during the 
Anagogia the goddess went over to Africa. On her return, the feast of the 
Catagogia was kept with great rejoicing. See Athenreus, 394, f., also Abp 
Ussher's Works, vol. vii. p. 360.— T. 


27th of January. Therefore also the Apocalypse had been sent to 
Ephesus, a short time only before the death of Timothy. I do not, 
however, think that he is the person aimed at in the address of the 
Apocalypse. Timothy was an Evangelist, not an angel of one 
church ; and he also, if at the close of his life he could have declined 
from his first love, he would assuredly have been admonished of his 
approaching death, as we may believe, no less than the angel of the 
church at Smyrna. 

2. OJda TO, ipyd aoti, I know thy works) This word olia, I know, 
occurs seven times : 

/ know thy works : ch. iii. 1, 

I know thy tribulation: 6h. ii. 9. 

7 know ivhere thou dwellest : ch. 

ii. 13. 
I know thy love : ch. ii. 19. 

— xal oTi) Kal was formerly omitted by some : but it is to be re 
tained.^ For endurance and sternness against the evil are different 
virtues, \though they are united in this Man. — V. g.] — imlpasag) Eras- 
mus, without any MS. authority, edits imipagiii-J all the MSS. have 
iiTzipagag. See App. Crit. Ed. ii. on this passage. The Middle, 
«eif>do/j,ai, occurs only with an infinitive, and that but rarely, as £*e;- 
P&To xo'KXagiai, Acts ix. 26. liiipufial (TE, with an accusative, is never 
used : Ts/^a^w is employed for all purposes. [^There must have been 
a remarkable talent of discernment in thi^ church-president. — V. g.J — 
aiToerokoiic, Apostles) In this passage false apostles are repulsed : false 
Jews, ver. 9; those given up to Heathenism, ver. 13 and 14. 

3. Ou Ki-M'x' Thus the Alex. MS. reads. The others also, 
with great agreement, oh-/, ixovlagag : there is only the change of 2 
for K made by the latter, from the rhythm i^isTaaag.^ See App. 
Ed. ii. on this passage. — Kom^ei/ is used for adfiveiv, Matt. xi. 28, 1 
Cor. iv. 12 ; also John iv. 6. Whence in the Septuagint it answers 
to the words ni^n f\'<y r\i6 bs>3 h^n, and especially to J?3\ Hesychius, 
Ksx/^rjxiiCj xix.o'Tria-iidig. The Antanaclasis [See Append. Technical 
Terms], praised by Wolf, is this : / know thy labom-; and yet thou 
dost not labour, that is, thou art not wearied with labour. 

' The margin of the greater Edition had preferred th^ omission, hut both Ed. 
ii. and Vers. Germ, agree with the Gnomon. — E. B. 

A Memph. omit x«/ ; but BCA Vulg. support it. — B. 

2 So Rec. Text ; but ABC, Wilpmas.—^. 

^ B has Ix05r/«(7«f : AC, xixoTiaxe; (the Alexandr. form for — xa;) : so h Vulg. 
But Rec. Text, with little authority, adds xal ov Kixfctixas. — E. 

208 APOCALYPSE II. 5-7. 

^5. e; ds f/.ri) This is spoken absolutely without a verb, ver. 16; lea 
ti,y\, with a verb, presently after in this verse, and ver. 22, ch. iii. 3, 
20.— £>;i^o^a,' ffo; xa/ -Mrieoi) The coming of the Lord was about to 
take place at one time ; and the denunciation of His coming was made 
first at Ephesus, etc., lastly at Laodicea. \In these denunciations the 
idea oi nearness of approach increases : ver. 16, 25, ch. iii. 3, 11, 20. 

Not. Grit.] The verb 'ipxoij^ai is used so constantly in the present, 

that it remains so even when followed by a future: IfX"!^"'' ""' 
Tuvrieta- eV^o/ia; -/.a] mXiiJ^rim, ver. 16. See also John xiv. 3. The 
angel ought to effect much, on account of his close tie of connection 
with his own church. 

7. 05s) The singular is the more to be remarked, because the 
plural is more usual. Hiang, ara -^uxvi, says Clement of Alexandria, 
Stromb. V. at the beginning ; although in the Hebrew the [singular] 
ear is often used. — raTg IxaXriaiaii) The Ablative case : as ch. xxii. 16 
[" saith to him by the churches :" not as Engl. " unto the churches"]. 
In like manner there is said, ra?g 'vposiuxa-'i, ch. viii. 3, 4. Compare 
the passages which Heupel has collected in his Notes on Mark v. 2. 
— rffl vixSivn) The seven promises have a variety of construction. 

I. Tip viKuvTi duaoi avTWj %.r.X. 

H. 'O viaSiv 0X1 |U.5i a&ixri6ri, x.r.X. 

HI. Tffi i/ixavTi dusu aurOJ, h.t.X. 

IV. Kai 6 vmuv, — duaca auToJ, z.t.X. 

V. 'O vixuVj ouTog vipi^aXiTrai, x.r.X. 

VI. 'O vixuv, •ffoi^Sta alrbv, x.r.X. 

VII. 'O vixSiv, doJacii aurSJ, -/..r.X. 

In the four latter, o vixon is marked with greater emphasis, as though 
it had the distinctive Hebrew accent : in the three former, there is a 
closer connection between ra vixSivn (to which 6 vmZv, without olrog, 
in the second is equivalent) and the following verb.— ex rou f uXou rijf 
Z,uiris, iariv h rui irapaditatfi rtiD ©soD^ou) The Septuagint, Gen. ii. 9, has 
TO ^uXov Tjjs ^urig it //jidt^ zou vapaSilaov where comp. Gen. iii. 3. The 
h ijjiew is used with great propriety, because the rest of the trees 
were in the garden, but not in the midst of the garden. In this 
passage, according to the better copies,"" the tree of life is simply said 

1 fiinifioiisve, remember') A remembrance of this kind profits very much : ch. 
iii. 3.— v. g. 

2 ABCA Vulg. Syr. Cypr. read Is t5 ■jrapa.'isla^ : but Rec. Text, without good 
authority, h j^iaa tou VKpa^iiaov. — E. 

APOCALYPSE 11, 10-15. 209 

to be in the paradise of God : nor is mention made of any other tree, 
except the tree of life. The tree of life, indeed, is in the midst of 
the street of Jerusalem : ch. xxii. 2. From that passage, or from 
Genesis, some have here written, h [jji(S(f) roD vapabtiew. 

^10. BaXsTv, to cast) Understand, some one, or rather some persons. 

11. ToC Savdrou rou deuTepov) The Chaldee Paraphrase has this 
phrase, nyiU sniD, Deut. xxxiii. 6 ; Isa. xxii. 14. [Comp. Apoc. xx. 
6.-V. g.] 

13. Uieri]/) To this the cognate word msrhg presently afterwards 
answers. — h rati ripi'ipaii) See App. on this passage.^ — aTg ' Kniirai) 
that is, o\i% rij>vri<saro. The Menologia say, that Antipas was slain 
under Domitian : the Martyrologia, that he was cast into a heated 
brazen bull. 

14. Tp Baka-A) This is the reading of the Alex. Cod.," and indeed, 
as I have mentioned in the Apparatus, in the first edition of Mill. 
See App. Ed. ii. : The changes which the, Edition of Kuster was the 
first to make for the worse, or even for the better, are everywhere 
ascribed by philologists on this side of the sea to Mill himself. I indeed 
corrected luith great labour, from the first edition of Mill, the errors of 
the second, especially in the Apocalypse : therefore where my Appara- 
tus differs from the second edition, I again and again assert, that the 
difference is not the result of carelessness. In this phrase, who taught 
T'jj Balak, the Dative of advantage \_for Balak] is the sense which 
holds good, which Wolf does not deny, p. 463; nor is that case more 
to be met with anywhere than in the history of Balaam : xardpam! 
/Ml Tov Xahv rouTos, x.r.X., Num. xxii. and xxiii. Josephus, 1. 4, Ant. 
ch. vi. § 6, makes Balaam speak thus : BdXaxi xai rSJv /Mahiaviruv oi 
wapovTeg- ^pri ydp fiji %ai 'xapd jSovXyjgiv tou &sou -^apieac^ai TMIN, x.r.X. 
With the same meaning the Apocalypse has, idldagxiv rip BaXdx : 
for Balaam did not teach Balak, but he taught the people of Balak, 
for the sake of Balak, by whom Balaam had been hired. See 
Num. xxiv. 14, xxv. 1, 2, xxxi. 8, 16. 

15. 16. '0//,olug fi^ravorisov oZv) The angel at Pergamos is ordered 

^ T'^B ixi-^iu) Others, rcc 'ipyx xal riii/ &\i^iii. More recent writers have oh- 
literated, from a parallelism, the elegant diversity of many passages. See pre- 
sently ver. 13. — Not. Grit. 

Kec. Text has rd ipya. km r^ii Sx. with B and Syr. But kOh Vulg. Memph, 
omit ra spyei JCXt. — E. 

' AC Vulg. Memph. prefixes before su. B Syr. omit it. — E. 

5 AC read tw : Eec. Text Elz. rou ; Steph. Ik ru ; both without good author- 
ity.— E. 

YOL. V. O 


to repent in like manner yi'iih the angel at Ephesus : -/.al, also, cor- 
responds, ver. 15. The reading 6,tto;w$, for which others have written 
iJ^iaS) from ver. 6, is defended by almost alP the authorities. Yet 
oh, therefore, remains with great emphasis. Comp. ver. 5, ch. iii. 
3, 19. 

16. "Ef>%o/j.a/ eoi xal nXe/j^figoi fx.iT auTuv) Many, from parallel pas- 
sages, have inserted ra^ii ^ after eol. But the Italian Version, which 
is nearest to the hand of John, did not contain the word quickly. To 
the writers who followed that reading, Anshert is added with con 
siderable regularity, and Bede and Ambrose, also, in Ps. cxviii. Serm. 
19 ; nor has Apringius the word quickly in his paraphrase on this 
passage. It will be worth while to have turned over the Latin 
MSS. of the Apocalypse in this place. Sometimes the fuller reading 
is the genuine one, but generally the shorter. I will say under 
what circumstances each holds good. The fuller reading is some- 
times to be preferred. For I. in the case of words having a similar 
ending, or in the recurrence of words or syllables, the copyists have 
easily passed over the intermediate text, which is to be restored from 
the more ancient authorities. II. Conjunctions, which are less fre- 
quent in other languages than in Greek, are often omitted in the 
Versions, which it is viseless to follow too closely in this particular. 
III. The Greeks frequently removed something from the public 
reading, to which many copies were accommodated : and in such 
cases the fuller reading ought to be retained, if supported by the 
other authorities of greatest antiquity, and especially the Latin Ver- 
sion. Examples are of constant occurrence. If we except these 
three causes, brevity is an all but invariable characteristic of a genuine 
reading. For since the Greek copies, and the translators and fathers 
who have followed them, are to be divided into two classes, namely, 
into those of Asia and of Africa, as I have copiously explained in 
my Apparatus, you will seldom find that manuscripts of both 
classes endeavoured to fill up short passages by certain explana- 
tions of their own, though you will find in some places that many of 
the one class, and in some that many of the other, have done so. 

1 This reading therefore {o^oius) is preferred in the margin of Ed. 2 and 
Vers. Germ., otherwise than is the case in the greater Edition. — E. B. 

ABC Vulg. Memph. Syr. read o^o/taj : Rec. Text, o fiiau, without good 
authority E. 

^ The only good authority for omitting rxx" is the " Italian," i.e. the Ante- 
Hieronymic Version, supposed to be of African origin. Vulg. and the weight of 
best MSS. support rx^i. — E. 

APOCALYPSE II. 17, 18. 211 

Hence the fuller reading, which now is too scrupulously defended 
by many, is almost always a counterfeit; whereas the shorter 
reading is genuine. In such passages the witnesses, however few 
they are, provided that they have sufiBcient antiquity, ought to have 
weight : in which particular the Latin witnesses are again conspi- 
cuous, as we have remarked, a little while ago, at ch. i. 11. Where 
such crumbs are treated of, it is indeed better in such an abundance 
of bread to pass over something genuine, than eagerly to catch at 
anything heterogeneous and infected by human feeling. That is 
undoubtedly to be preferred in every place, which is required by 
reasons peculiar to the passage under consideration. Here no critic 
can compel others to agree with Mm ; but, on the other hand, others can 
have no control over him. We return to the particle quickly. The 
Lord repeatedly announces His coming in the Apocalypse, and 
chiefly so from ch. ii. 5 to ch. iii. 20 : and that in such a manner, 
that He may make His coming gradually nearer. The particle 
quickly is used at last, ch. iii. 11 ; and therefore in the passage now 
before us, ch. ii. 16, it has not yet a place. 

17. ~¥ri(pov KiuxTiV, x,a.i i-Tri rr)v -vf/^pon o'vo/Aa Tiaivh yiypaiJ^fLhov) The an- 
cients used to write many things on stones (see Not. on Gregory of 
Neocaesarea, Paneg. p. 139), and especially votes. Sam. Petit, var. 
lect. c. 8, shows that the white stone was a ticket for receiving food 
(^csirrieioii), and he compares that with this passage. But in thispface, 
the white stone and the new name is a reward by itself, and therefore 
it is placed after the hidden manna. 

18. Tns I' Svarelpoig exKXrisias) The Alex, cod., and also Tertullian, 
read rffi h Quarlpoig, without the addition of the word JxxXjjir/as.' 
Where the angels of the seven churches are mentioned together, ch. 
i. 20, the name of the church at Thyatira is not excepted. NoWj 
where the series comes separately to the angel in Thyatira, the omis- 
sion of the word church (for some in ancient times said that there 
was no church there at that time) certainly agrees with the small 
number of Christians in that town. An address is made to them 
separately in ver. 24. Among the Hebrews, ten persons at least were 
required to constitute a holy assembly : again, when there were seven- 
teen Christians at Neocsesarea, Gregory was given to them as bishop. 
Therefore the flock at Thyatira might have been small and unknown, 
which could scarcely support the name of a church, and yet had an 
angel. St Carpus is reported to have been here. 

> ' A omits iKychmiois > but Ch Vulg. have it. A reads tu for r^s ; C omits it. 
— E. 

213 APOCALYPSE II. 19, 20. 

19. Ta 'ieyara. m^Kima tuv 'jrpuTov) There is a similar expression, 
TO 'is^arov h'Trip rh wpurov, Ruth iii. 10. On the other hand, to, 'iayara, 
^sipoiia Toiv 'jrpwTuv, Matt. xii. 45. 

20. "Exca xara (foij) Not only some MSS., but by far the most wit- 
nesses, exhibit this reading,^ which the others, by supplying of them- 
selves ■Kok'k&, or ToXD, or by inserting oXiya, from ver. 14, confirm by 
this very separation into the extremes. In such places the shorter 
reading is almost always genuine. See App. Grit. Ed. ii. on this 
passage. In the 19th verse the comparative irXdova prefers the last 
works to the first, but it is not opposed to oX/'/a. The Lord had 
neither many nor few things against the angel at Thyatira, but that 
one thing only which is expressly mentioned, as against the angel of 
the church at Ephesus, ch. ii. 4, where Andreas writes that h, one 
thing, only is blamed. Wherefore the denunciations against these 
two are more gentle than those against the angel of the church at 
Pergamos, again§t whom the Lord had a few things. — oV; a(piTc rjin 
ywatxtx, 'liZ^a^ik, rj Xiyovaa saurriv 'Trpofi^Tiv, xai di&demi Ka! irXavci, nu; 
i,u,oug douy^ovg) Wolf says, that he does not understand how aipsTc can 
be said in Greek. But afiTg is read Exod. xxxii. 32, in the most ap- 
proved editions : Chrys. hom. 3, ad Pox. Ant. in the notes of 
Ducasus, quotes dpsrs, Exod. xxxii. ; and in the Apocalypse it is sup- 
ported by the agreement of all the MSS.,^ if you except the silence 
of one or two which are more carelessly collated. Comp. Marck. on 
Ap. ii. § 46, 53. From 'iu (Ion. I'-zj/a/, in the common dialects iV') 
is formed apsw, afitiig, aiphi, although a<psTc only, and that contracted, 
is in use. However it is, there was no reason why John himself 
should not write aipiTc, equally with the Greek copyists, the meaning 
being free fi-om doubt. Arethas, who substitutes a(plris, in other 
places used Greek forms better than those employed by John, as 
they appeared to himself to be suitable. See below on ch. x\'i. 13. 
The same reasoning apphes to the following words,^ as far as relates 
to the MSS., xai xal itXava, the meaning of which also is 
ob-^dous. For first the verb ap/'/j/i; is also put absolutely in Matt. iii. 
15: next, the defining of its object is here subjoined: thou per- 
mittest that ivoman, namely, to teach, and she does actually teach, etc. 

'^ Cypr. 72 and h add "multa." Rec. Text, with Amiat. MS. of Vulg., adds 
o>(V« But ABO oppose the addition. — E. 

2 ABC support a!p£(f, an Alexandrine form: Rec. Text, without good 
authority, laj. — E. 

' ABO read x«! lilaaicu aai -T^-Kau^ tovi. But Vulg. h Cypr. support Rec. 
Text, ti^,iiv x.cci 'irT^a.i/atr&ai. — E. 

APOCALYPSE II. 22-25. 218 

So ch. xi. 3, / ivill give to My two witnesses that they prophesy, and 
they shall prophesy. Comp. also xiii. 16. See App. Crit. Ed. ii. 
We have given jj Xeyouffa for ttiu \iyti\jsav, which is otherwise free from 
difficulty.'- — rnv yuvaTna) Many long ago read, rfiv yumTxa sou. Cer- 
tainly she had a husband, for she had adulterers, ver. 22. The word 
gov appears to be a gloss,^ but it is suitable to the subject itself. But 
it is elegantly said, woman, for thy wife ; either because such an 
ellipsis is of frequent occurrence, Acts vii. 20, or because the person 
spoken of here was an adulteress : comp. John iv. 18 ; Acts xxiv. 
24: and, the woman Jezebel; though the very name o{ Jezebel would 
indicate a woman : for she usurped the office of teaching, contrary to 
that which is becoming to a woman. 

22. BaXS^) Thus Hunt. JEth. Arab. Lat. and many others, who 
read I will send, and TertuUian, who has / will give. The others 
read jSdxXca. For the copyists frequently put XX for X in the use of 
this verb ; and Idoi) is usually construed with a present, though some- 
times also with a future : Luke i. 20, 31, 48. And the future agrees 
with this passage, because the condition, unless they shall repent, gives 
an interval of time : and aironTivu accords with j3aXS : and lastly, in 
all these denunciations, the sense of the future prevails : ch. ii. 5, 
xiiifjua ; ver. 16, ■jroXifi.riau ; ver. 24, jSaXS, where also many read jSdxXu; 
ch. iii. 4, 'TTtpitarriemsi ; ver. 9, ncoinea, with lioh ; ver. 20, ilsiXtUoiMai, 

23. 'AiroTiTivZ h 6ava,Tw) Ezek. xxxiii. 27, "inio'' "I3^3. TheSeptua- 
gint has davdrtfi a'TroXTivii). 

*24:. "Oaoi oux'ixi'J'" — oi" 'iyvcosav) The third person for the second. 
See Vorst. de Hebraism, c. 26. — oux lyvusav) they were not Gnostics. 
— Taj3dha) In Dan. ii. 22, it is used in a good sense, aMg amxoL- 
XvTrrii ^aS'ea, xal a'7r6xpiJ(pa. 

25. UXriv) Amos iii. 2, p"i. Septuagint, -rXriv. — «%?/? o5 av n^u) 
"Hxw, derived from the preterite of the verb 'lri//,i, already in the pre- 
sent involves the preterite [/ am come, I am present]. And so the 
future, ri^a, I will be present, ch. iii. 3, is nearer than the present 
'ip^ofiai itself, when taken alone. Thus, ^'xw, rixu, rixovai, John viii. 
42, ii. 4, iv. 47 ; 1 John v. 20 ; Luke xv. 27 ; Mark viii. 3, note. 

1 'H Tvsyowos is the reading of AC. But Vulg. L Cypr. 72, "quae se dicit.'' 
Eec. Text, t^» 'Kkymaa.n. — E. 

' ABA Syr. Cypr. read am ; but C Vulg. and Rec. Text omit it.- B. 

' So B Uii.'ha) and Memph. But Vulg. and most authorities, fiah'Ku. — E. 

* 6 iptv«aii — 'iuaa. He that searclieth — I mil give) Both are joined together • 
Prov. xxiv. 12 ; Jer. xvii. 10. — V. g. 

214 APOCALYPSE 11. 26, 27.-III. 2. 

Whence, Heb. x. 7, 9, ^jcw is used for the preterite Tisa, Ps. xl. 7 ; 
and thus the Septuagint everywhere : Num. xxiii. 1 (or ch. xxii. 36) ; 
Deut. xxxiii. 2 ; Jos. xxiii. 14, 15 ; Judg. xvi. 2 ; 1 Sam. xvi. 2, xxix. 
6, 10; 2 Sam. iii. 23. There is a remarkable instance in Ecch v. 
14, smarpi'^ii, ug rf/ni. 

26. 'O vnuv — iuieoi auT/p) The things which you may suppose not 
to sound so well in Greek, will sound well when cast in Hebrew 
mould of thought. See instances, ch. vi. 8, vii. 2, ix. 12 (where the 
feminine is put for the neuter), 14, xx. 8. There is a very similar 
construction, Kupiog, sv ovpavSi b Spovog axirou, Ps. xi. 4 ; and so Ps. Ivii. 
5 (4), ciii. 15. — i'~l ruv iSuSv) Ps. ii. 8, 9, a'/rrisai irap s/iov, %ai 8uea go! 
ihyj rfiv xXripono/Jjlav gou, xa/ r^v xard,g')(^igh gou roc, vipara Trig ySjs* woi/j.a.viTg 
ahroiig k\i pdfihij) gidrip^, ug gxiiri y,ipa/jb£Ciig guvrpi-i^iig avTovg. 

27. JloiaanT) In the Hebrew it is DJJlin, Thou slialt break them in 
pieces, Ps. ii. 9, from OTl he broke in pieces, the verb of cognate mean- 
ing following, DSaan Thou shalt scatter them, gmrpi-^ng alrohg. The 
Septuagint, as though they had read in the former passage QjJin 
from njTi lie fed, have rendered it m/jbaviTg {Thou shalt feed). The 
Apocalypse, not through imitation of the Septuagint translators, but 
on its own authority, uses that word, which is peculiarly appropriate. 
And in other places, when it refers to ancient prophecy, it most be- 
fittingly preserves the peculiarity of the Hebrew text : ch. vi. 16, vii. 
17, xi. 4.1 


' 2. "F./j,i\\ov) Thus the Al. And. Pet. 3, the Gov. Areth. and also 
Uf. read 'in.iXkiv : Er. from the coram, of Andreas, fjuiXkn : Leices- 
trensis and eight others, and also Comp. Arab. i/i.B'kXeg (a-jro^aviTi being 
on this account changed into amfiaXKnv). This reading of the clause 
formerly did not displease me, & 'i/j^sXXig a'lroSaviTii, in this sense : 
Strengthen that which remains, which, unless you were here admonished, 
you were about to lose by spiritual death. There is a very similar 

1 '71-cipa, Tov Xlarpos pioii, from My Father) Jesus, when He was living on the 
earth, somewhat more frequently said. My Father which is in heaven ; but now, 
simply, My Father ; for He Himself is set in the heaven with His Father — ^V. g. 

^ Ver. 1. oaofici, name) This (a "name ") does not establish the corresponding 
reality ; ch. ii. 2 V. g. 

APOCALYPSE III. 3-17. 215 

phrase of Philo, rhv rrii apirrn (Siov Svfidxiiv ; also, rds -^u^Sig reham. 
And of Heraclitus in Philo, reS-jrjTia/j^iv rh hihm jSiov. But that ex- 
pression of itself appears more philosophical than prophetical. The 
simple and genuine sentiment must be that, which the Latin 
imitates, the things which were about to die ;^ and so the Armen. Copt. 

3. HSig- mlav) Regard to its former character (" how" it once stood) 
ought to defend the Church of Sardis, that the future hour, whatso- 
ever it shall be, may not be attended with calamity to it. 

7. KXiTv) Hence the plural aXiTg, ch. i. 18. — xa! xXiki) The article 
05 is contained in 6 avo'iym, and is to be understood from thence. 

9. Tuti Xiyovruv) This depends upon nvac, understood. — itoirjaoi 
auroii, ha) The same construction occurs, ch. xiii. 12, 16. 

^10. Tovs •/.aror/ioui/Ta; i-jri r^s y^s) Thus the Septuagint often 
render, when in the Hebrew fiNn '3B''' is found: Isa. xxvi. 21, etc. 
But the word azrivouv is used of the inhabitants of heaven, ch. xii. 12. 

*12. Naffl) A recent error has XaS.* See App. on this passage, 
Ed. ii. 

16. ^MiXKu e'i i/Mieai) This is a milder form of speech than if it 
were I/asitm <sL miXKu makes a modaP form of speech out of a cate- 
gorical, [lie implies the denial which is about to take place, in the 
event of their continuing " lukewarm," before His Father ; Ps. xvi. 4. 


17. "Oti Xsyiig) This or; is not connected with the preceding words, 

^ AC Vulg. h, Memph. Syr. read 'i^iKhov ; but B, '^jfiAXi;. Kec. Text, with- 
out good authority, ^sXTvs/.— E. 

' as, thee) A most gracious exception in so great a temptation. — V. g. 

' Bengel is silent, indeed, respecting the pillar, both here and in der Erkl. 
Qffenb. (ow S. R. Ernesti admonishes, Bibl. th. Noviss. T. T. p. 708) ; ha I 
think that it should not be concealed, that he endeavoured to illustrate the phrase 
in den lx. Reden, p. 155, sq., using these words : — Der Tempel Gottes ist, das 
Heiligthum Gottes. In demselben eine Saule abgeben, ist eine sehr grosse 
Ehre. Sie gehoret, ganz in jene Welt, und da ist eine immerwahrende Ehre, 
denn er wird nicht mehr hinauskommen. So lang der Tempel selber steht, wird 
auch der Pfeiler darinn stehen. Wann einer in der Welt schon etwa viel zu 
bedeuten hat, ist ein General oder Gesandter, oder Staats-Minister, auf 
welchem ein Kbnigreich, als auf einer Saule, ruhet ; so kann er uber eine Weile 
gesturzet und weggethan werden, dass man kaum weiss, wo er hingekommen ist. 
Aber ein Pfeiler in Gottes Tempel komnt nimmer hinaus. (Comp. Apoc. xxii. 
5, end. See also Gal. ii. 9.)— E. B. 

* Viz. in the Elzev. Rec. Text of 1624.— B. 

^ Ver. 14. )j ipxv), the Beginning) Prov. viii. 22 ; Col. i, 18. — V. g. 

" See Appendix on Sermo Modalis. 

21C APOCALYPSE III. 18-20.-1V. 1. 

in which their own on is inserted, on ^Xiaphg il; but with the follow- 
ing words, as the thing speaks for itself. Thus, ch. xviii. 7, followed 
by on — 8ia TovTo. — vXciioiog) A few read on rrXovdiog. Such a use of 
the particle on, for quoting the language of any one, is of' frequent 
occurrence, but not in the Apocalypse.^ See ch. v. 12, xviii. 7, etc. 
— TEffXairi^^ca) / have Used my riches, and with my gold I have pro- 
vided for myself many things ; for instance, garments. So the Sep- 
tuagint, ■jreTXouTrjx.a, Hos. xii. 8. 

18. 'Sufi^ouXiucii, I give counsel) But if the Superior Being in the 
meantime lays aside His power, that very fact may possibly be the 
mark of a mind the more estranged, as if the servant is rebuked by 
his Lord, and the Lord says, / advise you to take heed to yourself. 
We give advice even to friends, but not while we rebuke them. — ij 
a'la-xpfin) The Hebrew rrnjJ is sometimes rendered in the Septuagint 
by aUjjjrri. — -MWohpiov) namely ayopdaai, to buy, for the purpose of 
anointing. \_This is the last thing. Riches with clothing precede. — 
V. g.J Celsus speaks at large on eye-salve. 

19. <1>;XS) In the case of the Philadelphian Church, He (ver. 9) 
hyavns! {esteemed it) : in the case of the Laodicean, He (piXtf (loves 
it). The former, with His judgment : the latter, with gratuitous af- 
fection [favour]. Comp. John xxi. 15, note. Li each passage 
^ayaffav implies something more than (piXiTv. In the passage quoted 
from John, the spiritual tie of relationship is of more value than the 
judgment of Peter. Here, in the Apocalypse, it is a more blessed 
thing to flourish [be esteemed] in the judgment of the Lord, than 
to be chastised through mere gratuitous affection. — ^riXtiisov) Both 
^Effrfs, ver. 15, 16, and ^^Xo;, are derived from ^ew. 

20. 'iSou — , behold — ) The observation respecting retrograde order 
depends almost entirely upon this very increase of close approach, 
respecting which see Erkl. Off. 


1. Msra ravra, after these things) In this passage there is a great 
division of interpretations into two paths. For the question arises, 
Whether the event of the seals began immediately after the writing 
of the book, or whether it is still ahogether future ? The celebrated 

1 AC Vulg. retain ot( before TrMmios. Bh Cypr. 241, omit it — E. 
' See footnote, John xxi. 15. 


J). Lange, besides others, maintains the latter opinion ; the former 
is plainly shown even by the particle, after these things, repeated in 
this verse. The former expression (after these things) connects the 
vision [with what has preceded], the other connects with the same 
the result itself. After these things, that is, after those things, which 
ARE, which relate to the seven churches and their angels, must come 
to pass the things, which the Lord will now show. The past and 
the present and the future, ch. i. 1 9 (from which verse the expression, 
after these things, is here repeated), comprise the ivhole of the book 
which follows : and, as the past and the present are so joined to- 
gether, that the present, in ver. 11, what thou seest, passes into the 
past, which thou satvest, ver. 20 ; and again the past, which thou 
sawest, passes into the present, are, are, in the same verse ; so the 
present and the future immediately cohere, without any hiatus, and 
the connection between the past and the present is only subservient 
to the connection between the present and the future. Not only is 
.there no trace of delay from the age of John until the last times, 
but delay is even openly excluded. Future things, the quick 
approach of which is evidently declared, ch. i. 1, xxii. 6, are 
closely connected with the present by the expression, after these 

D. Lange so explains the particle, after these things, that, accord- 
ing to the prophetical meaning of the seven epistles, after the l.ipse 
of the same number of periods of the Church, the seals are com- 
pleted, etc. Comm. Apoc. f. 62, 73. I reply : I. We have refated 
such a prophetical meaning of the seven epistles, in ch. ii. 1. II. If 
the historical meaning of the epistles is preserved, the particle, after 
these things, has its limits within the events of the churches in Asia ; 
and this would be the case, even if these churches had a prophetical 
meaning affixed to them. III. If they were periods, they would 
not be interrupted by the destruction of the Whore and the Beast, 
as D. Lange imagines, but they would rather extend beyond the 
millennium and the short time of the loosing of Satan to the end 
of the world, together with the time of the Church itself being a 
wayfarer, the change in the condition of which he also makes too 
great in the millennium (see below, on ch. xix. 11, xxi. 2), and thus 
they would run out beyond the seals, and trumpets, and vials. He 
says, that the CHiEr subject of the Apocalypse is the mystery of the 
last times, ch. x. 7, xi. 15, and following verses. See Comm. Apoc, 
fol. 5 ; Hermen. Einl., p. 27. It easily happens, that when any truth 
is gladly received, it is too eagerly declared, and carried beyond its 


proper limits Thus this celebrated man takes the millennium for 
the half-hour during which there was silence in the seventh seal, 
the former seals being thus very much crowded together, and all 
the trumpets being accommodated to this : then, having stated his 
opinion respecting the mystery of the last times, as the chief sub- 
ject of the Apocalypse, he presently afterwards assumes, and conti- 
nually takes it for granted, as though it were demonstrated : fol. 9, 
and 11 at the beginning. This is the hinge of the Apocalyptic 
system made up by this most celebrated commentator. But by such 
a method that chief point is extended too much. That is no doubt 
the subject of the Apocalypse, from the passages quoted (since it is 
there set forth as such), thenceforward even to the end of the book : 
but the very words of the text extend the subject of the preceding 
chapters to a much wider range than he supposes. In them there 
is no beast, no whore : it is not until after ch. x. that they come 
forth upon the stage, and that too after an inten^al. Wherefore the 
beginning of the judgments upon the antichristian enemies ought 
not to be reckoned from the seals themselves. See this treated at 
greater length on ch. vi. 2, xi. 15. 

In the same place he so divides the chapters of the Apocalypse, 
that almost all are deferred to the future. We thus arrange 
them : — 

Chap. I. II. III. contain the Preparation. 
IV. V. the Proposition. 
VI.-IX. are fulfilled, as is shown, without any violence. 
X.-XIV. are in course of fulfilment, and have been for 
some time, as is proved by suitable argu- 
XV.-XIX. exhibit things about to take place shortly. 
XX.-XXII. look to things more distant. 

Whoever has the power, let him subject to the most severe laws of 
DEMONSTEATiON both his treatise and mine. 

2. 'Ek rw ohpavOj, in heaven) Thus the heavenly court is described. 
Those things which the Apocalypse everywhere touches upon of 
heavenly subjects, %az. the temple, the throne, the assembly, the 
altar, the ark of the covenant, may not inappropriately be illustrated 
from the writings of the ancient Hebrews. See the Dissertation V. 
of Christian Schoettgenius, appended to the Horse Hebraicas, 
pp. 1212-1223. 


3. 'lasiTiii, a jasper) While the Sardine stone is of a fiery colour, 
and resembles the appearance of blood, the Jasper expresses a avhitish 
red. — Lampe on this passage. — sapdico) Erasmus, with the inferior 
Latin editions, have aaphhui : the others correctly, gapilcfi. aISm 
Sdam&i %a} eaphiij) are substantives : comp. ch. xxi. 20 ; but gfj^apay- 
divtfi (opdffsi) is an adjective, and of the feminine gender also, from 
which, in consequence of the rhythm, that word eapbhi^ was interpo- 
lated unawares by the copyist, although Wolf thinks that the ter- 
mination eapBh(fj is confirmed by the word eiiapayihw? 

4. &p6voi^ — xal eixoSiriaaapag vpis^vTtpoui — xal — ffrspaiiout: ^puffovi) 
See App. Crit., Ed. ii. The 1st edition of Erasmus is correct : for 
John is accustomed to mix the cases: ch. i. 16, xviii. 12, 13, etc. — 
Toijs) The article with the force of a relative. There are 24 thrones, 
and 24 elders ; and each of the elders has his separate throne. I 
wish that he had weighed the force of this article, who in a recent 
cabalistic work multiplied the thrones, and those seated upon them. 
The elders (comp. -TrpKr^unpoi, Heb. xi. 2), and they 24 in number, 
appear to be so many individuals, the most excellent of the human 
race ; for instance, A dam, Setli, Enos, Kenan, Mahalaleel, Jered, 
Henoch, Methuselah, Lamech, Noah, Shem, Arphaxad, Selah, Eber, 
Peleg, Regu, Serug, Nahor, Terah, Ahram, Isaac, Jacob, Abel, 
Japhet (Melchisedech, Job). 

5. 'Aerpa.'Tral zal (pami pia! ^povrai') In ch. viii. 5 there are men- 
tioned Ppovrai xai ddrpaitat xa; litiivai xal eiiafihg ; in xi. 19, asrpwrrai 
Kal (pmai xai (Spovra! xai (!sig/j,hg xal ^dXaf^a, /jjiydXri ; and again with 
Epitasis, as far as relates to aeie/^ov xal ■^(aXa'Cfi.v, in ch. xvi. 18, 21. 
It occasions inconvenience, that the copyists have written lightnings 
and voices and thunderings, in these four passages, with so little 
attention to the order : yet in ch. iv. 5, xi. 19, all place lightnings 
first in order ; in xvi. 18, almost all ; in viii. 5, not one. — Wrd Xa//,- 
irdSsc, seven lamps) The Holy Spirit, economically, as Wisdom, 
niDan, in the plural number. Ch. v. 6, the text explains itself. 

6. 'Ug ^aXaeaa, vaXivri, as a sea of glass) The force of the particle 
jJS, as, falls more upon the word, of glass, than upon the word, sea ; 
and the word, sea, is here used with somewhat greater literalness 
than the words, of glass. For a certain depth is denoted, and that 
both fluid and transparent, although not flowing, but standing 

1 AB read aap'htiii : Rec. Text, -without good authority, (rapiii/r^. — E. 
^ So Rec. Text and Tisch. But Lachm. with A, ipoi/ov;. — E. 
' AB Vulg. have (puuxl xai jipoiiTxi': Rec. Text, without good authority, 
Spoi/Teii xal cpniuiii. — E. 

220 APOCALYPSE IV. 7, 8. 

calmly. Comp. ch. xv. 2, where both the expression, as a sea of glass, 
is used, and also a sea of glass, being the same as to substance, as I 
think. So John vi. 19, ws eradkvg il-Msmhre, where iig properly 
relates to the number. Vitringa departs further from the meaning 
of a sea, when he explains it to be a street or pavement. — l,ucc) There 
is a wide difference between ^£ov and 6'/ipiov. (puasi; l,iioiv xa! Sv/jioi; 
Sriploiv : Wisd. vii. 20. These four beasts are living emblems and orna- 
ments of the throne, denoting a nearer -admission than the 24 
Elders. [In German you may call them Lebbilder, as Mannsbild, 
Weibsbild. — V. g.] Let their confession be looked to, ch. v. 9 ; 
whence they are accustomed to be spoken of, as being most closely 
connected with the throne, as though they were parts inserted 
into it. 

7. MoVp/w) a bullock, an ox. The Hebrew "ip3 and "iD and 11B' are 
rendered by the Septuagint iJ^oeyjn;. 

8. "E;;/o>) e7;/ov, Er. (without the sanction of the other copies of 
Andreas) and Bar. L. ; £ff%ov, Hunt. The am is thought by Wolf 
to require the plural form of tbe verb : the singular however occurs, 
Apoc. xxi. 21. The others, with great agreement, have 'iyjiv or 
il'/pt} — ^ yijjjovaiv^ of>SaX//,av) Uffenb., a recent book indeed, has 
ye/jiougiv ofiDaXfioue ; but that this was the reading of others also, you 
may collect from And. L, who substitutes 'iy^ona ifdaX/Mvi. The 
same Uff., ver. 6, has also yifiovra op^aX/ioig. Perhaps more MSS. 
have the same variety, which may have been overlooked by col- 
lators. The verb yefiu is found with a genitive and accusative to- 
gether, ch. xvii. 4. — ayiog, aywg, dyiog, holy, holy, holy) Some 
copyists wrote this nine times, in accordance with the liturgical 
custom of the Greeks ; but John, as Isaiah, wrote it three times. 
And in John the four beasts raise this cry to Plim that sits upon 
the throne, that is, the Father, from whose right hand the Lamb, 
that is, Christ, takes the book which is sealed with seven seals. 
The Tpisdyiov, as the Greeks term it, occurs also in Psalm xcix., 
where, on the announcement of His Majesty which is about to dis- 
play itself, of His Justice which already displays itself, and of His 
Mercy displayed in time past, there resound three addresses on the 

' A has sx«v : so Lachm. and Tisch. B, 'i)iO!/. Rec. Text, stxou ; so Vulg. 
« habebant." Either of the former, as being the more difficult, is less likely to 
have come from transcribers. — E. 

2 xuxXoSsy, about) This is to be referred not to the wings, but to the eyes. — 

' So AB Vulg. ; but Rec. Text, without good authority, ysfiovTa. — E. 

APOCALYPSE IV. 9-11. 321 

subject of His Holiness. And, as in that instance, so this Apoca- 
lyptic Tpidayio]/ also in the text itself, points out its own meaning in 
relation to itself: 

Holy, He who was : 

Holy, H e who is : 

Holy, He who is to come. 

He showed Himself as an object of holy worship, in the creation 
of all things : He shows Himself further more fully as an object of 
holy worship, in the governing of all things : He will in the highest 
degree show Himself an object of holy worship, in the consumma- 
tion of all things. From Him, and through Him, and to Him are 
all things : to Him he glory to all ages. Castellio is not inconsistent 
with those things which we said on the subject of Holiness in the 
German Notes ; for, according to his explanation, W^p is Augustus, 
as T. L. Bunemann observes in the Index of the Bible of Castellio- 

In a similar hymn, Isa. vi. 3, there is added, the earth is full 
of His glory. But in the Apocalypse this is deferred, until the 
glory of THE Lord fills the earth, His enemies having been de- 
stroyed. .See ch. V. 10, xi. 16, 17, 18, xix. 2. By the use of which 
passages, we collect, that the four beasts are more occupied, while 
the action is in heaven ; the elders, while it is extended to the 

9, 10. "Orav dudovai — •jredouvrai) Each future expresses a simul- 
taneous act of giving of glory on the part of the beasts and on the 
part of the elders : and, at the same time, it has a frequentative 
force : As often as the beasts give glory, immediately the elders fall. 

11. QiXrif/^a, pleasure [_wili]) pin, a free and gracious will. — • 
t/.Tie6rieav) They are created, that is, they remain in existence. 
There are other expressions very similar : he shall he blessed, that is, 
he shall continue blessed. Gen. xxvii. 33; 1 have written, that is, 
I do not change it, John xix. 22 ; is tamed, that is, permits itself to 
be tamed, Jaijies iii. 7 ; shall be changed, i.e. shall undergo a change, 
and continue changed, Heb. i. 12. [Creation is the foundation of 
all the other works of God, and therefore it is the ground also of all 
the thanksgiving which arises from His creatures.-— V. g. j 

232 APOCALYPSE V. 1-4. 


1. BijSXiov, a book) There were not seven books, but there was 
one only, sealed with seven seals. — 'isuSsv xal 'i^uku) So Ezek. ii. 10 : 
xiaaXlg jSijSXiou — za! rjv h ahrrt y^yfafXijAia rk 'i/j^irfodSiv xal ra, oitishv. 
And it is possible that the copyists may have introduced into this 
passage Wishv for 'i^ukv, either from ch. iv. 6, or from the passage 
just quoted from Ezekiel. "E/j,'ffpoekv and omchv are opposed to each 
other, as are 'isuhv and 'i^ahv. But since in Ezekiel the expression 
is "iinsi D''JS, 'iaaikv zai oirishv is defended from the Hebraism. The 
Philocalia of Origen^ has o-Ttiakv by itself. — eipfaytan i'kto,, with seven 
seals) This prophecy abounds with instances of the number seven, of 
which four are most copiously described : the seven angels of the 
churches ; the seven seals of the sealed book ; the seven angels with 
trumpets ; the seven angels with vials. The churches are a model, 
to which the Universal Church of all climes and ages, together with 
its teachers and pastors, ought to be conformed. The seals repre- 
sent all power in earth and in heaven, given to the Lamb. By the 
trumpets the kingdom of the world is violently shaken, so that it at 
last becomes the kingdom of the Lord and of His Christ. By the 
vials the beast is crushed, and whatever is connected with it. We 
ought always to keep before our eyes this Summary. Thus the 
whole of the Apocalypse runs on in its own natural order. The di- 
vision of these sevens into IV. and III. will be explained below. The 
hypothesis of VH. periods of the Church, represented not only by 
VII. churches, but also by VII. seals, VII. trumpets, VII. vials — 
other groups of seven in the Old and New Testament being drawn 
out to the same hypothesis, — has greatly enervated the Theology of 
many, especially that which is exegetical. 

2. ^layypU, strong) Ps. ciii. 20. 

4. "TS.xXaiov, I wept) By an excellent example, John places him- 
self as an eager and teachable learner of the Apocalypse. Comp. 
ch. X. 10, xvii. 1, xxi. 9, xxii. 8. They are far from perceiving the 
meaning of John, in this part at any rate, who seek anything 
rather than the argument of this book, as opened by the Lamb ; 

' AnA the sainted author exhibited that {reading) also in Vers. Germ, of the 
New Testament.— E. B. 

A Syr. and some MSB. of Origen have ovwh)) ; B, 'ii,akv ; Vulg. " foris." — E. 

APOCALYPSE V. 5-9. 223 

and who think themselves indulgent, if they concede a pardon to 
others who do seek it. The very things which even angels had 
desired to look into during the time of the Divine silence, now, after 
they have been brought to light and shine forth in the word of pro- 
phecy, though they ought to be known and admired to the glory of 
God, are despised by wayfaring men as circumstantial and useless. 
— ■roXu) So iroXii, Luke vii. 47. — avoT^ai) See App. Grit., Ed. ii., 
on this passage. An inelegant arrangement of the words is pro- 
duced, not to open, not to read, not to see. In ver. 1, John saw the 
book ; in ver. 4, he says that the book could not be seen, an expres- 
sion which itself means, be read : although the language, without 
the word read (avayvSimi^), is more royal, and better adapted to the 
majesty of the Lamb. 

5. E?s, one) Without doubt one of those who rose with Christ, and 
ascended into heaven : Matt, xxvii. 52. It appears to be the pa- 
triarch Jacob, because, according to his prophecy, the name of lion is 
given to Christ : Gen. xlix. 9. John Gerhard and others in 
Richter on this passage, and in Viet. But Cluver judges that this, 
as far as it respects Jacob, is uncertain. 

6. ' Afvkv) 'Afjt,\ihe is used absolutely, John i. 29 ; 1 Pet. i. 19 : 
now, apvlov is used, with reference to the flock about to follow Him. 
Kpioc, afj^vhg, and apvlov differ in age. Orig. t. 2, f. 140, on John 
i. 29. ' Aptloii, a young lamb ; as far, however, as it combines the 
idea of the male sex, it properly looks to the taking the lead of the 

9. 'nhnv zaivfiv) So Ps. cxliv. 9, Mrjv xaivrii ; but in the other 
Psalms it is «<;,«,« -/.aivhv. — fx •Ttdsrjg (puX^i xal yXwffffjjs xal }mou xoci 
ihoug) So, sx. nravrhi Ihavg xai (puXSv xai Xaoiv -/.at yXaeam, ch. vii. 9 
sx rSiv Xauv xai (puXuv xal yXuffSuv xai ihoiv, ch. xi. 9 ; s'ttI ■!rasav <pu} rji- 
xai Xah xai yXuesav xai thog, ch. xiii. 7 ; irav 'ihog xai fivXrjv xai 
yXoJgffav xai Xah, ch. xiv. 6. So, commonly, snrl XaoTg xai 'iSnai xai 
yXuiasaig ^asiXiusi 'noXXoTg, ch. X. 11 ; Xaol xai o;^Xo; xai iSvr] xai 
yXZigsai, ch xvii. 15. In these passages yXueeai, sSvi^ and Xaol, are 

' So Rec. Text, without good authority, reads. B Vulg. Orig. 2,625c, Cypr. 
Hil. omit duxyi/couai.^K. 

' 'Afiuos is used in the Gospel of John, which describes the life and death of 
Jesus, as the paschal, sacrificial hamh. In John xxi. 15 alone, xpvi'x is used: 
so in Rev. also, xpuinu. ' Apuioa, being a diminutive, expresses endearment ; viz. 
the endearing relation in which Jesus, now glorified, stands to us, as the conse- 
quence of His previous relation, as the sacrificed dfivo; on earth ; so also our re- 
lation to Him: He the "precious Lamb," we one with Him and His dear lambs; 
Isa. xl. 11.— E. 

224 APOCALYPSE V. 10-12. 

always mentioned ; but instead of f uXSk, o-xXot is used once, and 
BagiXsTg once. The number of four, therefore, is always preserved, 
having regard to the four quarters of the world. The number of 
three is used, Dan. iii. 4, 7, 29, the tribes (in Hebrew) being ex- 
cepted ; that is, the Israelites. 

10. AuTovg — xal ^asiXiuaoveiv) See App. Crit., Ed. ii., on this 
passage. Comp. Matt, xxiii. 37, and Jude ver. 24. So also iv 
auTTi, for iv no!, ch xviii. 24 ; jj Xsyovaa, h J-Jj -/.apblci, aurns, for ffou, 
Isa. xlvii. 8, 10. In this passage the Hebrew construction of the 
third person for the first has a graphic relation to the redeemed, and 
at the same time has a more modest sound, than us, priests,^ etc. — 
^aaiXslav) Thus the Alesc. Lat. Cyprian read, as ch. i. 6. The more 
recent copies here also have ^aoiXiTg.^ But they who cast their 
crowns before the throne do not call themselves kings, in the sight 
of the great King, although their priestly access has such dignity, 
that the power of reigning on earth cannot certainly exceed it. In 
like manner, in ch. xx. 6, they who have part in the first resur- 
rection are called priests, and are said to be about to reign ; and 
yet the name of kings is not given to them. — £■3-/' t^s yric, upon the 
earth) 'Em here denotes locality, as ch. iii. 10 and everywhere : or 
rather power, as ch. ii. 26 ; as it is said, l3aaiXi{jii e-rri rrjg 'louiaia;. 
Matt. ii. 22. And thus the Septuagint, Judg. ix. 8 ; 1 Sam. viii. 
7, xii. 12, 14 ; 2 Kings viii. 20, xi. 3. I should not therefore venture 
to assert, from this phrase, that these remain on the earth, though 
they rule over the earth. The elders were meek (comp. Matt. v. 
5) : but the flock of the meek independently is much larger. 

11. Mupiahic iivpidbm nai y^i'kia.Ug yj\iaha\) /Mypiag is ten thousand; 
fi,-jpiaoig (if only you understand iuo, as ch. xii. 14, -/.aipo-og, that is, 
iho) are twenty thousand. Thence myriads of myriads are 
200,000,000 ; and so moreover thousands of thousands, 2,000,000. 
The lesser number added to the greater forbids both of them from 
being taken too indefinitely. 

12. "Ag;oe) ' Apviov is neuter; whence many have written aj/ov : 
but a^iog regards the meaning itself.^ — riin Wra^/i/ xai ^Xouroi-, y..T.X.) 

1 AB Amiat. MS. of Vulg. Memph. Syr. read alnig. Rec. Text, with h 
Cypr. 291, reads '/ificig. — E. 

2 Which reading, though it was preferred in Ed. maj., was yet ihovght inferior 
to the other, both in the Gnom. and m Ed. ii. and Vers. Germ. E. B. 

A Vulg. /(,, Memph. Cypr. read fiaai-Auau. B supports Rec. Text, fiaaiT^ils- 


2 Hence the marc/in of Ed. ii. reckoned among the better supported readings 

APOCALYPSE V. 13, 14. -VI. 1. 225 

The sevenfold subject of their acclamations answers to the seven 
seals, in the first four of which are contained visible things, in the 
remaining three, invisible things, subject to the Lamb. 

13. Uav Krlaf^a — h auroTg, every creature — in them) All the works of 
the Lord in all places of His dominion : Ps. ciii. 22. — xa; ra Id auro/j, 
vdyrag i]y.ousa Xiyovrag) This reading is supported by the greater num- 
ber of copies.^ A few have changed Tavrag, or even T^iyovrag, into the 
neuter. Ta h auroTg is put absolutely, as ch. x. 6. And this, vavrag 
rix-ovga XiyovTag, admirably comprises the harmonious song of all the 
inhabitants whom the four quarters in the universe contain. 

14. Kai Tpo«xui/}]ffaii) With this word the paragraph ends in all 
the copies. See App. Crit., Ed. ii., on this passage. It is the part 
of piety to cut out such additions, fear being laid aside.^ The 
shorter reading, Tial vpoavAwrigav, and they worshipjyed, denotes the 
worship paid both to Sim that sitteth upon the throne and unto the 
Lamb. Comp. ver. 13. Uposxwiiii is often put absolutely : ch. xi. 
1 ; John iv. 20, xii. 20. 


1. Kat, and) By the first four seals it is shown, that all the pub- 
lic times of all ages, the flourishing condition of empires, war, supplies 
of provisions, and calamities, are subject to Jesus Christ : and a spe- 
cimen of the first seal is intimated in the east, which followed in the 
reign of Trajan; of the second, in the west; of the third, in the 
south ; of the fourth, in the north and the whole world. For it 
was towards these quarters of the world that the lion, the ox, the 
man, and the eagle were looking. — oig cpoi'/n ^povrjjg) See App. Ed. 
ii. On the nominative case, pwnj,^ which displeases Wolf, but does 
not displease Valla, see below at ch. xvi. 13. — '^px""} '^0 Wolf has 
curtailed my words on the subject of this call : I would have my 

that of d^io;, though in the Ed. maj. it was numbered among the less supported. 
— E. B. 

A reads «|/off ; Rec. Text, a.i,iov. — E. 

^ So Vulg. and B. But A, iraina, — T^iyonx : so Rec. Text. — E. 

^ ABC Vulg. refute the addition in Rec. Text and h, ^au-n tie I'ois celZuas tZh 
aiau&n/. — E. 

3 ABC read cpauti ; Rec. Text, (Jiau^; ; Vulg. " vocem." 

VOL. V. P 


readers seek for my opinion, if it is of any consequence, from tlie 
Apparatus on this passage. 

2. "IffTos Xivxh;, a white horse) D. Lange altogether applies these 
seals to the future, Comm. Apoc. f. 73, where he uses five argu- 
ments : 

I. From the figures of the seals. I reply. The Past, when rightly 
explained, agrees with them. 

II. From the failure of the reasons on which Vitringa, together 
with others, relies. I reply. Better reasons both exist in abundance 
and are brought forward. See on ch. iv. 1. 

III. From the parallelism of Matt. xxiv. 6 and following verses 
with the second, third, fourth, and fifth seal. See fol. 83, 257. I 
reply, That the end, in Matt. xxiv. 14, denotes the destruction of 
Jerusalem, is proved by the whole connection of the discourse, and 
especially by the particle ow, therefore, ver. 15, and the question of 
the disciples, as Mark and Luke represent it. A similarity in the 
plagues inflicted in each text does not imply that the plagues them- 
selves are the same. See above, p. 135 and next. 

IV. From the parallelism of Zechariah ^^. with the same seals. 
See fol. 84. I reply, In Zechariah there is not one horse only of 
each colour, but there are more, and they too joined to chariots : 
nor are the colours entirely the same (D. Lange undoubtedly puts 
paleness for whiteness') ; nor is there the same order of the colours ; 
nor is there the same road to the four quarters of the world, nor 
the same expedition. In the first seal he appUes the white horse to 
the conqueror, Christ ; in the third, the black to the dearness of 
corn : in what manner this is parallel with Zech. vi. 6, 8, cannot be 

V. From the connection [of the seals] with the trumpets and 
vials. I reply. As this celebrated interpreter too much extends the 
epistles, so he also too much compresses the seals, trumpets, etc. 
The vials almost exhaust the whole of that space, which he sup- 
poses to be represented also in the seals and trumpets. There are 
four distinct spheres, each of which has its own subject-matter 
agreeing with the titles, churches, seals, trumpets, and vials ; and 
where they are explained distinctly [as distinct from one another], 

APOCALYPSE VI. 4-9. 227 

they obtain an amplitude worthy of this prophecy. In such a 
manner the true explanation preserves the natural arrangement 
of the book ; but if this is once laid aside, there is nothing which the 
ingenuity of man cannot divide and put together, and congratulate 
itself on the discovery of the truth. As far as relates to the system 
of the venerable D. Lange, the little season under the fifth seal, the 
42 months and 1260 days in oh. xi., the 1260 days and the short 
time, and the (1) time, (2) times and half a time, in ch. xii., the 42 
months in ch. xiii., and the short space in ch. xvii., which are periods 
of times, differing both in every kind of way, and widely and ele- 
gantly, are not only regarded by that system as equal, but are also 
put for one [period], and that a period of three years and a half, and 
the seals and trumpets are arranged in accordance with that hy- 
pothesis : Comm. Apoc. f 16, 115, etc. : they who shall duly weigh 
the same, f. 15, 88, 95, 133, 143, etc., will perceive how many 
things are moved from their place and disarranged by this view. 
In his Epicrisis, for instance, p. 390, he has not sufficiently weighed 
my arguments, from a .reliance on those things, which he had be- 
fore written.^ 

4. Tnv ^ipmv Trig yni) See App. The shorter reading is gene- 
rally the genuine one. — ha) See App. [Most dreadful wars are sig^ 
nified. — V. g.] 

5. M'l'kai) The Greek poets call the famine which this horseman 
would inflict on men, were he not withheld, a'/So-jra Xifibv, X;/iJv a/av^, 
that is, black, gloomy : and the Latins use the same epithets. 

8. XXtiiphg) yO^uphs, ch. viii. 7, is green ; but here it is pale, iixP^ii 
which sense is confirmed by Eustathius : as also the Septuagint 
renders the Hebrew pT' by each of these Greek words. — i^ouala kvl 
Th riraprov) There is a similar construction, It/ with an accusative, 
ch. xvi. 9. — h 6avdTifj) by pestilence. 13T pestilence; Septuagint, Sdmrog, 
Ex. ix. 3 ; 2 Sam. xxiv. 13, and repeatedly. [An accumulation of 
different calamities. — V. g.] 

9. Kat, and) The fifth, the sixth, and the seventh seals relate to 
invisible things; the fifth, to those who have died well, namely, 
martyrs ; the sixth, to those who have died badly, kings, etc. ; comp. 
Ezek. xxxii. 18, and following verses ; the seventh, to angels, 
especially those illustrious ones, to whom the trumpets are given. — 
imxdru) With this agrees that which the seventh of the brothers 

• miciJi/, conquering) Shortly after the publication of the prophecy, the Roman 
Empire breathed nothing but victories. — V. g. 


says, 2 Mace. vii. 36, 0/ /ib ya.^ m rnj^iripoi ads'k<pol jSpax^" ii'Tts/syxauTig 
ntavm auvdou ^w^5 TIIO diaSrjurjv Qcou •!ri<7rTiJi%aai : for which the Latin 
translator. For my hrothers, having now sustained moderate pain, 
have been brought [effecti sunt] under the covenant of everlasting life. 
Not only the Church fighting under Christ, as the world does 
under Satan, but even the Church in its consummated state, and 
the kingdom of darkness, are described in this book. Moreover, 
the actions of the forces of the good and wicked alike on the 
earth, and their removals from it to a happier or more wretched 
state, succeeding one another at different times, distinguished by 
various degrees, celebrated by various applaudings, and the incre- 
ments of the expectation itself and of the rejoicing in heaven, and 
of the terror itself and punishment in hell, are at the same time 
shown. See ch. iv. v. vi. vii. xiv. xix. and following, and the notes. 
11. Auro/s IxdcTo?) You may with reason doubt, says Wolf, whether 
John wrote auroT; exkcs-w. But he wrote v//,Tti jxaffrw, ch. ii. 23 ; and 
so Luke, ch. ii. 3, and Acts ii. 8, vdung, exacTog' ^/^sTg, ixaerog : Paul, 
Eph. v. 33, iifi.ii'g ixaarog. The very expression, aiiro/g B-Adarui, occurs, 
Ecclus. xvii. 14. They who have not admitted the joining together 
of the plural and singular number, have made various, changes : 
some of them have omitted ixdarui. Mill incorrectly giving his 
assent, Proleg. § 1003.^ — XP"'"^) Others, ^povov /j^ixpo'j ; and Wolf de- 
fends that reading. He says, John uses the same phrase below, ch. 
XX. 3. From that place, in fact, some have introduced the adjec- 
tive into this : for the copyists everywhere delighted to insert 
adjectives, lest the style should appear too abrupt. Whence also 
Augustine, in his second book against Gaudentius, c. 19, uses it 
more than once ; and Jerome, in his treatise on the Perfect Man, thus 
has it. But this xPO'^S) which is the subject of eh. vi. 11, ends by 
a long interval before the beginning of the little season (jiixpo'ij ^pofou), 
which is the subject of ch. xx. 3. Wolf subjoins : It certainly might 
have done much towards the arousing of those souls, if they understood 
that the delay of the Divine judgments would only be for a short time. 
It was this indeed which induced the African writers to add [Linph,^ 
as a solace to the martyrs (comp. Coll. Antithet. of Antonius, p. 
909, on precipitate hope) ; although in cases where the delay is in 

' AC read aiiroig Ixaura : so Cypr. 310. Rec. Text, with h, Exao-To;?. B, 
awo/f, '• eis singulse stolEe," Cypr. 254 and Vulg. — E. 

' aro'hvi \tvx,ii, a white robe) So also ch. vii. 9. — V. g. 

' B is the oldest authority for the omission of fnnph : so Tisch. But AC 
Vulg. h, Cypr. support it ; so Lachm. — E. 


reality not short, they who affirm that it is short, cause an arousing 
which is not lasting. The best consolation is in the truth itself, 
which, in the meantime, by the form of speech in which it is veiled, 
softens down the more unfavourable points which are from time to 
time mingled with those more joyful, as the long-continued delay in 
this passage. As to criticism, I have nothing here to add to the 
Apparatus, except the explanation of Apringius, which is as follows : 
But because the everlasting recompense of the saints and the damna- 
tion of the wicked is about to come at the last time, it was said to them 
that they should vmit, and for the comfort of the body, etc. He makes 
no remark respecting the shortness of the time. Xpovov is used abso- 
lutely, as iTl xP^'-""} without an epithet, Luke xviii. 4 ; on which 
passage E. Schmid remarks, that y^^povot is frequently used absolutely 
also by Homer. But it is used also. Acts xix. 22, and Isa. xxvii. 
11 in the Septuagint. Xforan is the reading which is supported by 
the most ancient, the most numerous, and best authorities, short, 
natural, without any adulteration, and, as the interpretation now 
demonstrates from the structure of the whole book, necessarily true. 
D. Lange places a short time from the crying of the souls to the 
time of judgment and vengeance, Comm. Apoc. f. 81, and every- 
where. This is one of those passages, in which the labour spent by 
this illustrious man upon the Apocalypse would have produced 
greater fruits, if he had more thoroughly weighed the arguments 
for the true reading- The prophecy refuses shortness as applied to 
this time. Its subject extends itself from the time of John through 
the ages of the world which still remain, and which are not much 
fewer than those which have passed, by a continuous thread to the 
end of the world : and yet it shuts up many things into periods of 
times of considerable length, which are definitely expressed in their 
proper places : all other things are done h rd^n, quickly. Therefore 
the Lamb immediately, and in rapid succession, opens the seven 
seals, the fifth of which contains the souls crying out. This cry, 
this complaint, long afterwards, IN the same words, is transposed 
into a song, ch. xix. 2 ; then at length, namely, when the judgment 
of the saints and apostles shall be passed upon Babylon or Rome, 
ch. xviii. 20. Therefore two classes of martyrs are pointed out : the 
one under heathen Rome; the other under papal Rome. The 
former are ordered to take their rest until the latter are added to 
them : the age of John already had the former ; the thirteenth 
century bore the first-fruits of the latter. To the former, therefore, 
while they were expecting the latter, there was not /j,ixpog yjoni, but 


truly xpoVo;. As xaiphs has a special meaning in this book, ch. xii. 
12, 14, so also has xpo'vos, which even in Latin we call chronos 
(derivatives of which word are not unknown to the Latins), that 
the time xaiphg may not be confounded with it. Chronus has 1111^ 
years, as we show in its proper place ; and this Chronus flowed on 
from the year 98 to 1209, or from the first year of Trajan to the Cru- 
sade stirred up against the Waldenses by the zeal of Innocent III. 
Before this the Pope had never been a bloodthirsty persecutor : 
afterwards he never ceased to be such. To this Chronus is opposed 
No longer — a Chronus, ch. x. 6, whence there is a beautiful an- 
tithesis between the two passages, y^phov 'in, %f>on); ovx'bti. The 
expression Non — Chronus itself includes times of sufficient length, 
expressed, ch. xi. and xii. and xiii., and yet a Chronus exceeds a 
Nan — Chronus in length. How correctly these things are spoken, 
however paradoxical they are, the truth will bring to light, but after 
a time. I will here make a remark, which applies to all passages 
which have any indication of time. The times are not entirely de- 
termined from facts, much less are facts from times : but they afford 
mutual aid to each other, so that the event may be definitely distin- 
guished. — 'iug, until) A Chronus is placed between this answer and 
the beginning ■jtXripaaiui, of the fulfilment, as there were four kings 
of Persia between the prophecy and the destruction of the fourth 
king : Dan. xi. 3. After a Chronus, " brethren" are to be added, by 
the continual slaughter of whom, accomplished under the fury of 
the beast, the promise is fulfilled. The Chronus extends to the 
times of the beast ; when these are elapsed, the judgment takes 
place. — -jrXripoiSuai) Camp. A I. Lat. most suitably have this passive 
form : many, with Andreas of Csesarea, have the neuter •^rXripueiiiei} 
Erasmus alone lias the middle form, 'itXi^pusotirai (although the con- 
struction required the subjunctive) ; and, in what manner he pro- 
ceeded in revising the Apocalypse, I iiave shown in the Apparatus, 
Fund. Cris. § xvii. But since that discussion is not specially suited 
to any particular text, I greatly fear, lest many readers should pass 
it by, and consequently, in particular passages of the text to which 
it ought to be applied, should be the less prepared to judge. Where- 
fore I have considered it my duty, in these annotations also, to put 
forward some of the strong points of my argument. I will here 
speak what is suitable for the subject. 

' AC read x?.vipa6a<jii/ : Vulg. " irapleantur." But B, 'jr'h.npmmiv : Rec. Text, 
'iv'hnpuaoyTcti. — E. 


I.) Erasmus had only one manuscript on the Apocalypse, the 

II.) The Reuchlinian copy was the commentary of Andreas of 
Ssesarea upon the Apocalypse, and this had rh xiifiivov, or the text 
iserted amidst the commentary. 

III.) Erasmus wonderfully extols the antiquity of this manuscript. 
; undoubtedly had a good text, and that in some places of singular 
<cellence ; but that it was likewise mutilated, is understood from 
lis, that Erasmus was both ignorant of the author of the commen- 
iry, and supplied a part of chapter xxii. from Latin editions. He 
imself acknowledges the former point in his Annotations upon the 
Few Testament, and the latter in his Epistles. 

IV.) The edition of Erasmus is often so different from the Com- 
lutensian edition, and from all the MSS., especially those which 
ave been duly collated, and from all the versions and fathers whose 
pinions are on record, and from the remaining copies of Andreas 
imself, that it agrees with the Latin MSS., and those of an inferior 
haracter, and which are refuted by the Latin MSS. of a better 
lass, sometimes also with Ticonius, or his faulty edition ; and it 
itroduces into the text Greek words which are at variance with 
tie usage of the Greek language. 

V.) Not a few of such passages occur to us while we make these 
emarks ; and in such passages, there is no doubt that the Reuch- 
nian MS. was worn out by its antiquity, and that Erasmus patched 
p its deficiency from Latin copies. In this passage, therefore, 
Erasmus has given 'TtXripuisovrai from the Latin compleantur, and he 
as easily laid hold of the middle voice, answering to the nearest verb 
mvahemTai. As often as anything of this kind occurs to Erasmus, 
is revision has not even the weight of a single MS. ; nor do any 
enturies of subsequent editions make his conjecture better, in 
pposition to all the MSS. I sometimes speak ToXiJ^nponpov, more 
oldly and confidently, not indeed through want of modesty, but 
bat they may be excited to perceive the truth, who too supersti- 
Lously defend the particular edition, whatever it is, to which they 
ave once been accustomed. uXvipuSZai is used in this passage with 
eference to the completing of the number of the martyrs. 

12. Tnv i-Arnh the sixth) See notes at ver. 9. D. Lange, Comm. 


Apoc, f. 11, says, that it is proved by the agreement of almost all in- 
terpreters, that the events of the sixth seal are future. But almost 
all interpreters, with the exception of those who refer it to the very 
consummation of the world, interpret it of the past ; as even the 
Apocalyptic Parallels of Sentiments by Jungnitius teach, p. 138, 
and following. As far as relates to the subject, he has not proved 
that this seal refers to those things which are about to take place 
before the end of the world, and have not however as yet taken 
place : and yet on this theory he has built up the whole mass of 
his superstructure, fol. foil. Wherefore this ought to have been 
demonstrated as firmly as possible. We lately vindicated the pas- 
sage from Matt, sxiv., to which there is a parallel in Luke xxi. — 
rtXioc — !j (rs?.!jvji,-' the sun — the moon) They are here taken in their 
literal sense. There is a description of the alarm occasioned to 
the dead by that condition of the universe which there shall be at 
the last day : an alarm occasioned at the time when the Apocalypse 
was written : which even at that early time truly said, it is coming. 
[It is plain that these things cannot be referred to the destruction of 
the world itself; for there follows at length (not until after the sixth) 
the seventh seal, containing many things, and those of importance: 
nor to any other judgment, to he put into execution against enemies ; 
of zohom, in fact, the mention is made afterwards. In like manner, 
lender the fifth seal, it was revealed to the souls under the altar, out 
of favour to them, what was being done on their account. The 
beginning is made from the earth ; as ch. xx. 11. —V. g.]^ 


1. "AvB/Mog, the tvind) The winds in this passage denote the as-- 
suaging mitigations of threatening evils ; for the holding of them 
back hurts, ver. 2. A remarkable allegory. 

' The epithet, oXn, is considered of less importance in the margin of Ed. maj. 
than in Ed. 2 and Vers. Germ. — E. B. 

ABCA Vulg. support J'tdj : Rec. Text omits it.— E. 

2 Ver 15. 'ix.pvipai' iavToiig, hid themselves) Where was now the spirit of those 
whom the world had so greatly feared ? V. g. 

"Ver. 17. rls, who) They who are freed from wrath to come, having fellowship 
with the Lamb. — V. g. 


2. "AXXoD, another) This other angel is distinguished either from 
the angel who makes proclamation, ch. v. 2 ; or from the four 
angels who hurt, in this passage. 

^3. ^(ppayiaoi/Aiv, we may seal) By this sealing, the servants of 
God out of the tribes of Israel are preserved, all along from the time 
of John, against the calamities which threaten under the seven 
trumpets. Before this there had been no need of sealing, before the 
danger. The ancestors are sealed at one time, and their posterity 
at another. If the ancestors were slain, there would be no posterity. 
Under the trumpet of the fifth angel, not even are those slain who 
are not sealed ; much less, therefore, are they slain who are sealed. 

4. 'JgpanX) Israel in the strict sense is denoted. For this book 
pronounces literally respecting Israel many things, which some take 
in a figurative sense. Israelism, as H. More terms it, Book i., 
Synops. proph., cap. 4, ought not to be too much extended. Lampe 
rightly says, that the Jews ought to be sought for in the Apocalypse, 
more than most interpreters have found them. Medit. anecd. in 
Apoc, p. 261. 

5. 6. Audixa yQkiaiic, twelve thousand) We ought to take the 
twelve thousand twelve times with such exactness, that they may 
amount altogether not to 143 or 145, but to 144 thousands. Round 
numbers often have an exact value : see Jer. lii. 30, where a total 
of 4600 souls is made up of numbers by no means round, preceding 
in the same place. Perhaps there are so many heads or fathers 
(just as in Rom. xi. 4, men, not souls, are enumerated), together 
with their posterity. [The twelve tribes \_die zioolf Stamme] are men- 
tioned hy six pairs. — Not. Crit.J 

6. NifiSaXl/j,- Mavaffff^, Napthali : Manasseh) Dan is omitted, be- 
cause that tribe had now long ago fallen away to the single family of 
Hussim, as the Hebrews say ; and this family itself seems to have 
perished by wars before the times of Esdras. For in the Chronicles, 
where the posterity of the patriarchs is mentioned, Dan is omitted. 
And perhaps this is predicted in Amos viii. 14. John of Antioch 
relates that a few survived of the tribe of Dan, and that they fled into 
Phoenicia. — Grotius. It is not so much that Dan is omitted, as 
that his small numbers, concealed under Manasseh, are joined with 
Napthali, whose brother he was by the same mother. [For Nap- 

^ a.'!r6 AaonoKiig ii'Kim, from the rising of the sun) It was from the east, there- 
fore, that the plagues began.— V. g.^-r^j/ yriv xal t^s SaXaaaai/, the earth and 
the sea) Here the trees are also mentioned. The earth is Asia ; the sea 
Europe; the rivers (ch. viii. 10) and the trees, Africa, — V. g. 

234 APOCALTPSE VII. 9-12. 

tliali alone, unless this is here tacitly implied, throughout the uthole 
series, would not have his brother by the same mother mentioned in 
connectio7i with him. As for the rest, Levi, in this enumeration, oc- 
cupies his own place again, and two portions are given to Joseph, the 
one in his own name, the other under the name of Manasseh. — Y. g.j 

9. Metos raCra iliov, Kai Idoi. o^'^o; 'TToXiig — iffrSiTig — '7repil3sj3XrifisiiOijg, 
x.T.X.) A Middle reading :^ whence some reduce the whole para- 
graph to the nominative, others to the accusative. The mixture 
of cases displeases Wolf : which indeed is frequent in this book. In 
this passage is described o%Xoj, a host of the blessed, to which there 
is a Simultaneum^ with the sealing previously described, and with 
the subsequent trumpets, under which the plague does not toucli 
those that are sealed. Into this place this o'/Xog falls, in its own 
order, after their happy departure from the world. Afterwards 
more companies of this kind are mentioned : ch. xiv. 1, xv. 2, etc. 
The degrees of happiness are various and very different ; but the 
lowest of them, speaking by comparison, is now above all need of 
cleansing. — ix •jravTog 'ihoug^ xal cpuXuv -/.at Xauv aal yXuffsuv) In such 
an enumeration, the other passages either have the plural number 
four times, or the singular four times : see notes on ch. v. 9. In 
tliis passage alone the singular is put first, and then the plural 
three times, and not without reason. This multitude is led forth 
out of the whole human race. That race is one 'ihog, all along from 
its origin : Acts xvii. 26. But in progress of time, while Adam 
himself was alive, it was multiplied, and separated itself both into 
tribes and peoples, and languages. 

10. Kpd'(ouisi) So all the MSS. A copyist of Andreas has in his 
haste caught up xpat^ovng, from the rhythm, Xiyovreg. The Augustan 
copy of Andreas itself has x/ja^ouff/.* 

''12. 'H Tif/,ri) The Apocalypse everywhere divides sevens into 

1 C and Rec. Text have o;^;>ioj ■7ro7,is : Ah Vulg. Oypr. 272, 310, have o;kXoi/ 
ToXw. 'EittStej, Ah Vulg. Cypr. : 'Eo-raraj, C : ''EariiTsts, B. Hspi^s^'kvi- 
fcet/ov;, ABC : — fiiuoi, Vulg. and Rec. Text. — E. 

2 See Append, of Technical Terms. — B. 

3 Vulg. has "gentibus;" A Cypr. 272, 310, "tribu, populo, lingua." But 
ABO support Beng. — B. 

* ABO Vulg. Memph. Syr. read xpci^ovai!/. Rec. Text, without good author- 
ity, apa^onres. — E. 

' it am-ripix, salvation) God enriched them with the salvation which they 
proclaim. More sublime doxologies follow at length. — V. g. 

Ver. 11. Trdiirt;, all) This word is not yet found ,in ch. v. 11 [where men- 
tion is made of " many angels," not " all"]. V. g. 


four and three, as we show in its proper place. Now, when all 
the angels say, ri sikoyia %al ri fio^a xal fj do^ioc. xal 7} eh^afiffrm, (xa/) 
fj Tifjjri xa\ !) h\jva,iiii xai i) leyjic, tSi Qiip 'hiJMv, the first four acclama- 
tions have reference to the trumpet of the first, the second, the 
third, and the fourth angel ; the remaining three, to the trumpet of 
the fifth, the sixth, and the seventh angel. Therefore if -/.at is omitted 
before n "^'Mj the sentiment begins as it were afresh. The Latin, 
indeed, omits the particle "and," and with him Ambrose Anslert. 
Nor does that appear worthy of neglect : for often, in a passage con- 
taining many connecting conjunctions, some clauses'are put with- 
out a conjunction : Ex. xxiii. 23, xxxii. 2 ; Jer. i. 10. The Greek 
copyists easily supplied nai : and in this passage befittingly in the 
seven words, — the hymn is distinguished into a set of four and a set 
of three. I definitively decide nothing in this case. Let the reader 
judge. [Moreover, this hymn is appropriately inserted in the descrip- 
tion of the multitude adorned with white robes : when immediately 
afterwards the trumpets are delivered to the seven angels. — V. g.] 

■'lY. "Or/) ''3 preceded by not, often has the meaning of but. — 
ava fjiiem rou Sfiovov) h /j,e(Sijj rou Spovou John saw rb apvlov : ch. v. 7. 
In this place alone he says, avA ij/ieov toD ifovoxi : comp. ava /jjiaov, 
1 Cor. vi. 5. — i'!r) Zani^ mr^jki uddroiv) The natural construction 
would be, s'?rl '7rr}yag uidrav trnii \ but X,<mi is put first for the sake 
of emphasis (as aapxhs, 1 Pet. iii. 21), and VT^yag uSdruv is, as it 
were, one compound word, so that it may be, zu den Lehens-Wasser- 
hrunnen. See App., Ed. ii. — sx) Again see App., Ed. ii. Wolf 
joins airl and Ix, below, ch. xxii. 19. And thus in one sentence 
John may have written hi, and below airo.^ 

^ Ver. 14. o/ epxi/iefoi, those who are coming) Therefore their numher is not 
yet complete, and for this very cause so much the less to be exactly defined 
(ver. 9). — en ru alfixri to5 dpviov, in the Mood of the Lamb) The number of this 
multitude cannot be reckoned ; and therefore it comprises the blessed dead even 
of the Old Testament : and they have their own part also in the blood of the 
Lamb. — V. g. 

Ver. 15. iia roun, therefore) No one is permitted to come forth into sight, 
unless he is clothed with a white robe. — V. g. 

^ AB Vulg. read ^wijj : Rec. Text, without old authorities, ^aaag. Cypr. 
changes the order, " fontes vitse." — E. 

* ABGh Vulg. Oypr. 310, have sk : Rec. Text, without good authority, xtto. 
— E. 



1. S;/)!, silence) Silence is opposed to a voice. The more frequent 
voices are in this book, for instance, ch. vii. 10 and foil, verses, 
the more remarkable is this silence of awful expectation, preceding 
the clang of trumpets. D. Lange interprets it as the keeping rest 
[sahbatism\ of a thousand years (Hermen. Einleit. pp. 30, 68, etc.), by 
an error (I am compelled to speak the truth), which introduces great 
confusion. Neither is the silence a sabbath, nor is the half-hour the 
millennium. See Erkl. Offenb. p. 407 and following. 

2. •''E'STii eaX-Kiyyig, seven trumpets) By these trumpets the king- 
dom of the world is shaken, until under the trumpet of the seventh 
angel, after the most formidable hindrances, it is reduced to the 
Lord and to His Christ. The trumpets of the first, the second, the 
third, and the fourth angel, are closely connected with one another ; 
and so likewise the trumpets of the fifth, the sixth, and the seventh 
angel, which alone have looe, looe, woe. 

3. Ka; aXXog ayyiXog '/jXh, xa! iffrdirj iiri Toy Sueiaffrriplov £%wi' XiBava- 
rov j/fuffoDv xal sdoSri avrOi Su/J^id/J^ara "S-oXXa, ha SuiSr} zcug irpoaiMyjuq rSi 
ayim, x.r.X., and another angel came and stood at the altar, having a 
golden censer ; and there was given unto him much incense, that he 
should offer it [simultaneously] with the prayers of sahits, etc.) 
Respecting the angel who offers the prayers of the saints, the 
Hebrews, in Elle Shemoih Rabha, sect. 21, speak after this manner: 
When the Israelites pray, they are not all found to pray altogether, 
hut each synagogue (or congregation, nD33) prays separately, first this 
synagogue, then another ; and when all the synagogues have finished all 
their prayers, 

N^s Tiy Pxi i^i^'' iEJ'3 b nnj^ 'KitJ' "n"a "pn hw iK'Kia ranui nntDy tnis 

The angel who presides over the prayers, bears all the prayers which 

they have prayed in all the synagogues, and forms them into crowns, 

and places them (instead of p^ni: I think that pn): should be read) 

on the head of God S. B., as it is said in Ps. Ixv. 2, all flesh shall 

come as thy crown (for yill is so explained in that passage, as is more 

' Tois iTfra. dyyi'hm;, the. seven angels) These are honoured with great prero- 
gative. One of them is Gabriel : Liilie i. 19. — V. g. 


plainly apparent from what follows ; whereas in reality it ought to 
be explained, to thee) : but the word yiV denotes nothing but a crown, 
as it is said, Isa. xlix. 18, and thou shalt clothe thee with them as with 
a crown. — Christopher Cai-twright, in Mellif. Hebr., lib. iii. c. 8. 
Therefore the Hebrews say that there is an angel who presides over 
the prayers of their assemblies : the Apocalypse only says, that there 
is an angel who offers incense, while the saints pray : raT; vpoeBuxa'';, 
ver. 3, 4, is the Ablative case, denoting accompaniment, as Eom. xi. 
11, 30, 31, Tui auTciiv '?rapa,'7tTUfi,ari, tTj to-jtoiv aituhiq,, rp ifiSTipa iKsii. 
We have noted down more examples from other quarters at Chry- 
sost. de Sacerdot., p. 514. There are some who here understand 
ffiii/ : you might as conveniently understand sm ; but neither of the 
two is necessary. Nay, rather the Ablative case put absolutely, 
raTi ■Kpog-cvxal'i, has greater force. The incense of the angel, and the 
prayers of the saints on earth, are simultaneous : but the prayers of 
the saints are acceptable to God through Jesus Christ, not through 
the angel. [See what is the character of genuine prayer. It is the 
prayer of saints, lohich the incense of the angel accompanies, and 
Christ Himself renders acceptable in the presence of the Father. 
Dost thou then pray in such a manner, that thy prayers may come as 
a mepiorial before GoD ? — V. g.] Under the name of angels, Thum- 
mius, in adm. de Error. Wigel, p. 280, affirms that created 
angels are pointed out in the New Testament, and especially in the 
Apocalypse : and in this very passage this is acknowledged by Nic. 
Selneccer in his Commentaries on the Ap., by L. and Andr. Osian- 
der, by Beea, Hogelius, p. 277 ; also by Chemnitius, Part iii. Exam. 
Cone. Trid., f. 189, whom on this account Melch. Kromajec. in Ap. 
p. Ill, praises, and Arnd. de V. C. i. ii. c. 35. To these are to be 
added D. Joach. Lange and Dimpelius. The liturgy [divine service 
performed] in heaven, with its effect in the world, is here set forth. 
— i'TTi to) a skilful variety of cases : the angel stood i-:rl tov Sveiae- 
rriplou, by the side of [near — a<] the altar ; and offered the incense 
Irri 70 Svaiadrripiov, upon the altar. 

7. 'O 'Trpurog) " KyyiKoi^ is supplied in the text of Andreas : for thus 
the beginning of the 8th discourse required with him. Erasmus 
followed that : Wolf defended it. But the Greek copies of the 
New Testament (all, as we may suppose) omit ayyiKoi. And this 
agrees with the very intimate connection which exists between 
ver. 6 and 7, especially urging on the first angel. In the mention 

i AB Syr. omit ayyiMi. Vulg. h and Rec. Text add it. — B. 


of the following angels with trumpets, ayyiXog is expressed, by rea- 
son of the longer intervals between the discourse and the events. 
That the event of the trumpets began a very short time after the 
writing of the book, is evident from this, that the sealing defended 
the servants of God against the plagues which followed, not under 
the seals, but under the trumpets, and under the very trumpet of 
the first angel. Add, that the sealing precedes the opening of the 
seventh seal. But the seals begin immediately after the giving of the 
Apocalypse : therefore the sealing also must proceed to come to 
pass presently after. 

The trumpet of the first angel befittingly assails the Jews : and 
comprises the Jewish wars under Trajan and Adrian, on which 
the Hist. Annot. of S. E. Abbot Zeller on i?. Abraham ben Dior 
Comment, rerum Rom., p. 69-79, are especially to be read. He 
copiously recounts the other writers, to which you may add Hottin- 
ger Hist. Eccl. N. T., sect. ii. p. 66, and of the ancients, Orosius, 
lib. vii. c. 12 and 13. — -/.al rh rpkov rjjg jy\c xarixdn) All authorities, 
or at least those which are entire, and have been thoroughly exa- 
mined, and among them Andreas, exhibit this clause. But the 
book of Capnio was without it : and Erasmus follows the hiatus, 
and Wolf defends it. This clause is as readily omitted, as the fol- 
lowing clause is by others, -/.al rh rplrov tSiv divdpaiv -/.ari-Aari, namely, 
through the recurrence of the verb xanxarj. Neither ought to be 
omitted :' and the former clause, respecting the burning of the earth, 
is to be retained ; because the trumpet of the first angel especially 
refers to the earth (wherefore the passage, ch. ix. 4, is not suitably 
compared with this one), and the earth comprises many other things 
besides trees and grass. 

8. "Hs opos, as a mountain') A mass of barbarian nations is meant ; 
concerning the migration and irruption of which, attended with the 
greatest injuries, from the third century, history is so full, that it is 
needless to quote particular authors. The mountain thrown into the 
sea is aptly expressed from the Varia of Cassiodorius, where a suifi- 
ciently obvious mention is made at the same time of the Goths and 

9. AiiipSdprsgaii') See App. Ed. ii. The Singular number, at the 
beginning of a sentence, creates no difficulty : for the singular is fol- 
lowed by the plural also in ver. 7, lysviro x«'>'-^^oi, xal TrDp fusfjuy/nha h 

1 ABh Vulg. support both clauses. Rec. Text omits x.ul to rphoi/ t. yw 

" A has iiKp^ctamxi/. Bh Vulg. have li£<pedpy) : so Rec. Text.— E. 

APOCALYPSE VIII. 10-13. 239 

a"i!j,aTi. That is a similar instance which Wolf notices, a third part 
of the men were slain : ch. ix. 18. 

10. ' O Tflrc/:, the third) The connection of events, times, and places, 
proves that the Arian and Vandal calamities are here pointed out. 
That Arius is the star, is the true judgment of BuUinger, Nigrinus, 

Viegas (although, following the opinion of Lyranus and Aureolus, he 
enters into a disputation also respecting Pelagius), also of Forbes, 
Cocceius, Gulichius, Sandhagen, iV. Muler, Bierman, Amelius, Ilor- 
c.hias, Vitringa, Reinheck, Stock, Lceseken : and before all these, Seb. 
Meyer thought that Arius, together with other heretics, is here 
pointed out. The interpretation of Brightman concerning the Arian 
Emperors, Constantius and Valens, is weightily refuted by Marck. 
//' these emperors are considered as a star on account of their princely 
majesty, I do not see on what grounds their fall can be referred to their 
departure from the faith, and not rather to the loss of their imperial 
glory. By which very argument also James Abbadie is refuted, who, 
in his work published not only in French but also in Belgic, in- 
terprets the star as referring to Count Boniface, by whose invitation 
the Vandals seized upon Africa. Independently of this, there was a 
great influx of Arianism into the state also : so that we cannot be 
surprised that this heresy has a place among the trumpets. 

11. Ka; ri 'oiiof/,a roO asrspog Xsysrai 6 a.'^ivSog,' and the name of the star 
is called Wormwood) Arianism, full of bitterness. Theodoret, book 
ii. H. E. c. 14, respecting the Ajians who drove out the bishops 
under Georgius of Cappadocia, says, ourw niKPns ^Xaeav auToig, 
X.T.X., with suck bitterness tJpey drove them out, etc. Victor, book i., 
respecting the Vandal persecution, thus expresses pity for Augustine, 
in the siege of Hippo : The sweetness of delight is changed into the 
BITTERNESS OF WORMWOOD. " A-^ivSos is formed from a privative, 
and -^hSog, which is rip-^ig in Hesychius. And the Greek word, 
a-^ivSjov, appears to have been changed into a word of three syllables 
from the Hebrew pronunciation i''nj''DaN or Kn3''DSS. 

12. 'EffXiiyjj, rvas smitten) That was done in the fifth century, 
when Italy and Rome, the seat of empire, were occupied and ob- 
scured by foreign nations. 

13. 'AsTou) Others, ayyiXou.^ But see App. Crit. Ed. ii. on this 
passage. The Italian Version, and other most ancient authorities, 
widely apart from each other in age and clime, and in very great 

' AB Vulg. Mempli. Syr. support asnO. Rec. Text, without good authority, 


numbers, clearly vindicate the reading aiTou from all suspicion of a 
gloss. Another angel flying in the midst of heaven, ch. xiv. 6, alto- 
gether refers to the present passage : but the reading atrou does not 
destroy this reference. The very appellation, an eagle, and not an 
angel, in this former passage, shows that it is not an angel, in the 
proper sense' of the expression, who is meant ; and the reference in 
the other passage to this former one teaches, that by the word another 
angel is denoted, an illustrious herald belonging to the human race, 
as distinguished interpreters acknowledge. — /x.isovpa.v^/ Mieovpdvri/jba 
is a verbal, derived from the verb /Lisovpavin, which is said respecting 
a star which has risen three signs of the zodiac before the sun, and 
thus possesses the meridian, as Tzetzes demonstrates in his Exegesis 
of Hesiod, on the passage, 

Eur' CSV 5' 'nplco'j xai 2eipio; h /j,eeo\i sX^ri 
oupavov : 

'ipy. 607, 608. — o'jai oval oxiai, woe, woe, woe) About the end of the fifth 
century there were not wanting presages of future calamities. The 
second woe is more disastrous than the first ; the third than the 
second. — I's-/ rrig yrii, upon the earth) D. Lange says : Bengel not only 
refers to past times the three woes, lohich refer to the vengeance yet to 
come upon the beast and the whore, but he also recalls the beginning of 
the papacy itself to the third woe, and so declares that the third woe 
has come a thousand years ago, and more than this. But when it is 
said of the second woe, Ap. xi. 14, " The second woe is past ; behold 
the third woe cometh quickly:" and immediately after the seventh 
trumpet follows, which refers to the completion of the judgments, and 
the enlargement of the kingdom of Christ, it can easily be imagined that 
the third woe cannot be thrown back so far. — Epicr. p. 406. I reply : 
The three woes have reference to the inhabiters of the earth ; and I 
have shown that they have come long ago, and that the third woe 
has come, not indeed a thousand years ago, but yet almost eight 
hundred. The trumpet of the seventh angel, after the second woe 
is past, first sets forth things which are most desirable : then it de- 
scribes the third woe ; and when that is exhausted, a completion of 
the judgments is made and an enlargement of the kingdom of Christ. 
The interpretation of the Divine of Halle changes this order ; and, 
without any cause, restricts the three woes denounced against the 
inhabiters of earth to the last times of the enemies ; and accounts 
as the second woe the rage of the beast, which is really in the third 
woe. By which method the well-arranged order of the text is 

APOCALYPSE IX. 1-9. 241 

violently disjointed. — tTis eaXmyyog, of the trumpet) The singular 
number, put distributively for the plural, of the trumpets. 


1. ToS (ppsarog) Q>piap, as it were the orifice of the abyss. 

2. Kal ssxoTisSri 6 riXiog xai o anp, and the sun was darkened and the 
air) It is an instance of ev Si& SuoTv, as ch. i. 14, His head and His 
hair: ch. xix. 16, His vesture and His thigh. The air was obscured, 
in so far as it is illuminated by the sun ; the sun, in so far as it trans- 
mits its light through the air to men. Hence kxoTisSri is used, not 
ta-Mria^nea,]!. Wherefore there is no need to inquire separately here, 
what the sun is, and its obscuring ; what the air is, and its obscuring. 
The darkness, which arose to the Jews in Persia, is here pointed out. 
[Cent, vi.] 

5, 10. BaffavisSZar adixrisai) The one fact is expressed in a twofold 
manner, passively and actively. The locusts adixouei, hurt: men 
Saeavi^ovrai, are tormented. So, to slay and to be slain, ver. 15, 18 ; 
to have those who nourish, and to be nourished, ch. xii. 6, 14. 

5. Mrifa; mvri) Some Lat. MSS. have six months, /was long 
ago, but easily added to V. The number five is repeated, ver. 
10. Five months in prophecy are 79 complete ordinary years, from 
A. 510 to 589. The men who were tormented were Israelites, who 
had not received the Divine seal : the locusts were Persians, who 
dreadfully harassed them. 

8. 'ns rpj^ag yvmiKuv, as the hair of women) that is, hair growing 
long. Thus the Arabians in Pliny : and thus the Persians were ui 
former times, ^schylus, according to Athenseus, 1. xiv. £ 627, 
PaSv^aiTtiei? fLr]bog. The Persians were called by the Delphic oracle 
■M/j-nrai. — Herodotus 1. vi. f. 176. See altogether Thom. Hyde Hist. 
Eelig. of the ancient Persians, p. 369. The kingdom of the Persians, 
Dan. vii. 5, is represented as a shaggy bear. 

9. Tpi-xovTuv) That the construction may be plain, the apij^ara "m-nm 
■jToXXuv rpi'/ovra ilg iroXifiiov have (pmnv, a sound. Andreas here calls 
them apiJiara <!roXi/jjna. The running horses draw the chariot : but 
the chariots themselves in their course strictly and closely cause the 
noise (" sound"). See Joel ii. 5. 

VOL. v. Q 

242 APOCALYPSE IX. 11-14. 

11. i'A,3aSMi/— AtoXXuwi/) The Septuagint renders Abaddon by 
a.'KdiXiia : here it is put in the concrete, ' KmXkhm. — h h'l rri 'EXXrivari) 
The feminine, put for the neuter, by a Hebraism, as immediately 
afterwards ri thai : or by ellipsis of the noun yXurra, of the omission 
of which by the Greeks, L. Bos notes down instances. By the 
Hebrew and Greek nomenclature of this angel, Patrick Forbes and 
James Durham acknowledge that the Jews and Greeks, harassed by 
the locusts, are pointed out. 

12. 'h olal n iMo) The feminine, as was just before noticed. We 
shall express the woe sometimes in the neuter gender, with the Latin 
translators, sometimes in the feminine ; just as it shall tend to the 
perspicuity of my discourse. One woe, that is, the first. 

13. Kai, and) The second woe relates to the Saracens. — ix tZ\i 
nssdpm aiparm) The ancients omit rzesapm :' the altar of incense had 
horns ; in the writings of Moses it is not read of as having four 

13, 14. Oci)i/))i/ ijJav — XiyovTo) I regard this reading of the Alex- 
andrian Manuscript as genuine. See App. Grit. Ed. ii. In the 
Cod. of Berlin, the masculine gender is transferred from the 
participle to the adjective, a stop being inserted between, vocem, 
unwm,^ etc. — sviuwov — , before — ) where the heavenly liturgy is 

14. 'O £%iyi'*) See App. In what manner rip ayyiXwo ep^wK is said, 
will be plain from the note on ch. xx. 2. — //.syaXw) I have said that 
this frequent epithet of the Euphrates is more necessary at ch. xvi. 
12 than at ch. ix. 14. Wolf thinks that it is equally adapted to the 
two passages : but the greatness, or the width and depth of the river, 
certainly increases the miraculousness of its being dried up : Ps. Ixxiv. 
15. But here the same greatness of the river does not so greatly 
apply to the angels who are bound in the river : nay, it is even more 
inappropriate, if the angels were bound in that quarter, where that 
river is less; a matter which no one can either affirm or deny. 
However it is, the commentary of Apringius is added to the-autho- 

1 ToV dyythov rijf dfimirov, the angel of tlie bottomless pit) This is not Satan 
himself. — V. g. 

' A Vulg. (Amiat. MS.) Memph. Syr. omit na^apm. BA Cypr. support it. 
— E. 

2 A reads y.ia.ii—r.kyanct,. But U Vulg. Cypr. 322, " vocem, ajzMm— dicen- 
tcm." Rec. Text, T^iyomau, with inferior authorities. — E. 

* ix'"", AB. Ss iTxh Rec. Text. Vulg. Cypr. h, " qui habebat " (L " por- 
tabat."— B. 

APOCALYPSE IX. 15, 16. 213 

rities which are without this adjective.^ The great river Euphrates 
is also read, Deut. i. 7 ; Josh. i. 4 ; but it is the river Euphrates, 
Deut. xi. 24, in the Hebrew : for in that place also in the Greek roD 
/isyaXou is added. Nor is the article repeated without reason, rffl 
Tora^p rip Eufipdrfi ; for thus we read. Gen. xix. 9, rhv avdprx tov Awr. 
In Ezek. it is often read, lirl rou mrai^ou rou Xo^dp. It is Apposition. 

15. Tr)v) The article removes the distributive force, as E. Schmid 
teaches in his Notes on the New Testament, f. 806 ; wherefore it is 
not any hour, day, month, year, whatever that is meant, but a defi- 
nite period of times ; that is, a period of about 207 years, if it seem 
correct, from A. 629 to a. 836, or from a. 634 to a. 840, that is, 
irom the last time of Abubeker^ to' the death of Motassem.^ See 
especially the Saracenic Chronicle of Drechsler enlarged by SeisJce, 
pp. 14-37, and Hottinger Eccl. Hist. Sec. vii. viii. and ix., and 
Comp. Theatr. Orient. Part i. ch. 3. 

16. Aaf/jiupid&sg /^vpiddiav) A chiliad is 1000; but a myriad, 10,000. 
Myriads (the plural number being talien in its strictest sense, for a 
twofold number, as ch. xii. 14), 20,000. Therefore one chiliad of 
chiliads is 1,000,000 ; a chiliad of myriads is 10,000,000 ; a myriad 
of myriads, 100,000,000; myriads of myriads, 200,000,000. But what 
are dis/ivpiddii f/^upiddm, bk being added in the best copies* to the plural 
number of myriads'? A(o/Aij/j/o;often occurs in the 2d Book of Maccabees. 
Thence iisij^vpidg (like iia-x/Xidc,, the former part of the compound being 
unchangeable, as is the case with numerals), that is, -a myriad doubled 
[400 millionen, auf das wenigste. — Not. Crit.] : such as also are those 
expressions. Gen. xxxii. 2, two camps ; Eccles. vi. 6, a thousand years 
twice (told) ; Ps. Ixviii. 1 7, two myriads, thousands upon thousands : 
Geier especially being the interpreter. Whoever translated it in Pri- 
masius, as 80,000, was neither a Grecian nor an arithmetician : and 
yet he also appears to have read bis/Mvpiditg //.vpidScov, as others did in 
Primasius; and, unless I am deceived, he at first thought that myriads 
of myriads, which appeared to denote something squared, were four 
myriads, or 40,000 : then having doubled this very sum, on account 
of the particle Slg, he took it as 80,000, when there were in reality 
400,000,000 horsemen. The Apocalypse expresses in a twofold 
manner several periods of times, especially under the first and third 

' A Vulg. h, Cypr. 322, support fieyxT^iji, with Eec. Text. — E. 
' Abubeker, the friend and successor of Mahomet. — T. 
' Motassem, the last of the Caliphs. — T. 

* A and Cypr. have lurfivpixZis- : Vulg. " vicies millies dena millia :" Rec. 
Text, Si/o fivp. : B, ftvpiuhf. — E. 

•Hi APOCALYPSE IX, 17-21. 

woe : but it marks the duration of the second woe once only, by an 
hour, and a day, and a month, and a year ; and in turn under that 
woe, instead of a second indication of time, it indicates the number of 
equestrian armies, that is, of the horsemen. The second woe is a 
period of about 207 years of men : therefore for every year (if there 
arose other or fresh horsemen every year) the immense body of 
2,000,000, or at least, if that ilg is not satisfactory to any one, 
1,000,000 horsemen, are collected. When John adds, that their 
number was heard hy him, he hints, that the certain number speci- 
fied, if it is put for an uncertain one, yet has not a wide uncertainty; 
and that the greatness of the number, however incredible it may 
appear, is still to be credited. At the last even a greater multitude 
springs forth : ch. xx. 8. 

17. TlvpivDu; xal baxivSlnoug xal hiudiic, of fire, atld of jacinth, and of 
brimstone) Lucretius joins together the same colours in another 
matter : lib. iv. — 

Lutea russaque vela 
Et ferruginea — 

(yellow, red, and black hangings). Ferruginea are the same as hyacin- 
thina. Virgil says, ferrugineos hyacinthos; that is, according to Servius, 
of a dark colour. Wherefore in this passage, the breast-plates of jacinth 
and the smoke answer to one another; as the breast-plates of fire and the 
fire, and the breastplates of brimstone and the brimstone. Literal and 
figurative things are blended together in this and the following verses. 

19. A/' yap oupal ahruv o/ioiai ofiiaiti, e^oudai xitpaXag, Hal h aura?; 
kh-Mvai, for their tails (are) like serpents, and have heads, and with 
*hem they do hurt) Such is the serpent, the amphisboena, a/j,pxdprjvo;, 
jf which Pliny speaks, hb. ^'iii. c. 23 : TJie amphisboena has a double 
head, that is, one from the tail also, as though it were not enough that 
poison should be poured from one mouth. Lucan : And the dreadful 
amphisbcena rising upon its double head. Sohnus, ch. 30: The 
amphisbcena rises upon its two heads, of which the one is in its proper 
place, the other is in that part lohere the tail is ; by which it is occa- 
sioned, that by the leaning of the head on both sides it creeps along in 
circular trails. Add Nicander, and Hesychius, who says that it is 
i'lhbg otpiui — Tjjv ohpav KoXolSnv 'iyov, %a\ raur-fl voXXdxig rr}v iropilav -roiov- 
//.em, WOTS rival af^^islSrinTv, /^fi dvo XKpaXd; 'iyji. Of whatever kind 
the head in the tail of the amphisboena is, it illustrates this picture 
in the Apocalypse. 

20, 21. oiirE — -/m) ov) a Predicate of two members — in Latin, 
neque, neque (neither, nor). There are similar particles, John iv. 11; 


3 John ver. 10 ; Mark v. 3, 4. [Their repentance had been the 
aim of the plagues. — ^V. g.j — to, s'lSuXa, idols) The worship of images 
was solemnly established in the East, A. 842. — r^j mpulag) The 
plural, mpviTa.., is used, 1 Cor. vii. 2 ; and yet in this place the sin- 
gular number is placed between plurals. Other acts of wickedness ' 
are performed by men at intervals : there is one perpetual mpnia in 
the case of those who are without purity of heart. 


1. Ka;, and) From ch. x. 1, to ch. xi. 13, is a remarkable passage, 
in which there is a foretaste of the awful trumpet of the seventh 
angel. For while the dragon is even yet in heaven, and the beast 
with seven heads and the beast with two heads are about to ascend 
out of the sea and the earth, nor does there appear to be any end of 
calamities in the world : an angel, whom Cluver, T. iii. f. 4, acknow- 
ledges to be a created angel, lays his right hand upon heaven, his right 
foot upon the sea, and his left upon the earth, showing, and affirming 
by an oath, that all these enemies \liowever they may rage, namely, the 
dragon in heaven, the beast in the sea and upon the earth. — V. g.], 
should notwithstanding be removed within a Chronus. [The heaven, 
he implies by his action, the earth and sea, belong to God, the Creator 
(ver. 6), and continue so. — V. g.J This passage has two parallel 
parts : ch. x. 1—7, and ver. 8, ch. xi. 13. Whence also the two 
periods, time — no longer [no whole period any longer], and, a multitude 
of kings, are parallel : ch. x. 6, 11. Both periods begin before the 
close of the second woe, ch. xi. 14 : but, when they have once be- 
gun, they extend themselves far in a continued course to the very 
trumpet of the seventh angel, as far as that great goal, respecting 
which,- ch. xii. 14. Therefore, on account of the continued connec- 
tion with those circumstances, which precede the rising of the beast 
out of the sea, many things are here represented, without any in- 
terruption of the order of the book, which occur again at a much 
later portion of the book. Thus the consummation of the wrath of 
God, ch. XV. 1, precedes the joyful consummation of the mystery of 
God, ch. X. 7 : and this consummation is pointed out as future even 
in ch. xvii. 17. The ascent of the beast out of the bottomless pit, 
ch. xi. 7, is still future even in ch. xvii. 8. That earthquake, by 
which the great city is divided into three parts, ch. xvi. 19, precedes 

3)6 APOCALYPSE X. 2-6. 

this earthquake, by which a tenth part of the same city falls, and the 
remnant are converted : ch. xi. 13. This observation is sure, and 
very necessary ; and by its aid many and great errors, which are 
everywhere to be met with, are avoided. — ag arvXo mphg) In the 
Septuagint, the pillar, by which the Israelites were led by night in 
the wilderness, is called ervKog -Trvpog. The feet of this angel, like 
pillars, were parallel as he stood ; and round, of equal rotundity, as 
far as the sole. Comp. Ezek. i. 7. 

2. BjjSXapldiov) But in ver. 8, 9, 10, ^i^xiov. By this reading, the 
hook first appeared to John very small, compared with the vast 
stature in which the angel appeared, who in some measure grasped 
the heaven, the sea and earth. Afterwards the voice from heaven 
ca,lled it a book, on account of the greatness of the subject : and 
John with teachable mouth and hand imitated this title. In Andreas 
of Csesarea in the Augustan Codex, it is styled ^i^Xiddpiot (!<pcdpa 
iiroxopisTixug Xiy^6sii^ — iaXdse^g — y/js, on the sea — on the land) Le Buy, 
March, and Newton, correctly interpret the sea as Europe, the land 
as Asia : by which means the rivers denote Africa, and the sun be- 
longs to the whole world : ch. viii. 7, 8, 10, 12, xvi. 2, 3, 4, 8. The 
sea is Europe : the earth, Asia. So Huth Diss. ii. on Ap. xiv. 
p. 12. 

3. Mujtara;) ojpvscSa/ expresses the voice of an animal under the in- 
fluence of hunger or anger : iLvxaeiai, the natural voice. Each of 
them is also attributed to the lion. Theocritus ascribes ihlixruha to 
the lioness. 

.6. "On xfiitog ouziTi iSrai, That a chronus [whole period] shall be 
no longer) Many pass by this most weighty utterance with a slight 
comment. Henr. Efferhen, in his 6th and 13th Homily respecting 
Gog and Magog, thus interprets it : the space of a year shall not pass, 
namely, between Gog and the end of all things. He perceived that 
chronus here ought to be taken in a specific sense : but Gog is much 
later than the Non-chronus (which would be more in accordance with 
the Latin idiom to call Ne-chronus) ; and this period is much longer 
than a year. I should rather say, it is longer than 1000 years ; and 
snorter than chronus, that is, than 1111^- years.. It will end A. 
1836. From thence reckoning backward, it is chronus to the former 
part of the year 725 : and the beginning of the Non-chronus imme- 
diately succeeded the beginning of the Chronus. At the beginning 

» A Vulg. and C, doubly corrected, read p,\(i-Ka.pihov : B and A, /3;/3?i/o» : C 
corrected, fii^'hiiapiov. — E. 


of Non-chronus, the Saracens were not only in possession of Jerusa- 
lem, but even appeared to threaten destruction to the whole of the 
Christian Church, as the second woe came to its height. But yet the 
angel affirms that these and the following evils shall be overcome 
within a chronus. Eudes conquered the Saracens, A. 726 ; and 
Charles Martel destroyed a great multitude of them, A. 731, in the 
battle of Tours. See Vitringa on Ap. xii. 16. Charlemagne, the 
grandson of Martel, A. 800, commenced a new line of emperors in 
the West, or, in other words, of " many kings," ver. 11. And this 
Non-chronus comprises, beside other things, a small portion of the 
third woe, the 3^ times of the woman in the wilderness, and the 
duration of the beast variously divided. There is indeed great doubt 
respecting these periods, and many say that nothing can be known be- 
fore the end ; by which very assertion the martyrs and witnesses of 
the truth, at the Reformation, and before and after it, who relied 
on the Apocalypse, and especially on ch. xiii. and xvii., are de- 
serted, and the principal advantage of prophecy, which fore- 
warns and forearms us against the evils which threaten, is made 
void. The truth is, that for the opening of prophecy, either the 
whole event is necessary, or a considerable part is sufficient. If the 
whole event is necessary, the Apocalypse will never be understood 
before the end of the world ; for the event extends itself up to that 
goal, nay, even to eternity itself. If a considerable part is sufficient, 
why do we not make use of that part, so as to measure future things 
by the past, and not to run into events without preparation 1 The 
rash man is he who sleeps in danger, not he who foresees it. We 
ought not to be so confident in determining future things, but that 
the things, which the text has not defined, or at any rate the inter- 
preter does not as yet distinctly see, should be determined by the 
result. Die Erkl. Offenh. pp. 725, 874, 1064, etc., has many ex- 
amples. But they who avoid all particulars, do not even know what 
they ought to look for in the event. Docility in spiritual things, and 
sobriety, are in entire consonance with each other. ■ 

7. Ka/ iTeKiaSri) xai has a consecutive force, and then, as John iv. 
35, 'in TiTpofirivog ear;, -/.al 6 6spiB/JLbg ifyjTai. — rJ /ititiST'/Jpiov — roTg 'Trpoiprira.ig, 
the mystery — to the prophets) D. Joach. Lange, in his Glor-i/ of Christ, 
has illustrated this mystery in a striking manner, by most copiously 
comparing the Apocalypse with the prophets of the Old Testament. 
But we have shown the time of the completion of this mystery, lately 
at ver. 6, and in other places repeatedly. It was not only announced 
by prophets, but also to the prophets themselves : Dan. x. 12. 

2iS APOCALYPSE X. 9-11.-XI. 1. 

9. AoZmi) Some few read Shg, for the sake of an easy construction : 
by far the greatest number read dovmi : whence formerly the Latin 
translator rendered it, ut daret (to give), and thus also the Syriao 
Version. But the direct style agrees with the present address in 
preference to the indirect. As to what remains, the Infinitive is 
put for the Imperative. For this change of Mood is frequent with 
the Greeks, as we have shown on Chrysost. de Sacerd. p. 510, and 
the next page. Add BibUoth. Brem. Class, viii. p. 945, and follow- 
ing. The very word boZmi for bhi is found in Theocritus. The 
Hebrew idiom also admits of this, on which see Dign. Speidelii 
Gramm. Hebr. p. 139. And the Septuagint on Gen. xlv. 19, 
renders inp, Xa^iTv — %al fapayineh. Add Lukeix. 3 ; Eom. xii. 15 : 
Phil. iii. 16. Such a figure makes the style characteristic of feel- 
ing,^ and gives to it either a sense of majesty, especially where God 
is the speaker, or modesty, as here. For John firom time to time, in 
this book, has expressed great reverence, and that almost to excess, 
towards the inhabitants of heaven : ch. vii. 14, xix. 10, xxii. 8 : 
bovmi therefore, instead of boc,^ corresponds with that modesty, which 
he exhibited towards the angel in asking for the little book. After 
the example of John, we ought to unite humility of heart and search- 
ing of the prophets: and Lampe on Ps. cxxxi., if you take it rightly, 
befittingly explains this union, 

11. ^UpotpriTiueai, to prophesy) John acts in the vision throughout 
the whole course of the book. 


1. Kcs/ ibMn (JjDi xakai/jOi o/Miog pdjSbifj,* Xtyoiv) See App. Crit. Ed. ii. 
on this passage. "Rbi^ri iioi Xiyuv might be resolved by Syllepsis : for 
the Hebrews put IDNP absolutely; whence the idiom of the Septua- 
gint translators, Xiym and Ksyovng, for instance, Isa. vii. 2, xai 

1 See Appendix on Moratus Sermo. 

2 Aouuai, ABO ; " ut daret," h Vulg, Aof, Rec. Text, without good author- 
ity.— E. 

' icaKiv, again) as others have done, preceding thee, ver. 7 V. g. ^//.nChaiat 

iroKKolii inany kings) living contemporaneously with that period of time, which 
is mentioned ver. 6. — V. g. 

* So Ah Vulg. Memph. But Rec. Text, with B and Syr., adds x«J o elyyiMt 
ilar'/iKsi before 7\iyuii. — E. 


avriyys'kr} iig rhv oTxov Aauid, Xiymr wliere in the passive &'!rr}yyiXri is 
contained the active ai-riyyfi'Kiv, and on a-^y/s/Xsv depends Xiyuv : 
2 Ejngs xviii. 36, 6V; hnXri rov (SaaiXiwg, Xsym. And thus frequently, 
especially in Genesis and the earlier prophets, and Exod. xviii. 3, 6 ; 
2 Chron. x. 15 ; Isa. xxx. 21 ; Ezek. xii. 22 ; Ps. Ixxviii. 4 ; Job 
xxii. 17. In like manner X'eym might here be connected with the 
verb Uuxiv, which is contained in IdoSrj. But the speech is more 
conveniently attributed to the rod itself by Metonymy ; John not 
seeing Him who gave the rod, and who is to be known from ver. 3, 
8. For thus also John heard the Altar speaking, ch. xvi. 7. — /juiTpriso;, 
measure) The measuring is yet future. 

2. TijD cciiXfjv) In the tabernacle of Moses, in the temple of Solo- 
mon, and in the temple of Ezekiel, the Septuagint usually puts aiiX^ 
for the Hebrew "ivn. A court in the open air is meant (in which 
T'Sn, grass, readily grows) ; wherefore there follows, rriv i^akv rou vaoD. 
"EffM^Ev in some places has crept in, for 'i^oiSiv -.^ but this auXri, since it 
is the only one, cannot possibly be within the temple, from which it 
is contradistinguished. Also in Ezek. viii. 16, it is JT'CiS ivn. But 
here mention is made only of the outer court (in contradistinction to the 
temple) : which in the measuring ought not to be reckoned as a part 
of the temple, but as it is an outer court, so it ought to be regarded 
as outside the temple. The reading 'i^uhv is much more strongly 
supported by manuscripts. — s^iiihv — e^w) The figure Ploce [See 
Append, of Techn. Terms] : as Isa. xxxii. 19, the city shall he low 
in a low place. — itaTriisouei, shall tread under foot) See Luke xxi. 24, 
note. — /i^i/as Tisgapaxovra Sdo, forty-two months) These months, and 
the 1260 days in ver. 3, are common months and days : for in the 
event they are later than the number of the beast, which being put 
in part enigmatically, in part literally, defines the passing of the 
book from the prophetical times to common times, as I have more 
fully shown in other places. Moreover, in my Harmony of the 
Evangelists, A. 1736, I had declared, that I would answer, in the 
Gnomon, the Mathematical Demonstration of Joh. Christian Seize 
respecting the 1260 days of the witnesses and the woman, Apoc. xi. 
and xii. I had prepared a reply sufiiciently copious on this passage, 
not only to that Demonstration, but also to another, which the same 
writer published in the beginning of the year 1737, under the title 
of the Measuring Rod. But in the same year, as occasion then re- 

' Stephens' Rec. Text (not the Elzev. Rec. Text) has huhi/ for ii,ahii, with- 
out good authority. — E. 

250 APOCALYPSE XI. 3, 4. 

quired, I wrote a review, which was inserted by the collectors of the 
work, which is called Geistliche Fama, in the 23d Part, after other 
remarks of Seize and myself: and in the meanwhile, the progress of 
time, bringing a decision of the question, confirmed my opinion, and 
rendered a reply superfluous. This question, therefore, being put 
aside, having in the meantime met with other adversaries, I dismiss 
this one ; for I greatly shrink from unnecessary disputes. 

3. Auieoi, I loill give) .namely, that they may prophesy. [This is 
the language of the Lord Jesus respecting His highly distinguished 
servants. — V. g.J iCa;' here follows, with the same which 1 has in 
Job vi. 9, ''JNST'I ni^K ^K^l : Gen. xlvii. 6, B'''1 njJT' DNl.— ro?s ivsl /iap- 
Txisl /j,ov, to My two witnesses) These are not Moses and Elias, but 
two illustrious men (as Nic. Selneccer acknowledges, besides other 
interpreters), at once resembling them, and resembling Joshua and 
Zerubbabel. But JElias the prophet is certainly to come before the 
coming of Christ to judgment, just as John the Baptist came before 
the coming of Christ in the flesh : Mai. iii. 23 (iv. 5). And the 
genius and mode of procedure of Elias the prophet bears the same 
relation to the last coming, which the genius and mode of proce- 
dure of John the Baptist bears to the former coming. Comp. Matt. 
xvii. 12, note. 

4. A; dvo sXaiai xat at dvo XvyQiiai a'l Idwt/ov tou Kupiou rrig yrii egTureg) 
See App. Crit. Ed., ii. In ver. 13 He is called the God of heaven, 
and Isa. liv. 5, the God of the earth ; Gen. xxiv. 3, the God of heaven 
and the God of the earth ; but in this passage He is called the Lord 
of the earth, as in the parallel passage, Zech. iv. 14. — lirrwrss alto- 
gether agrees with grammatical rules and the taste of many, and 
still more so does ai iaraaai ; ■"■ nor should I refuse to regard ai ssrSiTig 
as a fault of the copyists, if this were tlie only instance of such a con- 
struction. But because the Apocalypse abounds in figurative ex- 
pressions, as we have everywhere shown, in any passage where 
there is a variety of reading, I take it for granted, I admit, that the 
reading which is contrary to that which we should have expected is 
the true one, and that it has been simply and faithfully handed 
down by less perverse copyists ; and I think thM the others have 
been altered and conformed to the common rule by more recent 
copyists. In the present instance that D^oyn is expressed from 
Zechariah, the passage quoted above, although the construction is 
easier in Hebrew than in Greek, as lately in "^106, Xiym, ver. 1. 

' "RuTuris, ABC Vulg. But iarunai, Rec. Text, with /».— E. 

APOCALYPSE XI. 8, 9. 251 

The article is necessary in this place for the connection of the dis- 
course, as n ill Dnoyn. No book has o'l : therefore a; remains. The 
Greek article is much more flexible than our custom admits : as ra 
Tbv <p6pov, 6 Ti -TTo^.u, 01 f^axpav, x.t.X. Therefore a'l — iSTurei, if it pleases 
you, is said, as though it were said, a'i — ileh Isrung, where a) as 
the subject, and larZirii as the predicate, are not ill agreed. There 
is a disparity of genders not unlike this, ch. xiv. 19. See also Notes' 
on Chrys. de Sacerd. p. 504. If any one is positive that John 
could not have thus written, let him follow the reading which he 
judges that he wrote. 

8, 9. TJ 'TTTu/jt.a) n?3J in the singular number is used collectively, 
Ps. Ixxix. 2 ; Isa. xxvi. 19 ; Jer. xxxiv. 20 : and so in this place, ri 
wruf^a, respecting two. Also the head of Orel) and Zeeb is spoken 
of for the heads, Judg. vii. 25. Presently afterwards, in the third 
place, TO, 'KTuifLaTa} is used : although in that place also there is a 
trace of the singular number in the Codex Leicestrensis, rh sufia. 
Although we see no reason for the difference, yet it would be rash 
to say that there is none. [In the text they are not said to lie. 
What, if you should suppose that they will be suspended, as their 
Lord also was suspended from the cross ? — V. g.] — r^s nrXaniag — 
ssravpdDri, in the street — was crucified) The place of crucifixion was 
outside the city under Tiberius ; I almost think that it was so under 
Adrian also. Eusebius teaches, that the scene of the Lord's mar- 
tyrdom, or the place of the cross, passed over into the city built by 
Constantino ; lib. iii. on the Life of Const, ch. xxxii. and ch. 
xxxviii., where he mentions the neighbouring street. The shape of 
the city has been changed in various ways, and will be qhanged 
hereafter. Whether the city has the place of the cross within the 
walls at the present day, or has not (for travellers are at variance 
with one another, and those who deny it, do so with far greater 
appearance of truth), at the time of the witnesses, at least, it will 
undoubtedly have the place of the cross in the street, either within 
the walls or without ; for thus also 3m is called the street, 2 Sam. 
xxi. 12 ; Prov. xxvi. 13 ; Neh. viii. 1, with Adnot. Halens, p. 178 ; 
Luke X. 10 (comp. Matt. x. 14) ; Esth. iv. 6. Comp. Lightfoot, 
Hor. in Matt. p. 54. The beast has been this long time strugghng 
eagerly concerning Palestine ; after his ascent from the bottomless 
pit he struggles much more. 

1 rci 'HTUfio/ra in ver. 8, and in the first and second places ver. 9, is the read- 
ing of Rec.Text, with h Vulg. Syr. But ABC Memph., in the former two in- 
stances, read to ■a-zZfta. — E. 

252 APOCALYPSE XI. 9-13. 

9. Kal ^XiiTomv — oux afi^govgi) The present, followed by ano- 
ther tense. Thus soon aftei', ^alpo-jsi -/.at iv<ppa<i6n(Sonai. Comp. ch. 
xii. 4, xiii. 12. — ij/AEpaj rpiTg 'fiiJ.i6\j) 3^ days, not 3 or 4. This pas- 
sage, even by itself, affords an irrefragable proof, how scrupnlously, 
that is, how exactly, the interpreter, who trembles at the words of 
THE Lord, ought to take prophetic ninnbers, without proverbial 
roundness of numbers. See Erkl. Oflfenb., p. 99. 

11. Jlnu/ia, Z,mi) So the Septuagint, Gen. vi. 17. — uarfkk)! ahroTg) 
Wolf, who is in other respects thoroughly acquainted with Greek, 
thinks that this reading is unsupported by any example. But Plw- 
tarcJi, TuSof^mig touto, deivhv iiariXh //.Tgog : Herodotus, a much more 
ancient authority, roTsi laikhTv ridovriv : Plato, tieipy^iTai aOrffl biog. 
But nevecrtheless this is rather too remote from the Hebrew idiom. 
I should prefer to admit ilenX-hv h ahrotg,^ CD3, from the Alex, and 
A ugustan copy, especially since the copyists may easily have written 
the syllable b once only, when it ought to be read twice. Thus 
liuke ix. 46, slenXk &e hiakoyiefulg h ahroTc, where also l» is omitted 
in two copies, of Selden and Wolf. 

13. ' O'ilijJjO.ra dvSpoj'jrav ^iXidSsg stto) A frequent apposition: duima 
y^iXiddeg ig^payia/Mvoi, ch. vii. 5, 6 ; r/iiTc ■^iXidSag 'jtapa^oXd;, 1 Kings 
iv. 32 ; -^liu^a; dvdpuv Izarhv ^iXiddag, 1 Chron. V. 21. — xa/ o; Xoimot, 
and the remnant) who survived from the decimation; [that is, sixty- 
three thousand men. A most ample conversion ! — V. g.] Baal Turini 
(as Lightfoot teaches in his Chron. of the New Testament, on John 
iii.) on Num. xxiv. 8, upon these words, " He shall consume the 
nations His enemies, and shall break their bones," remarks, that the 
letter V is gifted ivith a certain peculiar sign [significancy], which 
shows beforehand that He will root out the seven nations {namely, of 
tlie Canaanites), and in time to come (X137 iTij;^) the remaining 
sixty-three nations, that is, all the nations of the world. This passage 
of the Apocalypse softens the sadness of the omen.^ — 'ibuxm bo^av, 
they gave glory) A mark of their conversion : Jer. xiii. 16. — rSi QiH 
rou oiipavou, to the God of heaven) He is called the Lord of the earth, 
ver. 4, when He declares His authority on the earth by the two 
witnesses against the disobedient : He is called the God of heaven, 
when He not only gives rain from heaven, after a most disastrous 

1 "Eu airols is the reading of A : Airol;, C : E/y awoif, B : " in eos," k Vulg. : 
Ex' eciirois, Rec. Text. — E. 

' 'ifi(polioi 'f/taoino, were affrighted) This is more desirable to be heard of than 
the other : in whose case no change takes place, and who do not at all reverence 
Qod: Ps. Iv. 19. Compare also Apoc. xvi. 9. — V. g. 

APOCALYPSE XI. U, 15. 253 

drought, but also shows His majesty in heaven, by taking up the two 
witnesses into heaven. 

14. 'H oiial n SivTipa, the second woe) This, according to D. Lange, 
designates the period of the rage of antichrist, consisting of 42 months. 
Comm. Ap. f. 221. » But the four angels in the Euphrates plainly 
brought on the second woe. See Erkl. OfFenb. p. 73, etc. 

■^15. 'O s'/33o,tt05, the seventh) The principal trumpet is that of the 
seventh angel. This closely approached the very times of the 
apostles : but it was about to have a long continuance. The near 
approach of the events, which were about to follow in it, were often 
viewed by the apostles separately, and held forth by them to the 
view of the faithful : but in consequence of the length of the inter- 
val, scoffers denied the end itself, in which the course of the events 
was about to issue ; while the faithful did not fully comprehend the 
long continuance of the interval. Each class furnished the apostles 
with a reason for explaining the mystery more fully : 2 Pet. iii. 2 ; 
2 Thess. ii. 

Whether Gabriel is the angel here meant, we propose in the 
German Exegesis as a subject of consideration for the reader. And 
the very name ^K''"i33 agrees ; for ?ii is God, and 135 a man, 
strong. Therefore that name exhibits the sum of the message to 
Mary, Luke i. 31, 35 ; and here of the commencement of the 
trumpet in heaven : for, ch. xii. 5, there is born vlhg appn^ ; that is, 
1UJ h^, Isa. ix. 5. I give no definition ; I make no conjecture ; I 
only inquire. But that which follows I affirm : This trumpet is the 
most important of all, which both of itself has here a most joyful 
meaning, and renders joyful all the trumpets of the former angels,- 
but only to the inhabitants of heaven. Wherefore they are not to 
be heard, who here prefer to nterpret sorrowful trumpets, used by 
the Jews in excommunication, rather than festive trumpets. The 
injury arising from the abuse of Jewish antiquities, in the explana- 
tion of the New Testament, and especially of the Apocalypse, is 
greater than the advantage arising from the use of the same. Truth 
is learned from the very clearness of the text, containing its own 
avTdpxeiav (self-dependent completeness) ; the abuse introduces errors. 
We see other examples on ch. xiii. 18 (Annot. ii. § 2), and on ch. 
xiv. 20, xvii. 9, note 1. It would be better not to have recourse to 
the books of the Jews, if no better reward for the labour could be 

' il oiixl h rpi'ryi, the third woe) This is predicted finally, ell. xii. 12 : then ch. 
xiii. and xiv. it actually follows. — "V. g. 


earned off from them. — h rSi o'jpavQ, in heaven) This is strictly 
parallel with that passage of Dan. ii. 44, " In the days of those 
kings (not, after they shall be destroyed), the God OF Heaven shall 
set up a kingdom." He is called the God of heaven, as showing His 
majesty in heaven. Comp. altogether ver. 1.3, note. Afterwards the 
action descends to the earth. See shortly afterwards concerning the 
kingdom of the world. — Xiyovrn) See App. Ed. ii. So eh. iv. 1. 
Many read, n tpatn Xijm} See also ch. v. 12, and the remarks 
which we have made above on ch. ix. 13, 14, and Wolf's remarks 
on xiv. 7, xix. 1. Dionysius of Alexandria thus expressed his 
opinion respecting the writer of the Apocalypse, riot 200 years after- 
wards : SidXiXTov fj,hroi ita! yXuaaati ovx a,-/.pij3us IXXjjv/^ouffav avroij 
/SXetw, aXX' idiu/j,agi /j.h ^ap^apixoTg y^pu/jbivov, xai irou xai aoXoixlt^ovra. 
But, says Lightfoot, he forms this judgment concerning dialect and 
phraseology, who ivas acquainted with neither, and he censures as a 
fault that which chiefly commends this book. For John hoSidanrog 
(being taught of God), everywhere in his Apocalypse assumed the 
style of the Old Testament : while this man, who was ignorant of the 
Hebrew language, reckoned as a solecism tJie lohole of that, which 
was THE DIALECT OF GoD, and believed that that which he could 
not understand luas barbarous. — Op. Posth. f. 145. But yet the 
readings of the Apocalypse (which present the appearance of a sole- 
cism), as Dionysius demonstrates, are ancient, are repeated, and 
have an analogy to one another : but those which follow the ordi- 
]iary syntax have been introduced by copyists, many ages after 
Dionysius. — eyhsro rj jSaaiXila, rou aos/io-j, the kingdom of the world is 
become) This reading of an early age is much more glorious than 
that of the hasty copyist, lyivovTo ai ^aeiXitai^ x.r.X. Blemishes of 
such a character, and of such importance, as I have noticed, ch. i. 
18, iii. 12, V. 14, vi. 11, xi. 2, 17, xiv. 1, xv. 3, xvii. 8, 16, xx. 4, 
xxi. 24, xxii. 19, etc., remain in those editions, which are eagerly 
reprinted . the revision which applies a remedy to them (I do not 
complain on my own account) lies neglected. _ See Pref. § viii. 
Admon. 20. We return to the passage. The kingdoms of the 
world give way to the kingdom of the world. Thus Obadiah, ver. 21, 
and the Psalms repeatedly. Vitringa indeed , correctly says. The 
fulfilment of this oracle is in vain sought in the time of Constantine : 
Anacr. Ap. p. 512 ; but at the same time he thinks that this pro- 

1 AB Vulg. read -Kiyovres. Rec. Text, yAyovum, with C. — E. 
^ ''E.yhiTO ii /iaai'Kiia, ABCA Vulg. 'Eysi/oi/Tc cct Baai'htlcci, Rec. Text, witli- 
out good authority. — E. 


pliecy will be fulfilled after the destruction of the beast. In both 
points D. Xiange assents to him. Here a true analysis of the text 
is especially necessary : moreover we have presented such a one 
above, in the Introduction to the Apoc. num. 6. Many separate 
the natural sequence of ch. xi. and those which follow ; but it vin- 
dicates itself. See Erkl. Offenh. p. 71 and following, 552, 564, etc. 
The third woe, which is set forth in ch. xii. 12, and is described 
particularly in ch. xiii., is long ago in course of accomplishment : 
and from things present it is distinguished, what things are past 
under the trumpet of the seventh angel, and what are still future. — 
"cD Kuf>/ou') See App. Grit. Ed. ii. Kuf/ou is here used as a proper 
name (as Grotius and Le Buy admit), with which that which 
immediately follows, aa} Xpiarou ahrov, best agrees : for the expres- 
sion is, the Lord's Christ, nilT' niB'D, not the Christ of OUR Lord. 
And thus in the Apocalypse the inhabitants of heaven say, God, 
Lord, our God, the Lord our God ; but never, our Lord. A thana- 
sius, in his Synopsis on this passage, and Rupertus, in his Comm. 
p. 308, were of the same opinion, if they did not retain the same 
reading.' — xal tou Xpisrov auToZ, and of His Christ, or Anointed) This 
is the first appellation of Christ in this prophetic Treatise, after the 
Introduction of the book, namely, in the mention of the Kingdom 
under the trumpet of the seventh angel. For Christ is called a 
King antonomastically, ^ as Hiller observes, Syntagm. p. 356. 
Comp. Brent's Homily xlii. on Acts, and Explan. of Catech. 
p. 114 and following, and p. 23. Elisha the prophet was anointed, 
1 Kings xix. 16 ; priests were anointed, Exod. xxviii. 41 ; but with 
especial propriety. Kings. Whence the title of Anoiiited, put abso- 
lutely, denotes nothing but a king. The usual expression is, the 
Lord's anointed, not the anointed king : but [in the case of the priest] 
the only expression used is, the priest that is anointed, by way of 
epithet : Lev. iv. 5. Nay, the Anointed is even expressly distin- 
guished from the priest, 1 Sam. ii. 35 ; Ps. cxxxii. 16, 17. In the 
whole Evangehc history, the name, Christ, is never set forth under 
the title of priest ; it very frequently is under the na,me of king. 
And moreover, as often as the Messiah is mentioned in the Scrip- 
ture, there is a reference to his Kingdom. The priestly office and 
the prophetical also are both contained in the kingly (which by a 
metaphor is the meaning of Shepherd also : ch. xii. 5). See Heb. 

I So AC Vulg. : but h, " Dei." AC Vulg. and the best authorities read 
Tifiu!), in opposition to Bengel. — E. 
' See Appendix on Antonomasia. 

256 APOCALYPSE XI. 16, 17. 

ii. 17, note. Among the Gentiles also, one man has often borne the 
kingly office in addition to the priestly, sometimes under the title of 
priest, sometimes under that of king. 

16. 'Evwmov rou Spotiou tou 0eoD) Thus the greater part of the 
Manuscripts read,^ although the more ancient omitted the words 
Tou Upovov, leaping from the one tou to the other. The mention of 
the throne is especially suitable to this place, where the kingdom is 
spoken of, and where also the thrones of the elders are mentioned.^ 

17. 'O uv %al ?», who is, and who was) Some have added, xa/ o 
ip^ofjbsvog.^ The shorter reading here also is the true one ; the fuller 
one is derived from a parallel passage. See App. Crit. Ed. ii. on this 
passage. Such varieties of reading are not to, be decided in a cur- 
sory manner, on common grounds, but by careful investigation, 
according to the strong arguments which peculiarly and naturally 
belong to each passage. By which method we shall find, in the 
present instance, that this passage, ch. xi. 17, is not so much to be 
compared with the three preceding, as with the one which follows, 
ch. xvi. 5. What is the aspect of the three preceding passages, we 
have before shown, on the passages themselves, and especially on ch. 
i. 8 : but now both these passages, ch. xi. 17 and xvi. 5, coincide with 
the trumpet of the seventh angel, and therefore with the consum- 
mation of the mystery of God, in which, that which had previously 
been foretold by the expression, xat o spxo/J^ii">g, now is exhibited in 
actual operation, and indeed is exhibited first in heaven, ch. xi. 17, 
and then on earth, ch. xvi. 5. Interpreters on this passage have 
long ago seen this. Ansbert says, Thei/ do not here subjoin, as they 
were accustomed, and who art to come ; thei/ speak of Him as already 
present. Haymo, who usually treads in the footsteps of Ansbert : It 
must he observed that he does not add, as before, who art to come. For 
they show Him already present in the judgment, by which all these 
things will be accomplished, and therefore they by no means speak of 
Him as (still) to come. John Purvey, in his Comm. published with 
the preface of Luther, says ; He does not add the third clause, which 
he has usually added, namely, and who is to come, for this reason, 

1 And the margin of Ed. ii., together with the Germ. Yeis., follows that read- 
ing more confidently than the larger Edition does. — E. B. 

AC7t Vulg. Memph. omit toS 6p6iiov. B Syr. and Rec. Text insert these 
wDrds. — E. 

^ tTTi tu. Tpiaaira avruu, upon their faces) In no other place is this read re- 
specting the elders. — V. g. 

' Added by Rec. Text, in opposition to ABCA Vulg. Cypr. E, 

APOCALYPSE XI. 17, 18. 257 

because the prophet, with Ms intellectual vision, then saw God as it 
were already sitting in judgment. Zeltner published a dissertation, 
A. 1712, which is inscribed, Evangelium Tetragrammaton e Novo 
Testamento Exulans. The subject, as it is comprised in the title, 
derives something from the truth. When the Son of God was 
engaged in the world, of the promises given in the Old Testament, 
and comprehended in the name of Jehovah, as many as were to be 
fulfilled at that time, were fulfilled : and then, that which had been 
future, was advancing to the present. But, however, in the pro- 
phecy of the New Testament, that is, in the Apocalypse, that 
phrase, o wv -/.ai 6 nv xa,l 6 Ip-j^ofiivoc, by which the tetragrammaton, 
nw, is usually expressed, is, as it were, set forth afresh ; and the 
future itself, as though reviving in the second coming of Christ, 
respecting which see Heb. x. 37, is placed before us, until at the 
entrance of the most important trumpet of the seventh angel, first 
the words, y.a,) o ifyot^ini, which, at the beginning, were alone con- 
tained in iTTiK, and afterwards also the words %al 6 ^v, which was 
denoted by the termination of the noun nin'', are most magnificently 
absorbed, and pass into the single expression, o wi/. Hence it comes 
to pass, that even great things, from this very passage, are not said 
to come, as lately they were said to come, ver. 14, and ch. ix. 12, but 
to have come, shortly afterwards, ver. 18, and ch. xiv. 7, 15, xix. 7. 
Those persons do not sufficiently hold fast the normal force of 
Scripture, which ought to be retained even in addresses, who even 
still in prayers, and in hymns, from time to time, say, Jehovah, in- 
stead of Lord, or Jah. For under the trumpet of the seventh angel 
this Tetragrammaton ceases to be used, and the Diagrammaton, H'', is 
the only expression which the saints utter, together with applause ; 
ch. xix. 1. 

17, 18. 'EjSaglXiuciai- xal ra Uvn iipyicdriSav) Ps. xcix. 1 ; Septua- 

gint, Kvpiog'Kiugiii- opyiZke^aaa,v \aoi. The verb ofyii^isSuaav here 
answers to the Hebrew tJ"i, as Exod. xv. 14 ; 2 Kings xix. 28. 
Comp. ver. 27, in which anger is denoted, together with alarm. 

18. Ka; -/.aiphi) that is, serh. For 6 naiphi does not seem here to 
be joined with riXhv (although often in other places time is both un- 
derstood to be, and is said to come, and that, in one place, jointly, Ps. 
cii. 14), since that sentence, ret, 'ihri dipyiaSrjeav, xai rjxhv n 'opyh wu, is 
now finished. In like manner, earl is understood after the verb 
ipyjilhai, ch. xxii. 12. In like manner, o xa,ipli (namely, iart^ rou 
ap^ae^ai rJ x/;//ia, 1 Pet. iv. 17 ; ffoVs o xaipog iar/v, Mark xiii. 33. — 
tSiv vsxpuiv, of the dead) of mortals and the departed. The German 

VOL. V. K 

258 APOCALYPSE XI, 19-Xir. 3-5. 

Exegesis quotes many passages of Scripture speaking in this man- 
ner. Add the son of Sirach, before noticed, on Jude ver. 4. — 
xpidnmi) This verb, equally with hoZmi dia^SiTpai, is spoken con- 
cerning God, and answers to the Hebrew n&m, which is likewise 
spoken of God. Isa. Ixvi. 16 ; Ezek. xxxviii. 22, in the Hebrew; 
and Ezek. xvii. 20, x. 35, 36 ; Joel iii. 2, in the Hebrew, and in 
the Septuagint, where, however, the reading is not xpiSrivai, but 
diaxpi^nvcii ; and Jer. ii. 35, xxv. 31, in which the Septuagint has 
■/.p'mii^ai. There is an allusion to the wonderful auyxard^aeig (con- 
descension) of the Supreme Judge, whereby, for the sake of showing 
the justice of His cause. He blends discussion [" controversy"] with 
His unbending judgment. "Ovag av vm^arig h tm x/j/vEirOa/ ffs, Eom. 
iii. 4, note. 

19. 'o vais) vahc, ch. iii. 12, vii. 15, is b''n, the whole of the 
temple, but in this _passage, and henceforth, it is "i"'31, the inner part 
of the temple,-' 13T. 


3. nvpphg) Others read 'jrvphc," which the ancients formed from 
flru/j, as though John should say, /leyav •Kupig dpaxovra. -But TTufos is 
written for mpfog, ch. vi. 4. See Apparat. pp. 805, 820. [Ed. ii., 
pp. 524, 544.] The colour represents the fiery spirit of the dragon. 
— xnpaX&g h-jTTa, seven heads) such as even history commemorates ; 
and in this very city (Hamburgh) the skeleton of such a dragon with 
seven heads was formerly shown. — Joh. Diet. Winckler. Disquisi- 
tion, p. 162. 

4. Karafdyri, to devour) The notion formerly prevailed with many 
persons, that serpents were accustomed eagerly to desire the flesh of 
new-born infants. — PricEeus. 

5. "Erixiv, brought forth) The Christian Church brought forth a 
male child, Christ, considered not personally, but in His kingdom. 
Vitringa interprets it of Constantine, when he gained possession of 
the empire ; D. Lange weightily refutes him, in his Comm. upon 
the Apocalypse, f. 137, 141. Nor, however, as the same writer 

' T^f iiaStixK-i of the testament) the covenar.t which He made with Abraham, 
Isaac, and Jacob. — V. g. 

^ A Vulg. read Trvp^oi. BCA Memph. ■jrvpi;. — E. 


supposes, is the conversion of Israel llere signified ; for that nation 
does not bring forth, at its conversion, but is born : and the crown 
of twelve stars prefigures the conversion of the twelve tribes : comp. 
Gen. xxxvii. 9. The birth here described has already long ago 
taken place ; that conversion [of the twelve tribes] has not yet taken 
place. The woman brought forth, when in the ninth century, more 
nations than before, together with their princes, were, under the 
name of Slavonians, added to the assembly of the Christian name. 
Therefore almost the whole of this chapter has been fulfilled, al- 
though -D. Lange refers it to the future, in the same place (see 
above), and in Epicr. p. 408. The very war of the dragon with 
the rest of the seed of the woman, ver. 17, precedes the rising of 
the beast out of the sea ; but this took place in the eleventh cen- 
tury, as will presently be shown. — hicm appsm) Learned men have 
brought together to this place passages in Aristophanes and Alci- 
phron, where a woman is said to have brought forth •ra/3/oi/ appir 
but the cases differ ; for iraiSlov is generic, vihs specific. Nor, how- 
ever, does John write vihv appiva without reason. For thus also 
Jer. XX. 15, it is said 131 p, where in the Greek it is vihg apstjv, or 
simply aperiv as in this passage. Primasius omitting the word 
son, says male, as ver. 13 has it. — h pa^dui eibripci,, with a rod of iron) 
The rod is for long continued obstinacy, until they submit them- 
selves to obedience. 

6. E/'s TTiv iprif/,ov) The wilderness is the western part of the world, 
Europe, or its districts in particular on this side of the Danube ; for 
on the other side of the Danube the countries were already before 
this more imbued with Christianity, naiy, the wilderness, and 
3^yTJ, the west, are connected by derivation. D. Laurence Reinhard, 
in his chronological arrangement of the Apocalypse, p. 14, rightly 
thinks that this passage has reference to the state of the Church 
from the ninth century. — rifiipac y^iXlag diaxoalag iS,n>io«ra, 1260 days) 
The 1260 prophetic dajts are 657 ordinary years in full. And if 
you reckon these from A. 864 to 1521, you will certainly not be far 
from the truth. The woman obtained a firm place in the wilder- 
ness, in Europe, especially in Bohemia, and there, in particular, she 
was nourished ; until more free and abundant nourishment was 
vouchsafed to her by means of the Reformation. The close of the 
1260 days is the Reformation.^ The close of the times, 1, 2, and ^, 

' £5/ a somewhat different method of computation, in der Erkl. Offeneb. Ed. 
ii. p. 692, the commencement [terminus a quo] of the 1260 days (by which 677 
ordinary years are there equally made up) is fixed not in the year 864, but 940, 


is the Millennium. Between the Reformation and the Millennium 
there is no more remarkable revolution, than the Reformation itself 
the great importance of which is sufficiently perceived from this. 

7. 'O M;x«'5>^, Michael) The archangel, but still, a created angel. 
Dan. X. 13 ; Jude ver. 9. Nic. Collado, Eaph. Eglinus, Jonas Le 
Buy, Grotius, Cluver, Mede, Dimpelius, and others, recognise a 
created angel. — roZ ToXs/z^ffa;^) that is, ^av. An elegant expres- 
sion. Thus Basil of Seleucia says of Abel, oXos tou 8wpov ymofievo;, 
altogether iiitent upon that which he was offering. Comp. 2 Chron. 
xxvi. 5, in the Hebrew. The war was occasioned by the •srXar,), with 
which the whole world was carried away.— ittsra) together with, that 
is, against. So /ism, ver. 17, ii. 16, xi. 7, xiii. 4, 7, xvii. 14, xix. 19. 

and the end [terminus ad quem] not in the year 1521, that is, at the Reforma- 
tion, hut in the »aofeii« suppression of the Bohemian Church, which followed in the 
year 1617, so that the Reformation itself, ver. \i, finds its place in the middle of 
times 1, 2, |, and speaking exactly in the middle of the binary number, which 
these times represent. That you may not think that a great leap is here made, 
Header ! I wish you to remember {aus der Einleitung zur Erkl. Offenh. § 52), 
that a prophetical day comprises half an ordinary year, with the addition o/ about 
14 days. If you take 14 full days: 1260 days, by this measure will make 678 
years, with an addition {which Erkl. Offenb. nearly represents at the passage 
quoted) ; but if, instead of 14 days, you take 8, the sum of 657 years will come 
forth {which the Gnomon proposes, which is almost equally distant from Erkl. 
Offenb. c. ix. 15). The method of computation therefore itself introduces a dif- 
ference of only 21 years {in which matter I would rather give the preference to 
Erkl. Offenb., the 2d Edition of which is certainly more recent than the Gnomon, 
than to the Gnomon) : hut the places assigned to the beginning and the end re- 
spectively [termini a quo et ad quem], vary within a space of 96 years ; but this 
difference makes no variance as far as concerns the chief point of the subject, 
which comprises most important revolutions, and those brought about gradually. 
{Respecting a latitude of this kind, comp. den Beschluss der Erkl. Offenb. ii. St. 
p. 1082, and the next, or die Vorrede zu meiner erklarenden Umschreibung, etc., 
p. ix.) To this you may refer the concUtsion which presents itself in der Erkl. 
Offenb., Ed. ii., p. 691. Also waren die 677, Jahre zwischen A. 1524 und 1624 
ausgeloffen. In dem Raum dieser 100 Jahre ist nichts bedenklicher, als die 
Reformation, und die mit deren Bestatigung verknupfte betriibte Zerstorung 
der Bohmisehen Bruder — Gemeine : und also ist bey solcher Revolution das Ziel 
der 677, Jahre order der 12C0, prophetischen Tage zu suchen. Wir lasscn 
einem jeden die Freyheit, das Jahr zu bestimmen : doch priife man, was folgt. 
A. 1517, nahm diess grosse Werk seinen Anfang. Die Bohmische Bruder — 
Gemeine, und die Reformation, stunden 100 Jahr nebeneinander, bis auf Jahr 
1617. — Von A. 1617, kommt man mit 677 Jahren zwuicke auf das Jahr 940.— 
und also geben die 1260, Tage den Periodum der bohmisehen Kirche. — B. B. 

> So AB (omitting to5) Syr. But Rec. Text, eTroT^ifimav ; Vulg. " prselia- 
bantur."— E. 

APOCALYPSE XII. 8, 9. 261 

8. Obx "e^usev — avTSi) Others read, oux "a^vaav, oldi roVos eipB^r, 
avTuv} If the plural number were correct, it would be ouSe romg 
ihfHn auToTi (not avTuv), as it is expressed in Apoc. xx. 11 ; Dan. 
ii. 35, also Job xvi. 18. Victorinus also has, and there was not 
found FOR HIM (not, of them) a place in heaven. And Cassiod. in 
his Complex., The Dragon being cast headlong to the earth, was 
overthrown, so that he no longer HAD the place of blessedness. The 
explanation of Andreas likewise speaks of the dragon only, and not 
of his angels. In which point of view almost all the testimonies for 
the plural are set aside. The style of the Apocalypse usually attri- 
butes the good which is done, or the adversity which happens to 
the prince or leading person concerned, in the singular number, 
rather than to those whom he has for his subjects. This is the case 
in this passage also ; for in ver. 7, in the battle, the dragon is de- 
scribed at first alone, and then the same with his angels. Afterwards 
this book makes mention of the dragon only ; wherefore the angels 
of the dragon, where occasion requires it, will have to be understood 
from this passage. The simple verb, idx^nv, for which Pricasus 
would prefer %art<syyiiM, is used in this passage, as in the Septuagint, 
Ps. xiii. (xii.) 5 ; Dan. vii. 21, ig^unv t^o's nva,. — h rffl oiipavSi, in 
heaven) in which, all along from the triumph of Christ up to the 
time then present, he had accused the brethren of the dwellers 
in heaven, ver. 10. Comp. ver. 12. The earth is included in the 
heaven : not the opposite. 

9. 'O xaXovfiivog iia^okoi, xal 6 earavag, x.t.X. The devil and 
Satan are exactly synonymous, as Druse teaches, and Eaphel, in his 
Annot. from Polybius, p. 719 ; for both [tOK', and diajSaXXim mean to 
place oneself between for the purpose of resistance ; wherefore also 
the Septuagint frequently has d/ajSoXog for JDB', which is retained at 
1 Kings xi. 14, 23, 25. Therefore there is no more difference be- 
tween them than between gladius, in ordinary appellation, and ensis 
in poetic usage. The only difference lies in the Hebrew and Greek 
idiom ; and the adversary is pointed out, who harasses the Gentiles, 
as the devil, and the Jews, as Satan ; in this place, indeed, saints of 
both classes. Even Andreas of Csesareia saw, that there was force 
in the double appellation ; and lest I should be accused of refining 
too nicely, Grotius refers this double appellation to the Jews and 
Gentiles. But the observation appertains to this text, in which 

' A Memph. read Tirxvaiy. But BO Vulg. Syr. i'axvaccn. ABC Vulg. S}T. 
read xutuv ; but Memph. airf. — E. 

262 APOCALYPSE XII. 10-12. 

both the Hebrew and the Greek names are joined together : in 
other texts, even the appellation of the devil, inasmuch as it is alone, 
may no doubt appertain to the Jews. — b ■, which deceiveth) 
The devil is a liar and a murderer, John viii. 44 ; a seducer, in 
this passage, and raging, ver. 12, where despair, in consequence of 
the shortness of the time, inflames his rage. But the saints, who 
overcome him, have faith, love, and hope. 

10. 'Apri, now) This particle teaches most evidently, that this 
twelfth chapter, from its very beginning, refers to the trumpet of the 
seventh angel ; for the voice which was heard immediately under 
the sound of that trumpet, ch. xi. 15, respecting the kingdom, is 
here repeated with a remarkable increase of meaning by the figure, 
Epitasis [see Append.] ; nor can it by any means be placed before 
this trumpet in particular. The accuser attacked the citizens, and 
not the king. Moreover, the latter part of the twelfth chapter, has 
a most close coherence with this very passage. In ch. ii. 15-18, 
these things are set forth, which this most important trumpet com- 
prises : in ver. 19, and ch. xii.-xxii. is an Exergasia [see Append. 
" Epexegesis."], and copious description of its accomplishment. — o 
xarriyup^) A name naturalized and adopted even in the East, and so 
used by the Syriac translator in this passage. Therefore in this 
very place it is not used as a Greek word (as Camero remarks), but 
as a Hebrew word, the purely Greek synonym, o xuTnyopuv, follow- 
ing. The two languages are joined together, as in ver. 9, and re- 
peatedly in this book, which has reference to both Israelites and 
Gentiles. See Schoettgen, Hor. Hebr. p. 1120, and those which 
follow ; where also the office of Michael, and the appellation, old 
serpent, are illustrated from the writings of the Hebrews. 

^12. Oval, woe) This is the last denimciation of the third and 
most grievous looe, which has already been frequently denounced ; 
and under it at length the beast assails. Wherefore the remarks 
which Wolf makes most recently. T. iv. Curar, p. 530, he also 
approves of, p. 535, when he prefers to the other interpreters, those 
who think that the government of the Roman Pontiff is marked out 
by the beast. Ap. xiii. 1. — Tji yr, xai rjj SaX&ean, the earth and the 

' Ka.T'/iyup, A. K«T)jyo/!o?, BC and Ree. Text.— E. 

' Ver. 11. ovx., not) By this negative a contradiction is given to the accusa- 
tion, the subject of which is indicated by this very expression.— V. g. 

—Tvtu ^vx'^u a.iruu, their own soul) or life. In hke manner Satan had also 
accused Job, Job ii. 4. Against him, who renounces his love of life, the calumni- 
ator has now no power. — V. g. 


sea) The earth is placed before the sea, either because the earth, as 
opposed to the heaven, is superior (to the sea), and the sea is only 
a part of the earth, which is understood in the following verse under 
the earth : or because the third woe really began in Asia, before it 
began in Europe, through the instrumentality of the beast-^oX/'/on 
■Autph, a short time) xaipoi, in this place, has a peculiar signification, 
a time of 222|^ years ; and oXlyog x.a.iphg is the period next above the 
3^ times, which are the subject of ver. 14 ; and therefore the oXiyog 
■/.aipog, is four times, or 888-| years, are from A. 947 to a. 1836, as is 
collected from the proportions of the other periods, with which this 
is connected. See Erkl. Offenb. p. 619. 

13. Kal St$ X.T.X., and when the dragon saw that he was cast P 
the earth) Amolf, a monk of Ratishonne, says Ussher, who makes 
himself an eye-witness of the matter, affirms that a portentous dragon 
was seen in the air about these times (de S. Emmeram,mo, I. 2, t. 2, 
ant. lect. H. Canisii, pp. 98, 99). " Having been placed in Pan- 
nonia some years before, on a certain day from the third hour to the 
sixth, I saw the devil, or a dragon, suspended in the air. But his 
magnitude was incredible, his length so great, that he seemed to be 
extended, as it were, through the space of a mile.'' Admonitius, who 
converses with him in this dialogue, asks of Arnolf : Did you at all 
, remember at that time any of these things, which .the blessed John 
writes in his Apocalypse respecting the dragon and the beast ? He 
replies : Truly these things came into my memory, but the recol- 
lection of what is written in the same Apocalypse especially harassed 
me, in which is contained : Woe to you, because the dragon is come 
to you with great wrath, because he knoweth that he hath but a short 
time. — [Ussher^] de success. Eccles. Cliiistian, f. 46, 47. The same, 
s. 36, from Glaber Rodulph, relates that such a portent was seen in 
Gaul, about A. 1000 or afterwards. And Arnolf flourished about 
A. 1040. Wherefore the visions related by Rodulph and Arnolf 
were between the beginnings of the short time and of the 3| times, 
and then the dragon was certainly already cast to the earth, perse- 
cuting the woman : but I am not credulous enough to assent to the 
statement, that this enemy was then actually seen in Gaul and in 
Pannonia. Yet I thought that this account ought to be mentioned, 
because a man of great weight, James Ussher, both related it, and 
plainly enough assented to it. Let those who find more testimonies 
of such phenomena, produce them : let those who are strong in 
spiritual judgment, weigh them. 

' Ussher's collected works, vol. ii., p. 101. 


14. A;' 5uo irripuya) The Hebrew dual D^SJO does not always in- 
volve the number two : but it is used even in the description oi four 
or six wings, Ez. i. and Isa. vi. Whence in the Septuagint D*S33 
is never expressed by hbo -irripvysg. Therefore in this passage it is 
said not without great significance, a'l iw 'TTTsptiyigjihose two wings. The 
great eagle itself is the Roman empire : the two ivings, the power over 
the east and the west. — e/'s tov to'ttov aurjjc, into her place) This place^ 
comprises very large regions, Poland, Russia, Hungary, Transil- 
vania, etc., by the addition of which to the church, a. 965, and 
thenceforward, the Christian power reached, in a continuous tract, 
ii'om the Eastern to the Western Empire. — %aiph xat xaipoiJs xai 
ri//,icu %u,ipo\j) So Dan. vii. 25, sws Konpou %al xaipuv xal 7j//,isu xaipou ; 
ch. xii. 7, E/'s xaiphv %ai xaipoui xai rjfj,ieu xaipou. In each passage the 
subject is the calamity of the holy people. The plural, xaipovc, denotes 
two times. The plural number is to be taken most strictly. In 
this manner of speaking, after years, the space of two years is 
signified, 1. 17, § 3. Digest, de manum. test. Being indefinitely 
commanded to be free after years, he shall be free after the space of 
two years : and that interpretation both the favour of liberty demands, 
and the words admit. Thus ^t^'J? ten, a''"iE'J? two decades, that is, 
twenty. According to the rule of the ancient Hebrew doctors, usually 
employed in expounding the Sacred Writings, the plural number is to 
be understood of two, if there is no reason to the contrary. Guil. 
Surenhusius de AUeg. V. T. in N. T., p. 589. And in this passage, 
indeed, the taking, in a strict sense, is admissible even on this ac- 
count, because there is an interval between the one and the half. 
In an indefinite sense several xaipot are a %foi/o5. Mjeris the Atticist, 
upa 'iroui, aTTixoJ;' xaiphg stous, hXXriiiixue. Ammonius and Thomas 
MaglSter, xaiplg f-ipog ^povou, ojov /ji,£fj,£Tp7ifiySvoiv ijfiipuv Biisrrifia,' ^otog Si, 
ToXXSiv xaipSiv <!ripio^^ xal gliXXtf^ic.^ In the Apocalyptic sense xaiphg 
a time has a definite length, as is plain from the distribution of this 

' In der Erkl. Offeneb. Ed. II., p. 642, the place of the wilderness, in the 
singular, Germany, is much more definitely distinguished from the wilderness 
which comprises these countries. {Comp. p. 639), so that the eastern wing might 
especially subserve her fight into the wilderness, the western (wing) her fight into 
the place.— E. B. 

^ Xpovos and diau are indefinite time, "npa, definite term, generally short ; 
Kaipi;, the opportune time. A'lav, the indefinite flow of tinje without the notion 
of an end : Xpovog, time in its actuality, by which we perceive the succession of 
things ; it is a sort of aggregate of times. Kaipo;, a specific time, and, " as op- 
portunity" is fleeting, that time, of short duration: in Rev. xii. 14, a year, not 
literally but applied to the time of a year. See Tittm. Syn. — E. 


very period into a time, and times, and the half of a time. This 
period begins before the number of the beast, and extends beyond 
it : nor however does the whole of it far exceed it. It has 777J 
years. By such a method, even a Chronus has a definite length, 
and comprises ^we naipoug or times: although Leoj). Frid. Gans 
Nobilis de Putlitz determines that xaip'ov has eighty years, and a 
Chronus 240 years, and thus he takes three -/.aipovi for Chronus. 
Through a time, and times, and the half of a time, the Church is 
nourished, being removed from the serpent, and assailed by the 
river, i.e. the attack of the Turks, and not however overwhelmed : 
therefore those times are terminated by the captivity of the serpent, 
and are conveniently divided by the parts "joints" of the Turkish 
history. The beginning of the captivity, as is shown in its place, 
will be in A. 1836. Therefore the time is 222 1 years, from A. 1058 
to 1280 ; and in the middle of the eleventh century, a new kingdom 
arose among the Turks, and shortly afterwards inundated the eastern 
part of the Christian world ; but, at the close of that century, the 
city of Jerusalem was taken from them, which not long after they 
took again. The times are 444| years, from A. 1280 to 1725. In 
that interval they greatly desolated the Church, having taken Con- 
stantinople, having long had possession of Buda, and having more 
than once besieged Vienna. The half a time consists of 111-^ years, 
from A. 1725 to 1836. Before the end of this half a time, and in- 
deed considerably before, the earth swallows up the last attacks of 
the river. — a-rrh mpogu'nou) construed with rpifiiTa/. Comp. ''JfiD avh 
Tpoffumv, 2 Kings xvi. 18, and Jud. ix. 21, where the Hebrew 
accent plainly renders it a parallel expression : and Neh. iv. (9) 3. 

17. Mera ruv "Koiiruv, with the remnant) These are the faithful 
scattered in the lands of the unfaithful. 

'18. 'Eo'to^j)!'^) Thus also Arethas : and Rihera approves, although 
most of the Latins have stetit, he stood, IsTairi ; which reading in 
turn Doelingius de Antichr. p. 284, approves of, and Peganius, Ap. 
p. 212. Each reading is almost equal in point of authority from 
manuscripts, and suitableness to the sense. For if applied to the 
dragon, the sentence would thus run. He was wroth, and loent 
aioay : and stood on the sand of the sea, and gave his power to the 

' t2>u TnooiuTau rei; hra'hce.i tou ©eoS, who keep the commandments of God) 
This belongs to all those who have the dragon for their adversary. — V. g. 

— rijii fidpTvficc!/ 'Imou, the testimony of Jesus) that He is the Son of God and 
the Saviour of the world.' — V. g. 

2 So B Memph. and Eec. Text ; but AC/i Vulg. Syr. have iffra^Ji.— E. 


least which arose out of the sea. But because a new part begins at the 
•words, and stood, and at the beginning of this part the name of the 
dragon is not again expressed, this act of standing is better appUed 
to John. Who indeed, though he saw such various objects, yet 
mentions no other going of his, except that which was done in the 
spirit, for instance, ch. xvii. 3 : but this standing also upon the sand 
of the sea, was done in vision. This vision is very remarkable, and 
hence John mentions his own standing upon the sand of the sea. 
On the visions at the waters, comp. Dan. viii. 2, x. 4 ; Ez. i. 3 ; 
Gen. xli. 1. 


1. 'Ex TTii 6aXa,(rg'/ic, out of the sea) Three woes traverse the world 
from the east to the west. The first was in Persia : the second pro- 
ceeded from the Euphrates : the third, under the dragon, is sus- 
tained by the beast in the west. In the conclusion of my Ger- 
man commentary, I have enumerated more than forty laws and 
distinguishing marks of Apocalyptic interpretation. In these the 
quick unfolding of the three woes, and especially of the third woe, 
has no little weight. — 6rjpm, x.r.X., a beast, etc.) Sriplov is a diminutive 
in sound, but not in sense : for even elephants are called ^ij/^/a ; and 
in Homer /j,a.Xa fi-eya 6r)pi(iii is a great stag slain by Ulysses. 

The most ancient fathers determined that the seven heads of the 
beast were so many ages or kingdoms of the world, from its be- 
ginning to the end : from which interpretation that of D. Gehhard 
is not far removed, according to which the beast of the Apocalypse 
is the abuse of political power, the prop of the antichristian stdte : 
the seven heads, Pharaoh, Jeroboam, Assyrian Babel, Antiochus, 
the Sanhedrim of the Pharisees, then the Emperor of Eome, and 
the beast from the abyss. See Comm. on Twelve Prophets, pp. 508- 
524 : comp. p. 217 and those which follow, 292. On the other 
hand, Victorinus took the head, or one king, to relate to Domitian, 
who was emperor in the time of John : the others, to refer to his five 
individual predecessors, and his immediate successor ; and so Ham- 
mond, from Claudius to Domitian ; so Bossuet refers it to Maximin 
and his five consorts, whom he himself survived, and Licinius, who 
alone survived him : which also is not far removed from the Epilysis 


of Raph. Eglinus. The one interpretation is too loose ; the other too 
confined, although it is more convenient, inasmuch as it does not go 
beyond the seven hills [of Eome]. From either interpretation they 
were able to take an occasion, who with great agreement among 
themselves refer those seven heads to seven forms of the Eoman 
polity, which are presented (see especially Borrhaus on this passage) 
by 1) Kings, 2) Consuls, 3) Decemvirs, 4) Military tribunes with 
consular power, 5) Dictators, 6) Emperors. We shall presently see 
the seventh. But, I. Seeing that Daniel, to whose antiquity it was 
suitable, already in his time sufficiently described the Eoman affairs, 
what need is there to seek them in the Apocalypse, and to trace them 
back, not only beyond the beginnings of the third woe, but even 
from the beginnings of the fourth beast of Daniel, and indeed much 
further ? for Daniel only subjoins the fourth beast to the third, as he 
does the third to the second, and the second to the first : but they 
who make the first head of the Apocalyptic beast to be the kings of 
Eome, ascend beyond the whole of the third beast of Daniel ; whereas 
even the last king and the first consuls at Eome coincide with the 
beginnings of the second beast, that is, the Persians. II. The 
number seven, as applied to the heads, is itself at fault in this view ; 
nor can consuls, decemvirs, and tribunes, be reckoned as three heads, 
but they must be regarded either as one, and this number of col- 
leagues does not vary the species of rule, or as about twenty ; more- 
over the others were often placed at intervals between the consuls ; 
or if by this insertion the number of the forms is not increased, even 
kings (that you may class dictators with which division you please), 
together with emperors, would have to be reckoned as one head. 
Undoubtedly chronologists name the Eoman epochs only from kings 
and consuls, and make other things subordinate to these, until they 
come to the emperors. See Com. de Sylvestris Chronol. p. 190, etc. 
However it be, it is not only from a difference between the heads, 
and fi-om the number of the seven kings, that the beast and his last 
head are known ; although interpreters allege that one means only : 
but without circumlocutions of this kind the prophecy more plainly 
represents both the whore, and with her the beast. III. To the 
seventh head alone a short space of continuance [ch. xvii. 10] is 
ascribed ; but who, according to this system, will make a longer con- 
tinuance to the other heads ; for instance, if the decemvirs are a head, 
when Tacitus, in the introduction to his annals, asserts that their 
power did not prevail more than two years ? IV. When they come 
to the emperors, as if it were the sixth head, their ingenuity exerts 


itself ill a variety of ways, as to which of the emperors is to be re- 
garded as the last in this point of view : Is it Domitian, whom 
foreign emperors began to succeed ; or Diocletian, in whom Paganism 
ended ; or Constantine, who ought (to accord with their theory) to 
have remained a " short space," namely, at Eome : or Augustulus, 
conquered by Odoacer 1 V. In the seventh head they do not escape 
the difficulty of introducing a too long continuance of it, and a too 
great difference between it and the eighth, which is nevertheless of 
the seven ; as when they refer to this head Constantine, who was 
the first to have the seat of empire in the east ; or Odoacer and the 
Heruli, together with the Goths and Longobards; or Boniface III. 
or Charlemagne, with the successors of both. More things suitable 
for the refutation of such opinions, if it is necessary, can be taken 
from those things which follow. 

For in this place especially my German Exegesis, and the Epi- 
crisis ofLange, are to be compared with one another. And, first of 
all, it should be agreed upon what is the subject of inquiry. We 
both admit, I. That the beast is one person, and the whore another : 
II. That Babylon is Rome, and that too especially in the last part of 
her time : III. That some things which are spoken of the beast in 
the Apocalypse, are also spoken of the fourth beast in Daniel : IV. 
That the beast is described both as a body and as an individual : V. 
That the Papacy also is pointed out in the Apocalypse : VI. That 
the impious one, who is called antichrist, is an individual. But the 
chief difference consists in this, that the Divine of Halle says that 
the Papacy is held forth under the picture of Babylon ; I maintain, 
that it is under the description of the beast, and this in such a man- 
ner, that its heads denote the papal succession from 11th century, 
and in the last time that Wicked one [2 Thess. ii. 8], at once both 
wields the Papacy, inasmuch as he is of the seven, and adds new 
malignity from the bottomless pit, inasmuch as he himself is the 
eighth. Very great weight therefore is attached by us to this part of 
the prophecy, the event of which belongs to the present day. First of 
all, I will repeat the Propositions which are laid down in that 
Exegesis on this passage, and which are examined in the Epicrisis, 
and I will partly explain them more fully, and partly vindicate them. 
I will act carefully and plainly : do you, Eeader, if you judge that it 
at all concerns you (and it does greatly concern you), see that you 
attend to me. For it is wretched, when in an important matter 
there is much of words, but no profit. He who shall, word by word, 
■^^'eigh in turns that treatise of mine on each Proposition, and the 


Epicrisis of Lange, and shall compare my present explanation with 
both, will not repent of his labour. 

Proposition 1. It is one and the same beast, having ten horns and 
seven heads, which is described, Apoc. xiii. and xvii. — D. Lange con- 
cedes this, p. 376. But when I had prepared this Proposition with 
this intention only, that the demonstration about to be then deduced 
from ch. xiii. and xvii. jointly might cohere, he, before I say any- 
thing about the whore, immediately anticipates me, and says, that 
in Ap. xiii. and xvii. the beast is so brought forward as to destroy/ 
[ch. xvii. 16] the whore OE papacy. He adds, or Papacy, from his 
own theory. Tliat the beast is different from the whore, each of us, 
as I have said, equally admits : but before the question is decided 
respecting the texts which signify the Papacy, it is neither allowable 
for me to put the Papacy for the beast, nor for him to put it for the 
whore. A perpetual error, arising out oi Homonymia (see Append.), 
prevails throughout the Epicrisis. Do you. Reader, bear this in 
mind ; for I shall not inculcate this at every passage. But for my 
part I shall proceed distinctly. 

Prop. 2. The beast is an ecclesiastico-political -power opposed to 
the kingdom of Christ. — He concedes this also, p. 377. But when 
I opposed the opinion of some, who regarded the beast as a power 
either purely spiritual, or purely political (against the opinion of D. 
Lange), and when I did not as yet assume it as applying to the 
Papacy, he protests against my taking it of the Papacy. He ought 
to have waited, until, in the course of my argument, I seemed to 
abuse this Proposition which is agreed upon on both sides. 

Prop. 3, The beast has an intimate and altogether peculiar con- 
nection with the city of Rome. — The Epicrisis, p. 377, so concedes this 
Proposition, as to say that it does not even need, proof : and yet, p. 
378, it refuses to it even probability itself, inasmuch as the beast and 
Rome are not therefore the same. But I do not say that they are 
the same, any more than he does Things connected are not the 
same : and I have proved the connection by reference to the 17th 
chapter, not because I thought that it is denied at the present day, 
but in order that this Proposition, together with the 4th, might more 
firmly support the 5th. 

Prop. 4. The beast exists at the present time. — I had required 
that these Propositions might be examined as strictly as possible. 
The Divine of Halle has examined them, but, as he says, not strictly ; 
for that it was not necessary : p. 386. It certainly was necessary 
in this Proposition, on account of the following Proposition ; an exa- 


mination of which I had particularly sought for, and that justly. I 
will speak with kindness and openness (for truth, which is brought 
into danger in this serious passage, compels me). The Epicrisis does 
not relate to its readers, of whom it certainly has many, on account of 
the celebrity of the Author, what ought especially to have been related. 
The whole of what he says is this : This Proposition rests upon the 
preceding one. But since that is entirely without foundation, namely, 
that the beast is the Papacy, this falls to the ground together with 
it : p. 377. The strong expressions, entirely, falls to the ground, and 
others, which the assurance of his own opinion everywhere supplies 
to the Venerable Author, ought not to prevent the reader from hesi- 
tating, and weighing in turn the arguments which each of us advances. 
There is need both of this admonition, and that it should be kept in 
mind. I had thus proved the Proposition : The beast has not yet 
passed : for Rome stands, and it is not until the destruction of this 
city that the beast perishes. It is not therefore altogether FUTURE : 
for the second woe has now long ago passed ; but this having passed 
away, the third woe was quickly coming, and at the beginning of 
this woe the beast quickly arose out of the sea. Therefore the beast, 
whatever it is, exists at the present day. I have not, as he says, 
built up the 4th Proposition on the preceding one, although it 
satisfied the Divine of Halle and myself ; much less does the 4th 
Proposition owe its force to this Proposition, the beast is the Papacy, 
which, though true of itself, he without cause makes equivalent to 
the preceding Proposition : for it would be an unbecoming circle, 
compared with the 5th Proposition : least of all does the 4th Pro- 
position rest on that Proposition only, for the Epicrisis mentions 
it only. My proof holds good. 1) The beast has not yet passed : 
2) it is not altogether future : 3) therefore it exists at present. 
The fourth point is not given : the Divine of Halle admits the first : 
from the first and the second the third necessarily follows : and that 
altogether overthrows the opinion of Lange respecting the beast, 
and supports mine. I proved the second point, as I was bound, by 
few words, but still from the whole connection of the prophecy, 
which cannot escape the notice of a continuous reader of the com- 
mentary brought down to that point (for it requires a reader of such 
a character). Do you seek for a summary of the arguments drawn 
from an analysis of the times? See Erkl. Offenb. p. 114. Do you 
prefer a summary of the ai-guments separated from an analysis of the 
times? See the same, p. 92, etc. The Epicrisis ought to have 
related and examined these things, rather than, in the veiy central 

APOCALYPSE Xm. 1. 271 

point on which the controversy turns, to have attributed to me a 
sohtary argument entirely destitute of weight, and, having easily 
refuted that, to have represented the matter as though quite settled 
in other respects. 

Prop. 5. The beast is the Roman Papacy. — This in truth is 
the chief Proposition, respecting which the Epicrisis treats, p. 378. 
The 3d Proposition is beyond the reach of controversy : we have 
recently vindicated the 4th. This 5th Proposition, resting on those 
two, remains irrefutable, that is, evident and certain. The beast, I 
say, is intimately connected with the city Rome : and the beast exists 
at the present day. Therefore either another power of the present 
day, greater than the Pope and more intimately connected with the 
city Rome, must be pointed out, or the Pope must be regarded as 
the beast. I had spoken more at large on this very Proposition, p. 
664 ; and the things which I had discussed, p. 659, are in agreement 
with this. By the consideration of the three woes, and moreover of all 
the things which precede and follow in the prophecy andits accomplish- 
ment, we are so shut in, that neither before nor afterwards, neither in 
the east nor in the laest, can ice think of anything else than the Papacy. 
Let those things be coinpared which are set forth at ch. xii. 12, 14. 
Add the Introduction, especially § 31, 40, 42, 44, num. 12. All 
these strong points are as yet unrefuted. 

A further argument, with a special reference to Daniel, has been 
prepared by the illustrious man, recently, with the intention of con- 
vincing me: p. 393, etc., compared with pp. 381, 384. It is a pleasing 
task : I will consider the subject itself. 

The argument proves, 1) That the beast of the Apocalypse is 
viewed, first, as an entire body, afterwards as an individual : 2) That 
the same belongs to the Roman monarchy: pp. 393, 394, 402, 403. 
I reply : I concede both points, even without the circuitous reasons 
sought from Daniel ; and this very admission shall assist in proving 
the interpretation of the beast as given by me. Let us see the 
points of importance separately. 

1) Without perceiving this difference, which takes the beast first 
as an entire body, and afterwards as an individual, he says, that an 
error is at hand : p. 394. I reply : It is true that there is this differ- 
ence; and even one of greater distinctness than appears to the 
Divine of Halle. Thence we shall see the oi-igin of the error, in 
which he is involved, especially in Proposition 10. 

2) He demonstrates, p. 934 (394 ?), etc., that there is a great 
conjunction between the beast, even taken as a whole, and the whore 


(and the Papacy). This he does excellently ; if the interpretation 
respecting the Papacy were transferred from the whore to the beast. 

3) The concentrated demonstration, as the Author calls it, by which 
it may be shown that the beast of the Apocalypse is not the Pope, 
consists of three reasons : pp. 396, 397. We will refute these. 

a) He denies that I have proved my opinion by any facts. I 
reply : I have plainly proved it, and do prove it again and again, 
by this very Proposition in particular. We will afterwards examine 
the parts of the text separately. Nor have I deemed it necessary to 
interweave at any time anything contrary together with my demon- 

li) He says, that the whole force of my demonstration, that the 
beast is the Pope, is taken from the kingly state and lordship of the 
Popes ; but that the papal hierarchy is brought forward under the 
form of the royal whore : p. 397. I reply : That this question, 
whether the kingdom of the beast or of the whore is the kingdom of 
the Pope, is not decided by the kingly, state and lordship, which each 
of them has. It was befitting that the kingly state and lordship of 
the Popes should be pointed out ; because witJiout it the Papacy 
would not be the beast ; but that the Papacy is the beast, has been 
before shown by other means. 

c) He repeats, that the beast is a different person from the whore: 
the same passage, compared with pp. 371-374. I again and re- 
peatedly grant the truth of this ; but it does not show that the Pope 
is the whore. 

4 ) The parallelism also between the prophecy of Daniel and that 
of the Apocalypse, subjoined by the Divine of Halle at the same 
place, so breaks the force of his opinion, that it corroborates mine. 
We will proceed distinctly, and by means of certain particular Ob- 
servations we shall see this 5th Proposition resulting again afresh. • 

Obs. 1. The beast of the Apocalypse bears a resemblance to the 
fourth beast of Daniel vii. 7, 8. — The Epicrisis enumerates many 
points of resemblance, pp. 398-402. Among these the very title, the 
beast, which is common to both, is conspicuous : the ten horns ; great 
poioer ; duration even until the kingdom of Christ and the saints. 
Of the mouth speaking great things, of the war with the saints, of the 
3| ti7nes, we shall speak below. 

Obs. 2. The dissimilarity also is remarkable. — There are some 
things which Daniel alone mentions : its formidable appearance, 
great strength, teeth of iron, difference from the former beasts, the 
little horn, its eyes which are those of a man, the three homs torn 


out, nails of brass, etc. Again there are many things in the Apoca- 
lypse which are new : seven heads (when there is only one in Dan. 
vii. 20) ; a name of blasphemy ; the resemblance of the beast itself, 
its feet and mouth to the third, the second, and the first beast in 
Daniel; the assistance given by the dragon; the " deadly wound" 
and its "healing;" the "wondering" of the earth; the "worship" of 
the inhabitants of the earth; the woman seated upon it; the ascent 
from the bottomless pit, etc. The ten horns themselves are de- 
scribed in one way by Daniel, in another by John. 

Obs. 3. The beast is not entirely the same. — The Divine of Halle 
thinks that it is the same ; but similar things are not always the 
same, dissimilar things even more rarely so ; and identity is incon- 
sistent with such a dissimilarity as here exists, as far as relates, for 
instance, to the heads. 

Obs. 4. The beast of the Apocalypse has its rise many ages later 
than that of Daniel. — It is doubted, whether the fourth beast of 
Daniel is the Graoo-Syrian kingdom, or the Roman empire. Each 
theory is laid down by no mean interpreters ; the former, for instance, 
by Franc. Junius, the latter by J. Lange. Take the Eoman empire, 
and fix its rise as late as possible, under Augustus, who gained pos- 
session of Egypt, the last kingdom of the Grecian monarchy. That 
was, I will not say before the birth of John, but before his vision. 

Moreover vision and prophecy belong to future events : whence, 
although the Babylonian monarchy, in the time of the prophet 
Daniel, was in the midst of its flourishing state ; yet in the vision 
its beginnings, as it were abruptly, are derived from the time then 
present: Dan. ii. 38, vii. 17. It is therefore certain that the beast 
of Daniel has an origin more ancient than that of the Apocalypse. 
But the order of John's vision demonstrates that it arose after the 
departure of the second woe, namely, the Saracenic, and under the 
trumpet of the seventh angel, after the circumstances relating to the 
dragon mentioned in ch. xii., under the third woe, after the departure 
itself of the dragon to carry on war with the remnant of the seed of 
the woman. Lange, in his Germ. Comm. on the Apoc. fol. 92, ob- 
serves, on ch. ix. 1, that '^nicTuy.ora in the past, not •7ri--TavTa, in the 
present, is said of the star : although we are not now inquiring re- 
specting the time itself of the star which fell there. It is not less 
worthy of observation, that here ^tj^/ov is described, on the other hand, 
as am^aTm in the present, not in the perfect. The ascent 
of the beast out of the sea is under the third woe. 

Obs. 5. The beast of the Apocalypse is the Eoman Papacy. This 

VOL. V. s 


flows by an inevitable sequence from the preceding observations. 
Nor do the reasons, which the Divine of Hallo proposes from Daniel 
and the Apocalypse conjointly, present any impediment to this, 
whether they be drawn from the Apocalypse alone, or from Daniel 

a) The beast, he says, is such an individual, as possesses no succes- 
sors in his kingdom : inasmuch as the kingdom is destroyed together 
with the destruction of the beast. But the Popes have successors in 
their hierarchy. — Epicr. p. 403. I reply : The last individual in 
that succession, as we shall see in Proposition 10, has no successor. 

/3) The beast arises from the stock of the princes (Regenten-Stamm) 
of the Roman monarchy : but no Pope arose from thence: at the same 
place. I reply: It does not appear, whether the Epicrisis speaks of 
the stock of princes in a genealogical, or political sense. In a genea- 
logical sense, the emperors themselves were of such a varied stock, 
that many pontiffs are with greater right considered to be of the 
Roman stock, than, for instance, Trajan himself. In a political sense, 
whatever power the Pope has, he has it from the monarchy, not from 
the hierarchy, of Rome. 

y) The beast is still future : the Popes have already long reigned : 
the same. I reply : The last Pope, a remarkable person, most 
wicked, is still future. 

b) The beast ivill obtain kingdoms with the greatest political empire: 
p. 404. I reply : The Popes have obtained them, and an individual 
Pope in his last time will obtain them much more. 

t) The beast will be cast into the lake of fire : Babylon will first 
be destroyed by the beast itself. Therefore Babylon is not the beast : 
the same. I reply: I grant this, without any injury to the Propo- 
sition. We have cleared out of the way, as I think, the more copious 
argument : now we return to the Propositions, the tenth of wliich 
will more fully illustrate this fifth, even as far as relates to Daniel. 

PiiOP. 6. This Papacy, or papal kingdom, began long since. — By 
this Proposition I do not attempt to prove, that the Pope is the beast, 
as the Epicrisis relates, p. 378. That has been proved up to this 
point. Now, that point being settled, the progress of the legitimate 
demonstration demands, that it should be shown that tliei-o is found 
in the Papacy such a power as is ascribed in the prophecy to the 
beast, in preference to that which is ascribed to the whore; and that 
there should be an investigation, as to the particular time at wjiich 
it arose. Wherefore the arguments which I had collected for this 
Proposition, are especially to the purpose. The beast is opposed to 


Christ, not with reference to His Person, but with reference to His 
kingdom : and here that must especially be considered, which the 
venerable Lange excellently teaches in the Preface to Sherlock's 
Antidote against Popery, that the doctrine concerning the Person of 
Christ retained more soundness, on account of the Oecumenical 
Councils ; but that the doctrine respecting the oiSce and kingdom of 
Christ was most openly and flagrantly corrupted. 

Prop. 7. The founder of the papal kingdom is Tlildebrand, or 
Gregory VII. 

a) The Epicrisis distinguishes between the commencement of the 
kingdom and its height : p. 379. He especially traces back the 
commencement of the Papacy to Boniface HI., whose ecumenical 
name I have not passed over, p. 462, comp. pp. 445, 446, 548 ; 
although Magnif. Pfajffius shows, in a peculiar dissertation, that the 
affair itself was not then great. 

V) The Epicrisis does not deny the height in Hildebrand, in the 
same place : But the height carries with it the decision, when any 
kingdom, after having overcome the former one, seizes upon the 
first place. See EiM. OJfenh. p. 675. 

c) The Epicrisis remarks, that in Proposition 6, and afterwards, I 
do not use the term, beast, but, the Papacy: p. 380. I reply : That 
is done according to the law of method ; for Proposition 5 showed, 
that the beast is the Pope : now, as the demonstration advances, the 
Pope, from the predicate, becomes the subject, to which further pre- 
dicates are joined in the Propositions which follow. Such terms 
ought not to be used promiscuously, while there is any point in 
question ; but the question being decided, the style becomes more 
compressed, as we have observed on Proposition 1. 

d) In this particular passage I have commended Yitringa, having 
well weighed his arguments and those of Lange. The one, in other 
places, regards as already fulfilled many things which still remain to 
ije fulfilled ; the other regards almost all things which are already 
fulfilled, as still to be fulfilled : I follow the middle and true course, 
together with the order of the text. Wliere Vitringa is in error, or 
defends an opinion which is true by arguments which are not true, 
and the Divine of Halle is either opposed to him or agrees with him, 
whether correctly or incorrectly, I look on as one not concerned. 
Wherefore he is not right in comparing my system of aiTangement 
vaih that of Vitringa ; p. 381. The epoch of Gregory indeed main- 
tains its place, as demonstrated by Vitringa and by me. The argu- 
ment, of which mention is made in the same place, has been refuted 


in Proposition 5. For that some new power was added to the 
Eoman episcopate by the aid of Gregory VII., all have admitted, 
even they who were then alive, as also they who afterwards defended 
Eome : and that very addition of power established the beast, or a 
certain empire. The new Dicta of Gregory proclaim it : the new 
Acts proclaim it. These were the Dicta, or Dictations of the man : 
1. That the Church of Eome was founded by the Lord alone. 
2. That the Roman Pontiff is alone rightly called universal. 3. That 
he alone is able to depose or restore bishops. 4. That his legate takes 
precedence of all bishops in a council, even if he be of inferior rank, 
and is able to pass sentence of deposition upon them. 5. That the 
Pope is able to depose persons in their absence. 6. That, among other 
things, we ought not even to remain in the same house with those who 
have been excommunicated by him. 7. That it is lauful for him alone, 
according to the necessity of the time, to make new laws, to collect new 
congregations of people, of a canonry to make an abbacy, and, on the 
other hand, to divide a rich bishoprick, and to unite poor ones. 
8. That he alone can use the imperial insignia. 9. That all princes 
are to kiss the feet of the Pope alone. 10. That the name of him 
alone is to be read in the churches. 11. That his name is the only 
name in the world. 12. That it is lawful for him to depose emperors. 
13. That it is lawful for him, when compelled by necessity, to transfer 
bishops from one see to another. 14. That he is able to ordain a 
clerk of the whole Church to whatever place he shall wish. 15. That 
he who is ordained by him is able to preside over another church, but 
not to serve ;^ and that he ought not to receive a higher degree from any 
bishop. 16. That no Synod can he called general without his order. 
17. That no section, and no book, can be esteemed canonical without 
his authority. 18. That his sentence ought to be repealed by no one, 
and he alone has the power of repealing the sentences of all. 19. 
That he himself ought to be judged by no one. 20. That no one inay 
dare to condemn one who appeals to the Apostolic See. 21. That the 
greater causes belonging to every church ought to be referred to him. 
22. That the Church of Rome has never erred, nor will it ever err, 
according to the testimony of Scripture. 23. That the Roman Pontiff, 
if he shall have been canonically ordained, is undoubtedly rendered 
holy by the merits of the blessed Peter, as St Ennodius testifies, the 
Bishop of Pavia, many holy fathers assenting to him, as it is contained 
in the decrees of the blessed Pope Symmachus. 24. That by his 

I " Praeesse — non militare '' seems, from the antithesis, to mean, preside as a 
superior. — not serve as a subordinate. — E. 


precept and license it is lawful for subjects to accuse. 25. That 
without a Synodal assembly he is able to depose and restore bishops. 
26. That he is not to be esteemed a Catholic, who does not agree with 
the Church of Rome. 27. That he has the power of absolving the 
subjects of wicked princes from their allegiance. 

The genuineness of these dicta has been acknowledged by 
Panvinius, P. de Marca, and Lupus ; to whom is added Ma- 
billon de re Diplom. £ 63. That they certainly give an accu- 
rate representation of the mind of Hildebrand, is demonstrated 
by Pfaffius Inst. H. E. p. 510 ; yea, Baronius calls them the Pre- 
rogatives [" privilegia"] of the Apostolic See and of the Eoman 
Pontiff: nor are the other demands of the Eomish Church of a 
different character, a great collection of which is set forth in the 
public book, written in German, derecus. Condi. Trid. pp. 134-159, 
of Nicolaus, concerning the Kingdom of Christ, ch. vii. ; Calixti 
Digress, pp. 446—456 ; Carpzov. Isag. in libb. symb. pp. 813, 814, 
and others. As was his word, so his deed. The Acts, which are 
everywhere extant, agree with his dictates. The sum of the whole 
is this : Up to this time the pontiffs had been subject to the empe- 
ror, although they often champed the bit ; but then the Pope sub- 
dued the emperor, and, under the pretext of spiritual authority, 
began in his own person to act as monarch of the whole Christian 
world. That was the crowning point, to subdue the majesty of the 
Caesars, which was the chief obstacle to his power. The alleged 
cause had reference to investitures, and this itself was part only of a 
business which was of greater moment than was supposed ; but the 
whole was of by far the greatest moment. For Panvinius shows, 
that the cause then at issue especially tended either to the entire 
overthrow of the imperial power, or to its establishment for ever. 
Let the Life of Gregory VII., by J. C. Dithmar, and the History 
of the Controversy respecting the Investiture of Bishops, until the 
agreement between Henry V. and Calixtus II., be looked into, espe- 
cially at the end. In the year 1076, in a Synod at Eome, in the 
presence of 110 bishops, Gregory VII. anathematized Henry IV. ; 
having FIRST (as Platina says) altogether deprived him of the admi- 
nistration of his kingdom. But the form of a pontifical abrogation 
[absolving of subjects from their allegiance^ was to this purport — 
(The speaker is the same ; for Sigonius expressed it in purer 
Latin) : •' O blessed Peter, prince of the apostles, incline, I pray thee, 
thine ears, and listen to me thy servant, whom thou hast both 
brought up from infancy, and hast preserved unto this day from 


the hands of the wicked, who hate and have persecuted me for my 
faith in thee. Tliou art the best witness to me, and the pious 
mother of Jesus Christ, and thy brother Paul, the sharer of mar- 
tyrdom with thee, that it is not of my own accord, but against my 
will, that I have undertaken the helm of the pontificate. Not that 
I thought it a robbery to ascend thy seat in a lawful manner, but 
I preferred to pass my life as a pilgrim, rather than to occupy thy 
place only for the sake of fame and glory. I confess, and deservedly 
so indeed, that the care of Christ's people has been committed to me, 
not through my own merits, but through thy favour ; and that the 
power of binding and loosing has been granted to me. Therefore 
relying on this confidence, for the dignity and protection of His 
holy Church, in the name of Almighty God, the Father, Son, and 
Holy Spirit, I both depose from the exercise of his imperial and 
kingly ofiice. King Heniy, the son of Henry, formerly Emperor, 
who too boldly and rashly has laid hands upon thy Church ; and I 
absolve all Christians who are subject to his authority fi.-om that 
oath, by which they have been accustomed to render allegiance to 
true kings. For it is befitting that he, who attempts to lessen the 
majesty of the Church, should be deprived of his dignity. More- 
over, because he has despised my admonitions, yea ! thine, having 
reference to the safety of himself and his people, and has separated 
himself from the Church of God, which he desires to injure by 
seditions, I bind him with the chain of an anathema ; assuredly 
knowing that thou art Peter, on whose rock, as on a true founda- 
tion, our King Christ has built His Church." " And the same 
curse," says Platina, "he confirmed afresh in the year 1080, in 
these words : ' O blessed Peter, prince of the apostles, and thou 
Paul, teacher of the nations, lend me your attention, I pray, for a 
short time, and mercifully hear me : for you are disciples and lovers 
of the truth : the things which I am about to say are true. I 
undertake this cause for the sake of the truth, that my brethren, 
whose salvation I earnestly desire, may more obediently acquiesce 
in my authority, and may know and Understand that it is through re- 
liance on your aid, next to that of Christ and his ever-Virgin 
mother, that I resist the abandoned and the wicked: and I am 
present with ready aid to the faithful. For I did not ascend this 
seat at my own will and desire ; but against my will and in tears, 
because I judged myself unworthy of sitting on so lofty a throne. 
But T say these things, because I did not choose you, but ye chose 
me, and placed on my shoulders this most heavy weight. But 


when I was ascending the mount itself by your command, as I cried 
aloud, and proclaimed to the people their crimes, and to the sons of 
the Chui-ch their sins, these members of the devil conspired against 
me, and laid their hands upon me even to bloodshed. For the 
kings of the earth, and the princes of this world, stood up, and, to- 
gether with them certain ecclesiastics and common persons, con- 
spired against the Lord, and against His anointed ones (" Christos," 
others read " Christianos"), saying : Let us break asunder their 
bonds, and cast their yoke from us : but this they did, in order that 
they might punish me either with death or with exile : And among 
these was Henry, whom they call king, — Henry, I say, the son of 
Henry the Emperor, who, in the excess of his pride, has raised his 
horns and lieel against the Church of God ; having made a confede- 
racy with many Italian, French, and German bishops, whose pride 
your authority has as yet resisted, who, broken in spirit, rather 
than reduced to a sound mind, coming to me into the Cisalpine 
country, suppliantly besought me to release him from his anathema. 
This man, when I had believed that he had come to repentance, I 
received into favour, and restored him only to communion, without 
reinstating him in his kingdom, from which I had deservedly driven 
him in a Synod at Rome ; nor did I permit those who were tributary 
to his kingdom, to return to their allegiance.' This I did to the in- 
tent, that if he should delay to return to favour with his neighbours, 
whom he had always harassed, and should refuse to restore affairs, 
both ecclesiastical and ordinary, according to his compact, he might 
be driven to his duty by curses and arms. Aided by this oppor- 
tunity, certain bishops and princes of Germany, who had long been 
harassed by this wild beast, chose Kodulph as their leader and 
king in the place of Henry, who had fallen from the kingdom by 
his crimes ; and he, with modesty and uprightness worthy of a king, 
at once sent messengers to me, from whom I might understand that 
he was compelled to undertake the government of the kingdom, 
but that he was not so desirous of reigning, as not to prefer obe- 
dience to me, rather than to those who promised him the kingdom ; 
that he wotild always be under the control of God and of us ; 
and in order that we might be assured that he would thus act, he 
promised his sons as hostages. Then Henry began to be indignant, 
and at first to implore us to repel Kodulph by curses from occupy 
ing the kingdom. I said that I wished to see to whom the right 
belonged, and that I would send thither messengers, to inquire into 
' Fidem ; others read fincm. 


the whole matter, and that I would then judge which of them was 
to be esteemed to have the better claim in the matter. Henry for- 
bade the appointment of a king by our legates, and put to death 
many persons, both secular and ecclesiastics, plundered and pro- 
faned churches, and in this manner bound himself by the bonds of 
an anathema. On this account, relying on the judgment and mercy 
of God, and on the protection of the blessed Virgin, supported also 
by your authority, I bind Henry himself and his partisans with the 
bond of an anathema : and I again deprive him of his royal power ; 
and I forbid all Christians, as being absolved from that oath, by 
which allegiance is wont to be paid towards sovereigns, to obey 
Henry in any thing ; and I oi*der them to receive Eodulph for their 
king, whom many princes of the province, having deposed Henry, 
chose as their most excellent king. For it is right that, as Henry 
is deprived of his privileges on account of pride and obstinacy, so 
Eodulph, who is acceptable to all on account of his piety and re- 
ligion, should be presented with the royal dignity. Come, therefore, 
ye most holy princes of the apostles, and confirm what I say by the 
interposition of your authority, that all may now at length under- 
stand, that, if you have the power of loosing and binding in heaven, 
we also have power bn earth to take away and to bestow empires, 
kingdoms, principalities, and whatever mortals have power to hold. 
For if you have power to judge things which relate to God, what 
must we think respecting these inferior and common matters ? And 
if it is yours to judge angels, who bear rule over haughty princes, 
what is it befitting that you (others read we) should do towards 
their servants ? Let kings and all princes of the world now learn 
by his example, what power you have in heaven, and how great 
you are with God ; so may they henceforth fear to despise the 
commands of the holy Church. But quickly exercise this judgment 
upon Henry, that all may understand that the son of wickedness 
falls from his kingdom not accidentally, but through your instru- 
mentality. I could however wish to obtain this from you, that, led 
by repentance, he may at your request obtain favour from the Lord 
at the day of judgment. Given at Rome on the 7th of March, at 
the third indiction.' " By the Divine interdict (which says) " Ven- 
geance is mine," the anger of man ought to be restrained even now, 
if any one reads or calls to mind the unheard-of insult offered to the 
young Emperor, and the haughtiness of the pastor, throughout the 
whole business : the former deserted by all ; compelled openly to 
ask for pardon ; in the severity of winter, creeping, rather than 


walking ; waiting out of doors in foul clothing, until it suited the 
convenience of the latter, from the lofty citadel of Canusium, at 
least to look down upon the suppliant Emperor, in the year 1077. 
Then Henry left Italy : Gregory, having established himself at 
Rome, began to reign vigorously. In the same year he sent letters 
to the island of Corsica, which give no slight illustration of his 
ascent oat of the sea. One of them runs thus, according to Nic. 
Colet : 

'■ Gregory, bishop, servant of the servants of God, to all bishops, 
clergy, consuls, greater and less, who exist in the island of 
Corsica, greeting, and the apostolical benediction. 

" Since, on account of the numerous engagements necessary for 
discharging the debt of our anxiety, we are not able in person to 
visit the churches of the several provinces, it is most necessary that, 
when circumstances or the time requires it, we should endeavour to 
send some one to that office, by whom the authority committed to 
us according to the will of God may be represented, and provision 
may be made for the safety and general advantage of the Lord's 
flock. For we know that it cannot be without detriment and great 
peril of souls, when the diligence of him on whom the chief business 
and the necessity of care principally devolves, is for a long time 
wanting to the brethren placed under him and committed to him. 
Wherefore, weighing these things, and greatly fearing lest the inter- 
mission for so long a time of the exercise of such a foresight towards 
you should both be construed on our part into a charge of negligence, 
and (which Heaven forbid) should be injurious or opposed to your 
safety, as soon as the opportunity was presented to us, we have sent 
to you this our brother Landulph, bishop elect of the church of 
Pisa, to whom also we have entrusted our office among you, that, 
duly carrying out those things which relate to the order of our holy 
religion, according to the word of the prophet, he may pluck up and 
destroy, build and plant ; and we wish you to obey him, and unani- 
mously stand by him, admonishing you and enjoining you, with 
apostolic authority, that you show to him such honour and rever- 
ence as it is your duty, according to the appointment of the holy 
fathers, to show to those whom the holy and apostolic See, in its pre- 
science, appoints, as fit to be admitted to a share of its anxiety, and 
to be entrusted with the representation of the Roman Pontiff. — Given 
at Sena, September 1st, at the commencement of the fikst indic- 


This letter derives additional weight from another, which follows. 


" GreiTory, the bislioj), the servant of the servants of God, to all 
bishops and noble men, and to all who are established in the 
island of Corsica, both greater and less, greeting, and the apos- 
tolical benediction. 
" Ye know, brethren and beloved sons in Clirist, that It is mani- 
fest not only to you, but to many nations, that the island which ye 
inhabit, belongs, according to debt or strict proprietii of justice, to 
no one of mortals, and to no poiver, but the holy Church of Kome ; 
and that they who have held it up to this time with violence, ex- 
hibiting no service, no fidelity, no subjection at all or obedience to 
the blessed Peter, have involved themselves in the crime of sacrilege, 
and in great peril to their souls. But learning, through certain 
faithful friends of ours and yours, that you desire to return to the 
honour and just rights of the apostolic principality, as you know to 
be your duty, and that the just rights which have been long taken 
away by invaders should be restored to the blessed Peter, in your 
times and by your exertions, we greatly rejoiced, knowing that this 
will turn out not only to your present, but also to your future advan- 
tage and glory. Nor ought you to feel distrust, or to entertain any 
doubt in this cause, inasmuch as, if only your goodwill shall remain 
firm, and your faith unmoved towards the blessed Peter, we have, 
through the mercy of God, many troops of counts and noblemen, 
in Tuscany, prepared, if it shall be necessary, for your assistance and 
defence. Wherefore, as seemed to us most befitting in this business, 
we have sent to you our brother Landulph, bishoj) of the church of 
Pisa, to whom also we have entrusted our oflfice by deputy among 
you in spiritual matters, that lie may receive the land on the part 
of the blessed Peter, and on our account, anfl may rule it with all 
zeal and diligence, and may interest himself in arranging concerning 
:ill matters and causes which belong to tlio blessed Peter, and through 
liim to ourselves. And we wish you, in accordance with the love 
and reverence which you boar towards the same blessed Peter, the 
prince of the apostles, to obey him, and faithfully to assist him in all 
tilings, and we admonish you by the apostolic authority so to do — , 
And that he may be more free from anxiety, and ready for all things 
among you, we admonish you not to withhold fidelity towards him, if 
he shall demand it, when you have first observed fidelity to St Peter, 
and to us and our successors, and that you will not refuse this to him 
on any opportunity. — Given at Komc on the IGth of September, in 
the first Indiction." 

Add that the Emperor was afterwards deprived of the imperial in- 

APOCALYPSE Xlll. 1. 283 

signia by Lis son, at the instigation of Paschal II. ; that the clergy 
whom he had enriched, did not even supply him, when so deprived, 
^Yith bread ; and, at last, that burial was for a long time refused to 
Iiim. No drudge was ever treated by a pm-veyor worse. This was 
something new and remarkable : so it was right that the time should 
be distinguished when the Emperor became inferior and the Pope 
superior. And it was not only the imperial Majesty, but the whole 
Majestj^ of all Christian princes, which Gregory claimed to reduce 
into subjection to Peter, that is, to himself, and did actually reduce 
in a great degree ; so that he took away, conferred, and transferred 
kingdoms, titles, and fiefs, as though he were king of kings, more 
noble than the noble, avu^s-eWuvo,-, irresponsible. "Whether Gregory 
repented on his deathbed or not, his successors nevertheless thought 
that that which he had gained was their booty (Comp., so far, Matt. 
xxvii. 4) : and, the foundation being once laid, they built upon it the 
superstructure of their own Monarchy. For the things are well 
known which the Popes afterwai'ds both dared and actually executed 
against emperors and princes ; and which were so far from being re- 
tracted by later Popes, that Gregory VII. was at length gradually 
enrolled among the gods by Clement VIII., by Paul V., and by 
Benedict XIII. A senseless thunderbolt of Sixtus V. (p. 75, etc.) 
recounts the kings who held their power on feudal tenure. Tanner 
openly says : " I say that the Pontiff is the head of the Roman em- 
pire itself, and of the universal Christian Church : I add and amplify- 
the saying, that he is the head of the Roman Emperor, and of all 
princes of the empire, and of each of them." — Anat. Demonstrat. 
5, n. 131. We have the beast, that is, a king : whence also, about 
those times, for instance, a. 1103, some icritings are said to have been 
given in the reign of the Pope, as Mabillon teaches, de Re diplom. 
p. 187. He was king, however, not in name, but in reality. Not in 
name : for antichrist himself shall possess the Roman empire, yet 
■without the name of Roman Emperor, as Bellarmine excellently says, 
de Rom. Pont. c. 15 : but in reality; for Blondus says, "The 
princes of the world now adore and reverence, as perpetual Dictator, 
not the successor of Csesar, but of the fisherman Peter, and the vicar of 
the aforesaid Emperor, the Supreme Pontiff." And Aug. Steuchus : 
•' On the overthrow of the empire, had not God restored the ponti- 
fical power, it would have come to pass that Rome, paised and re- 
stored by none, uninhabitable, would afi:en\'ards have become a most 
foul dwelling-place of cattle and flocks. But in the pontificate, al- 
though there was not the greatness of the ancient empire, it re\-ived 


again not much different in appearance, because all nations from the 
east and the west venerate the Eoman Pontiff, just as they used m 
former times to obey the emperors." In fact the spiritTial title se- 
parates the name of king from the reality itself: for the Roman 
empire has been changed FROM the temporal to the spiritual, 
as Thomas wrote on 2 Thess. ii. ; and that temporal empire has been 
changed to the power of the Koman See, as Dominic of Sos dictates 
from Leo, Bishop of Eome ; yea, so that even as the episcopate is 
sometimes said to be secularized, so the Christian world bearing rule 
is, as it were, spiritualized and amortised [alienated and made over to 
the spiritual power]. But the head of this new system is Gregory. 
He FIRST, under the appearance of religion, laid the foundations of the 
rule of Antichrist ; so that, according to Aventine, 170 years after- 
wards, at the Council of Ratisbon,Eberhard, Archbishop of Saltzburg, 
noticed this Epoch. Aventine himself says : Gregory VII. first 
founded the pontifical empire. See Vitringa in Ap., who, p. 570, etc., 
has both confirmed the rise of this Hildebrand himself, having re- 
futed others who interpreted the prophecy of Rome pagan, and Dio- 
cletian, and has collected many testimonies, which we have lately 
brought forward. But also M., Ant., on the subject of Lords, says 
respecting Hildebrand : He was the first who wished in open war 
to exercise power over kings and emperors : 1. iv. de rep. eccl. c. 3. 
And that a new and unheard-of precedent being established, it was 
effected, that the Pope not only excommunicated Csesar, but even 
deprived him of his office, Lairizius proves on the weighty testi- 
monies of Otto of Frisingia, of Godofrid of Viterbo, John Trithemius, 
and On. Panvinius, in his history of the Papacy, in German, p. 
482, etc. To these may be added the Exx. of Ts. Casaubon c. 
Baron., throughout; the 2d book especially of John, Bishop of 
Rochester, on the power of the Pope in temporal matters, ch. 9 and 
10 ; Hottinger's Eccl. Hist. Cent. xi. ; BlondeWs discussion on the 
formula, Christ being King, sect. ii. ch. 16 : Edm. Richer' s Hist. cone, 
gen. T. L ch. 13, p. 758; Natal Alexander's Hist. Eccl. Cent. xi. 
and xii. Diss. ii. art. 9 ; Du Pin on the ancient discipline of the 
Church, diss. lih.;A. Rechenberg's diss, on the totality of Hildebrand ; 
the Observ. misc. of Deylingius, exerc. the 6th, respecting the novelty 
of monarchical rule over the universal Church ; the Diss, of Maiche- 
lius on the right of the prince with respect to public teaching, pp. 
57, 58, etc. 

In his Calculation of the years of the world, T. iv. Jen. Lat., fol. 
741, etc., Luther in a memorable manner remarked, under tbn 

APOCALYPSE xni. 1. 285 

1000th year of redemption, The bishop of Rome becomes Antichrist, 
even by the power of the sword. 

It was by no instantaneous metamorphosis that the Pope passed' 
from the spiritual simplicity of the first bishops to a height beyond 
all majesty of the world ; but he imperceptibly acquired authority 
and influence, until, by an effort altogether extraordinary, he 
reached the highest point. From this origin the new kingdom used 
its own state, its own form, its own style, much more than before : 
and whereas hitherto the Pope had been a shepherd, with a princi- 
pality annexed to his office, now he has come forth as a monarch, 
with the episcopate annexed to his office, yet with the title of the 
episcopate. On which account, even at the present day, foreign 
kings, for instance the Chinese, in their letters, address the Pope 
as King. Let us go through the chief points of the facts. He gra- 
dually obtained his own senate, the cardinals, who rejoiced in raising 
themselves by equal steps with the Pope, who, having first excluded 
the people, and then also the whole of the clergy and the Emperor, 
elected the Pope, and that too out of their own body : his own sol- 
diers, the clergy, who were withdrawn from the civil power, bound 
to the Pontiff by celibacy, and distinguished from the laity by the 
use of the cup at the Eucharist : most ample territory, especially by 
means of Matilda : his own vassals. Christian kings, as we have 
said : his own body of laws, the Canon Law, fenced in by the scho 
lastic theology : his own assemblies, the Councils, called under his 
own auspices ; for formerly all the oecumenical councils had been in 
the east, afterwards all were in the west : his own satellites, monks, 
especially of the Dominican and Franciscan orders, and recently 
the Jesuits : his own tribunal, that of the Inquisition : his own 
badge, that mystic tiara, which was made threefold, A. 1048, and 
which is called the Kingdom of the world. From Gregory VII. espe- 
cially the pontiffs omitted the years of the emperors, and substituted 
their own ; and this custom they afterwards retained, together ivith the 
Indiction, as Mabillon says, p. 181 ; and what is the meaning of 
this usage, is plain from 1 Mace. xiii. 41, 42 : and Paschal II., a 
few years afterwards, began to do that very thing more solemnly. 
From about that time, greater regard is paid by historians to the 
coronation of the Pope than to his consecration ; for instance, by 
Panvinius, in his Chronicle of the Pontiffs, and by the Pope him- 
self, in reckoning his own years. The same Gregory at that time 
claimed for himself alone the very name of Pope, and the title of 
Holiness, and the kissing of his feet, which had been common to 


bishops and abbots. Nor further back than the age of Hildebrand 
had Claudius Fleury anything to say respecting the morals of 
Christians, described in his French Treatise. But even at this time, 
first, a pubhc protesting first waxed strong against this kingdom, 
made up of heaven and earth (with what purity, we do not ask), by 
means of Arnald of Brixia, whom on that account Baronius deems 
to have been the patriarch of political heretics. We must not omit 
to notice, that by Gregory VII. especially the majesty of the em- 
pire and the sanctity of marriage were at the same time violated : 
whence those two heresies were invented, that of Simoniacs and 
that of the Nicolaitans. And indeed the sanctity .of marriage was 
impugned in the case of priests, not in the case of all men ; but 
still it was on such grounds, as to depress the marriage state itself. 
Whoever the king is, whom Daniel points out, ch. xi., that senti- 
ment, at any, rate, which is found in ver. 37, He shall not regard the 
desire of ivomen, and any of the gods (for this is the reading, of the 
Septuagint ; but the Vulgate, not following this, removes the nega- 
tive from the former clause) : it is especially suited to that despiser 
of marriage, and of the majesty of the Csesars, the Pontiff Gre- 
gory VII. 

The Romanists upbraid the Protestants, because in fixing the 
beginning of antichrist they differ from one another by many cen- 
turies.' They might in truth have upbraided them with the differ- 
ence of a thousand years and more : so wide an extent the subject 
has. In truth, all things, which are done, have both a time in which 
they are done, and a point of time in which they begin to be done ; 
and the more accurate the knowledge of the time is, the more does 
it assist the knowledge of the fact. But again there may be a know- 
ledge of the fact, even though you are far distant from the knowledge 
of the time : otherwise, many men would have to hesitate respecting 
themselves, whether they are in the world, because they do not know 

^ But who is not surprised that discrepancies of this hind are reviled on every 
opportunity by some of the more recent editors, who are called Lutherans ? The 
matter of complaint, which the sainted author touched upon in these words {in der 
Erld. Offenb. Ed. II. p. 687, and the following), derives fresh weight from day 
to day. Viel beschwerlicher ist es, dass von wenigen Jahren der etliche in der 
evangelischen Kirche sehbst die rechte Auslegung des Thiers nicht nur fahren 
lassen, soudern auch gar bestreiten, da dieselbe doch von der Waldenser Zeiten 
her mit dem Blut so vieler Wahrheits. Zeugen beliraftiget, durch die Refor- 
mation so theuer behauptet, durch das immer zunehniende Licht so deutlich 
erwiesen ist, und, in der bevorstehenden Drangstal auszuharren so uneiitbehrlich 
soyn wird. But, in truth, " the chariot does not ohej/ tJie reins." E. D. 


at what hour, on what day, in what mouth, in what year, and even 
more than this, they were born. However the time of the beast's 
birth is sufficiently plain. For the apostasy and mystery of iniquity 
has increased in various ways from its earliest threads, and does still 
increase, until he comes forth 6 avTiiisl/ji,ivoi xal vvepaipof/.svoc, who 
opposeth and exalteih himself: 2 Thess. ii. 3, etc. The trumpet of 
the seventh angel in the Apocalypse divides the whole duration into 
two parts. Before that trumpet, either from other passages of the 
Apocalypse or from the Apostolic writings, the adversary is presup- 
posed in mystery : under the trumpet of the seventh angel, at a short 
interval after its beginning, the beast is opposed to Christ in his 
open kingdom, which is a consideration of far greater weight. The 
times of the former steps, on this very account, because they are 
varied and concealed, are not precisely defined in the New Testa- 
ment, wlierefore it is of no consequence to notice them particularly 
in their accomplishment : but with regard to the kingdom and its 
flourishing state, which is treated of, Ap. xiii., the times are at once 
precisely defined, and John, as Bellarmine, 1. iii. de Rom. Pont. ch. 
3, says, has even added ininutice; and we show that these very minutias 
have reference to the times. It is plain from this, what answer 
ought truly to be given to Bellarmine, who, 1. iii. de Eom. Pont. ch. 
3, at the end, thus refutes the sentiment, which he attributes to W. 
Musculus, respecting the beginning of Antichrist at the time of 
Bernard : There were pontiffs incomparably worse from the year 900 
to 1000, than there were from 1100 to 1200; if therefore they were 
not antichrists, how shall these be ? But in truth it is not their pecu- 
liar wickedness which ought to be considered (though this in no 
slight degree promoted the public opinion which prevailed respecting 
the approach of Antichrist, and certainly entered into the beginning 
of the third woe), but rather that worst form of a new kingdom 
established by Gregory VII., which is most opposed to the kingdom 
of Christ, and most deadly to the Church. 

Prop. 8. The year 1077 properly contains the beginning of the 
Papacy of Hildehrand. — The subject of this year itself is treated of 
in Proposition 7 : the part of the year, in Proposition 9. 

Prop. 9. In the year 1077, the month of September deserves con- 
sideration, and the first day of that month. — The Indiction accompanies 
the Epoch of the Totality of Hildebrand, which was then commencing 
with the month of September, and that the first Indiction. The 
letters to the Corsicans, exhibited in Proposition 7, are distinguished 
by the besinning of the first Indiction. 


We do not say that the rising out of the sea was completed in a 
moment ; but it has a remarkable extent, and that indeed, if you 
please, from Gregory YJl. to Alexander III. See ErH. Ojfenh. p. 
670. The horoscope however, so to speak, comes to be observed. 

Pkop. 10. Xeithi^r enemies, noi' friends of tlie truth, ought to lead 
?M airai/ from the truth of tJiis interpretation. — I dissent fi'om my 
opinion more easily than the Epicrisis supposes, p. oS2. But when 
the ancient testimony of the truth, as far as its chief portion is tlie 
genuine interpretation of the beast as referring to the Papacy, is en- 
dangered, and illustrious men, who are in fault however on this point, 
now at this particular point abandon the interpretation, there is just 
ground for grief: and the more shall join tbeir suf&'ages with them, 
the greater will the fear become of injury about to follow. The 
right exposition, which sees the Papacy under tlie description of the 
beast, adds much greater strengtli for patience and faith (ch. xiv. 12), 
than that inferior one, which looks for it under the description of the 
whore. And altogether it is injurious to depart from the genuine 
meaning of the prophecy. The Didne of Halle, p. 383, denies that 
those witnesses of the truth regarded the Papacy as the beast. But 
there were many who did so regai'd it : as Purv»us, before the Ee- 
formation ; and after it, Cluver : others undoubtedly regarded it as 
the other beast, which was most closely united with that, Ap. xiii., 
as Luther did. 

The same (Lange) does not remember that he has ever heard or 
read, that the ichoi'e is plaitdi/ the city of Home, nameli/, in so far as 
the cifi/ is to be distinauished from the I'apacv, rrhich must be regarded 
as the beast of the Apocidi/pse : and he applies to me the appearance 
of singularity in my opinion. Whether it is the author, says he, xcho 
prates fooUshly, or I IN company with others, let the reader judge. 
Epicr. p. 385, and the following. Pai-eus is expressly on my side : 
Comm. on the Apoc. col. 874, 8i12 : nor do I add others. For all, 
who recognise the Papacy as pointed out in ch. xiii. of the Ajioca- 
lypse (and they are very man)-), cannot fiiil likewise to distinguish 
Babylon from it, although they do not all make the distinction \\ith 
equal propriety. I often appear- an innovator, when I bring forward 
again ancient truth, here recognised by Luther in almost all par- 
ticulars : Nor do I deny, that the knowledge of ancient sentiments, 
without any prejudging of the authority, has given me no liltio 
assistance. See Er/cl. Ofcnh. pp. 1111, 1121. Let us return to the 

The Divine of Halle is right indeed in teaching, that the beast is 


different from the and that the same is regarded, either as a 
bcJy. or as an tndicidual : but he neither distinguishes the paragraphs 
which treat respecting die body, and respecting the individual ; nor 
the s-:a and the bcttomhsi pit, from which the beast has its twofold 
origin : nor its heads and horits ; nor has he a =un:cien:> iarire idea 
of Some, if the Papacy were removed. Epicr. -^ i^. 3 >?. S S 7. o> S. 393. 
Wherefore we vni[ unfold these parts also bv cr:5er\ arijiis as distinct 
as possible. Atteni. ve who love the truth. 

Obs. 1. The beast of the AjMcalupse is the Romish Papicy, which 
has now reiffned through many years. — This is the sum and substance 
of Proposition 5. "Where that ends, there the remainder of this con- 
sideration begins. 

Obs. 2. The l-:ast has both ten horns and seren heads. — John plainly 
writes this. 

Obs. 3. The seren heads are both seven hilk and sei-fn kings : and 
the same are dijrerent Jrom the ten horns. — The former part of the 
Observation is e^ressly written and extant : the seren heads are the 
seren hills on which the woman sits, and are scven tings. Xor would 
it have been possible for one of the heads of the beast to be as tf were 
wounded to death, if it were a hill apart from a king. As to the other 
part of the Observation, the heeds are heads, the horns are horns : the 
heads are seven, the horns ten. They are not synonvms. nor are the 
horns changed into heads : for they are mentioned conjointly. T/ie 
heaJs succeed one another : the horns are at the same time. The heads 
extend themselns through the whole duration of the beast : the horns 
are at the close of the time cf the beast. The Ae,;ij are of the sub- 
stance cf the beast : the her .s are scmetMnj adseititicu-s. TTe bave 
here brought together the differences into one accumulated mass : 
whatever of them is doubtful, will be confirmed by-and-by. The 
Divine of Halle, without perceiving the diference between the beast 
or Daniel and the Apocalypse, has not even been able to account for 
the remarkable difference between the heads, of which the beast of 
the Apocalypse (not so that in Daniel) has seven, and the ten horns : 
and on the contrary, he has made a wide, but unfortunate, separa- 
tion between the seven heads and the seven Mngr He snsTrecrs that 
the kings are Pharaoh, Jeroboam, Ahab, Xebuchadnezzar. Antiochns 
(what connection is there between these and the mountains of Eome f \ 
Domitian, Antichrist : but he says that the heads are likewise the 
kinc:s and horns in one age ; and that by the rooting up of three of 
them the number ten, under Antichrist, is changed into the number 
seven. — Comm. Apoc. £ -0-. 

TOl_ v. T 


Obs. 4. The rising of the least out of the sea, is different from his 
rising out of the bottomless pii.— The Apocalypse often makes men- 
tion oithe sea, often the bottomless pit ; but it never uses these two 
names promiscuously, and in the places respecting the beast it makes 
a most clear distinction : for in this passage the beast ascends out of 
the sea ;' and ch. xi. 7, his ascent out of the bottomless pit is repre- 
sented in such a way, that the same is described, ch. xvii. 8, by a 
head as though future. This must be carefully kept in mind. 

Obs. 5. The heads of the beast do not begin before his rising out of 
the sea, but contemporaneously with that rising itself. — What advance 
is made in understanding, when the beast, as the subject, is designated 
from Eomulus, Brutus, etc., as the chief men of Rome, or at all 
events from Pharaoh, Jeroboam, etc., as the forerunners of Anti- 
christ (respecting whom the Gebhards and Lange are for the most 
part agreed) ? Nay, it is the things predicated of the beast that are 
described by a vivid representation [Hypotyposis. — Append.] of his 
future circumstances and actions : and this tends to instruction. Just 
as, after the casting of the dragon out of heaven, and after the begin- 
ning of the third woe, the beast arose out of the sea : Prop. 5, Obs. 4; 
so the feet, and the mouth, and the horns, etc., do not precede the rise 
of the beast, but accompany and follow it : nor ought the heads 
alone to be excepted, and to be thought to be prior to that rising ; 
for the name of blasphemy, is said to be upon the heads without any 
exception, namely, all (just as there are crowns upon all his horns): 
nor are times assigned to one or two of the more recent heads, but 
to the beast itself which arose out of the sea ; a point which ought to 
be most accurately noticed, although the heads cannot subsequently 
be separated from the successive times. Again, the heads begin to- 
gether with the rising out of the sea itself; for the beast is never 
without a head : and so in the very first time mention is made of 
one head, that is, the first, smitten with a deadly blow. 

Obs. 6. The heads succeed one another. — D. Lange rightly acknow- 
ledges that the kings succeed each other : therefore also the heads 
succeed each other, for the heads are kings : Obs. 3. The succes- 
sion is declared in the following Observation. 

Obs. 7. Tliat space of time, which has a series of seven heads, is 
divided into three clauses, or into three articles. — Five (of the kings, 
who equally with the hills are signified by the heads of the beast) 
have fallen : one is : the other is not yet come; and when he is come, he 
must continue a little space. 

Obs. 8. The present time, in reference to i6hich the angel speaks 

APOCALYPSE Xlll. I. 291 

(xvii. 1, 10), falls into the middle clause. — The present time is, 
according to the Divine of Halle, in reference to the vision of John; 
whence he gives this interpretation : One (that is, Domitian) is, and 
the other (that is, Antichrist) is not yet come. But this expression, 
one is, and that, which we shall presently see, the beast is not, cor- 
respond with each other ; nor can that, is not, whichever way you 
turn it, be in any way applied to the Eoman empire according to 
the time of the vision : or does the subsequent clause, the other is 
not yet come, permit that this, one is, should be applied to Domitian. 
For the particle not yet excludes the interval between one and the 
other, who are strictly joined together even by the contradistinction 
between ihefive kings, and the one and the other. But Domitian 
was slain more than 1600 years ago; and to the present day that 
expression holds good : the other is not yet come. The present time, 
in speaking, is often the present in reference to the series of events 
itself. Such is the expression, thou didst gird thyself, etc., John xxi. 
18. From this the prophets address future persons as if they were 
already born and alive ; for instance, Ezek. xxxviii. 17. Thus the 
first and the second woe are said to have gone : Ap. ix. 12, xi. 14. 
Add the expressions: tliey lived; who has; they shall be: ch. xx. 
4, 6. Comp. ch. xvii. 12, 14. This very method of speaking was 
remarkably proved by Bossuet, not to mention others, in the general 
thesis ; for the particular hypothesis, which it supported, is nothing, 
being refuted by others long ago, and that with more labour than 
was necessary. So, in this passage, the angel plainly expresses three 
times, placing both himself and John in the middle of them, that is, 
in the second ; in order that with a more suitable difference the first 
time may be declared to be in the past, the second in the present. 
and the third in the. future : nor was there any other cause, why the 
angel should rather assume for the present, that time in which the 
beast is not, than that in which it is. 

Obs. 9. The duration of the beast is itself divided into the same 
articles. — The beast was ; he is not; he will ascend out of the bottom- 
less pit and perish, etc. : ch. xvii. in ver. 8 twice, and in ver. 11. 
Between these Versicles this is inserted as if parallel : five have 
fallen ; one is ; one is not yet come, etc. : ver. 11. The sum made 
up from both is, the beast from the sea ; the beast not yet ; the beast 
from the bottomless pit. 

Obs. 10. Babylon is Rome. — The name, Rome, 'Pw/Mri, is so called 
from strength : whence formerly the same was called Valentia. The 
mighty city, ch. xviii. 10, is so called by Antonomasia [an Appella- 


tive for a proper name. — Append.], not by way of epithet. All 
things, which the Apocalypse says respecting Babylon, apply to 
Eome, and Eome only. This is Babylon, until it is entirely de- 
stroyed : but when did it begin to exist 1 Then, when it began to be 
mighty. When Babylon ceased to exist in the East, it emerged in 
the West. It existed therefore already in the time of the apostles; 
and their just cause is said to be "avenged" on Babylon, ch. xviii. 
20, not for this reason, because the apostles predicted that avenging 
judgment, which reason is alleged by D. Lange in Comm. Ap. f. 
213, who restricts Babylon to the degenerate hierarchy in Century 
VII., and thus makes it too late ; but because, as she slew the saints 
and prophets, so also she slew the apostles. Comp. ver. 24. The 
first mention of Babylon is, ch. xiv. 8; nor is it there indicated, that 
Eome was then beginning to be Babylon : but just as the Lamb, 
who was long ago the Lamb, is presupposed as such in the Apoca- 
lypse ; and, on the contrary, the dragon, which had long ago been 
the dragon, is presupposed as such : so Babylon, which had long 
been Babylon, is presupposed as such. The present time of Babylon 
in action is determined in the Apocalypse by those things, which 
are attributed to the city. 

Ohs. 11. The beast reigns both before the kingdom of Babylon and 
after the kingdom of Babylon. — The Divine of Halle rightly judges 
that it is not possible for both the whore and the beast to rejoice at 
the same time in so great a kingdom : but he also places the reign 
of the beast not until after the reign of the whore. First the beast 
reigns, ch. xiii. 1, etc. : then Babylon, ch. xvii. 1, etc.; and the beast 
a second time, the same ch. ver. 8, etc. My analysis accurately 
keeps to the order of the text : the Epicrisis does not. 

Obs. 12. The heads are of tire very substance of the beast; the 
horns are something adscititious.- -The wound of one head is said to 
be also the wound of the beast itself: but the horns, or kings, to- 
gether WITH the beast, receive the kingdom, ch. xiii. 3, xvii. 12. 
Moreover the seven kings, not by themselves, but together with the 
hills, are the heads of the beast : therefore they have that close con- 
nection with the city, which none but the Eoman pontiffs have ; 
and they are the pontiffs themselves. But that otie expression, the 
horns AND the beast, same ch. ver. 16, suflBciently distinguishes the 
horns from the beast, as something subsidiary. 

Obs. 13. Into the first division (Obs. 7) fall the XLIL months of 
the beast; which certainly comprise some centuries. — The beast arose 
out of the sea, A. 1077,, and shortly afterwards power was given to 


him for XLii. months : moreover that power has continued to the 
present time. The nearer determination of this point is explained 

Ohs. 14. Tlie non-being of the beast and the kingdom of Babylon are 
contemporaneous. — The prophecy plainly fixes each of these to the 
middle of the three divisions, of which the duration of the beast is 
made up. The beast raged vehemently after his ascent from the 
sea, until his kingdom became obscured by the vial of the fifth angel. 
But still a kingdom, though obscured, is a kingdom : and the beast, 
having an obscured kingdom, is still the beast. But at length 
matters came to such a pitch, that there was occasion for this saying 
(xvii. 8) : The beast was, was the beast, that is, was reigning, and 
that too unjustly : and is not, is not the beast, does not reign, having 
lost that standing which it had when it arose from the sea : Why 
so ? Because the Woman is seated on the beast (xvii. 3), and the 
beast is subservient to her as a beast of burden; whereas the woman, 
rejoicing in her rule over the kings of the earth, sits as a gueen 
■ (xviii. 7). In such a form is she brought forward upon the stage, 
under the third woe, after the rising of the beast out of the sea 
(xiii. 1), and of the other beast out of the earth (xiii. 11), after the 
affairs of the 14th chapter, and therefore after the pouring out 
of the vials, until the beast arising out of the bottomless pit (xi. 7, 
xvii. 8), having joined unto him the ten kings, shall suddenly 
destroy her. 

Obs. 15. At that time especially will be brought to light the differ- 
ence, which there has never ceased to be, between Rome and the Pope. — 
Vitringa, Anacr. p. 756, has too slightly defined the difference be- 
tween Rome and the Pope ; and therefore the Divine of Halle has 
with greater spaciousness concealed the Papacy under Pome. We 
have shown a more ample difference in the Erkl. Offenb. pref. § ix. 
and pp. 689, 776, 777, and on the whole of ch. 17, especially p. 845 ; 
but since those things, which are there noticed in a scattered man- 
ner, are overlooked by many, we will in this one place explain the 
matter more distinctly and fully. When Rome is mentioned, even 
apart from the Pontiff, three things are spoken of, — the city on seven 
hills, the Church of Rome, and the Roman state. Is. Newton, in his 
Observ. on Dan., Guil. Suderman being the translator, describes 
the Roman state with such a meaning, as to interpret the three 
horns, which were torn up by the little horn, of the reduction of the 
Exarchate, of the kingdom of the Lombards, and of Rome and 
its Senate, under the power of the Pope. This opinion, which re- 


presents the horn too early, being set aside, the whole passage will 
admirably help towards forming a just idea respecting the Eoman 
state. '■ Eome," he savs, " with its dukedom, which comprised a 
part of Etruria and Campania, revolted from the Greek emperors, 
A.c. 726, and became a free republic, under the goTemment of the 
Eoman Senate. The authority of this Senate at length became 
supreme in civil affairs ; the authority of the Pope up to this time 
not extending beyond ecclesiastical affairs :" p. 53. Again : " In 
the year 7J^, Leo III., being created Pontiff, by an embassy in- 
formed Charles the Great of his election, sending at the same time 
as a gift golden keys of the Confession of Peter, and also a banner 
of the city of Eome : the former indeed, as an admission that the 
Pope held the cities of the Exarchate of Eavenna and Lombardy by 
the gift of Charles ; the latter, to signify to the Mng, that he should 
return and subdue the Senate and people of Eome, just as he had 
subdued the Exarchate and kingdom of the Lombards. For the 
Pontiff asked at the same time of Charles, that he should send some 
of his princes to Eome, who might subject to him the Eoman 
people, and bind them by an oath, in fidelity and subjection, as Sigo- 
nius relates the words which he used. An anonymous poet, edited 
by Boeder, at Strasburg, describes it in this manner : — ' And he 
admonished him with pious prayers, that he might be pleased to 
send some of his own chiefs, and to render the people of Eome 
subject to him, and compelling them to promise the keeping of 
their compact of fidelity by great oaths.' ^ 

" Hence a disagreement arose between the Pope and the Eoman 
citizens. And these indeed, two or three years afterwards, aided 
by some of the clergy, stirred up such great tumults against him, as 
to become the cause of a new aspect of affairs throughout the 
whole TTest. For two of the clergy accused the Pope of certain 
crimes ; and shortly afterwards the Eomans seized upon him with 
armed force, stripped him of his sacerdotal vestments, and im- 
prisoned him in a monastery. But when, by the aid of his friends, 
he had escaped, he fled into Germany, to Charles the Great, to 
whom he complained of the Eomans, as though they opposed him 
with this intent, that they might shake off the whole authority of 
the Church, and recover their ancient liberty. In his absence, his 

• Admonuitque piis precibus, qui mi(tere vellet 
Ex propriis aliquos primoribus, ac sibi plebeui 
Subdere Romanam, servandaque foedera cogens 
Hanc fidei sacramentis promittere magnis. 


accusers laid waste with their forces the dominions of the Church, 
and sent the heads of the accusation to Charles the Great. But 
he, before a year was yet completed, sent back the Pope with a 
great retinue of attendants to Eome. The nobles and bishops from 
Francia [between the Loire and the Seine], who attended upon him, 
examined the chief of his accusers at Eome, and sent them into 
Francia for imprisonment. This happened in the year 799. In 
the next year Charles himself went to Rome, and on an appointed 
day presided over a Council of Italian and Frank bishops, to hear 
both sides. But when the adversaries of the Pope expected that 
they should be heard, the Council determined, that he, who was the 
supreme judge, was too great to be judged by any one except him- 
self: upon which he in a solemn speech professed his innocence 
before the people, and was thus regarded as acquitted. A short 
time afterwards, on the day on which the memory of the Lord's 
birthday was celebrated, the Roman people, who hitherto had elected 
their own bishops, and who thought that they and their Senate duly 
possessed the rights of the ancient Senate and people of Eome, 
elected Charles as Emperor, and submitted themselves to him in the 
same manner in which the ancient Roman empire and its Senate 
were formerly subject to the Roman emperors. The Pope placed a 
diadem upon his head, and anointed him with sacred oil, and adored 
him with bended knees, as was formerly done to the Roman em- 
perors ; the poet above quoted relating it in these words : — ' There- 
fore after the giving of praises, the chief Pontiff also adored the 
same, as was formerly the custom due to great princes.' ^ 

" On the other hand, the Emperor bound himself by this oath to 
the Pope : — ' In the name of Christ, I, Charles the Emperor, vow and 
promise, in the presence of God and the blessed Apostle Peter, that 
I will be the protector and defender of this holy Roman Church, in 
all its interests, as far as I shall be supported by the Divine aid, 
according to my knowledge and ability.' Moreover the Emperor was 
also created Consul of the city of Rome, and his son Pepin was 
crowned King of Italy ; and from that time he wished that his name 
should be written in this manner : ' The most serene Charles Augus- 
tus, crowned by God, the mighty, the peace-maker, governing the 
Empire of Rome, or Emperor of the Romans :' and prayers were 
offered for him in the churches at Eome. From this time also the 

^ Post laudes igitur diclas et summus eundem 
Prtesul adoravit, sicut nios debitus olim 
Principibus fuit antiquis. 


Roman coins were stamped with his image. But the adversaries or 
the Pope, three hundred in number of the Romans, and two or 
three of the clergy, were condemned to death. The former were 
all beheaded on one and the same day in the Lateran plains ; but 
the latter were pardoned at the intercession of the Pope, and they 
were sent into exile to Francia. And thus the title of Roman Em- 
peror, with which the Grecian emperors, or those of the East, had 
hitherto been honoured, was transferred to the King of Francia in 
the West. After these things Charles gave to the Pope the princi- 
pality of the city and of the Roman dukedom, subject however to 
himself, as Emperor of the Romans. He passed the winter at Rome 
in political affairs, and in settling those matters which had reference 
to the Apostolic See ; I should rather say, in arranging the business 
of the whole of Italy, as well civil as ecclesiastical, and m passing 
new laws concerning them : in the next summer he returned into 
Francia, having left the state under the government of the Senate, 
both the one and the other being subject to the Pope and himself. 
But having heard that his new laws were neither observed by the 
judges in the administration of justice, nor by the people in obe- 
dience to him, and moreover, that the more powerful carried off 
from free men, yea, even from churches and monasteries, slaves, to 
labour in their own vineyards, fields, and pastures ; that they even 
proceeded to exact from these flocks and wine, and to oppress 
those who were ministering in the churches ; he wrote to his son 
Pepin, and admonished him to remedy these evils, to take care 
of .the Church, and to see that his laws were observed." — P. 55, 
etc. Many other things, if it is necessary, m.ay be read in New- 
ton. What the CJcurch of Borne is, apart from the Pontiff, is seen, 
1) When a council is held, either before the confirmation of the 
Pontiff, or without it : 2) When in a schism there is a contest 
concerning the lawful Pope : 3) When the See is vacant, especially 
for a longer time than usual, and there is an interregnum, or inter- 
pontificate, and a conclave : 4) When zeal for Catholicism is exer- 
cised, even by those who are not so much captivated with the pon- 
tifical dignity : 5) When the Pope himself is suspected by the 
Inquisition, or is unsatisfactory to the chiefs of the orders, for in- 
stance, to the general set over the Jesuits. In fine, it is unneces- 
sary to say how Rome on its seven hills, together with its walls, 
temples, palaces, and dwellings, differs from the Pope. Upon the 
whole, Rome, viewed both architecturally, and politically and eccle- 
siastically, has something apart from the Pope. Rome scarcely 


shines, except by the rays of the Pope, as was seen when the Pope 
had his See at Avignon : on this account few perceive that Rome 
is distinct from the Pope. But the position of each will be changed : 
the woman will reign, the beast will carry her. Then indeed the 
difference will present itself to the eyes of all. 

Obs. 1 6. The beast is a body, in the first and second portion of 
his duration : in the third, he is an individual. — Two great errors 
have long existed, one of which regards the seventh head only of the 
beast as the Papacy of many ages ; the other regards the whole 
beast with his seven heads as an individual antichrist. On the con- 
trary, the beast with seven heads is the Papacy of many ages : the 
seventh head is the Man of Sin, who is called by many Antichrist. 
The beast is a body, from ch. xiii. 1, to ch. xvii. 7. He is a body and 
an individual, ch. xvii. 8-11, according to different periods. He is 
an individual, from ch. xvii. 12, to ch. xix. 20. These things, as I 
hope, are distinct and easy. The Divine of Halle indeed says, that 
the beast is first a body, and then afterwards an individual ; but he 
treats it in ch. xiii. as an individual, and in ch. xvii. as a body. It 
is plain, of what character this is. I have not quoted the things, 
which are noticed in the Epicrisis, pp. 387, 388, as the sentiments 
of others (as D. Lange understands it), although Bibera at least in- 
cludes the whole duration of the beast in the 3^ years ; but as a 
discordant consequence, which would result from the opinion that 
confines the beast with its body itself within the limits of 3^ years. 
For with the rising of the beast out of the sea begins the series of 
seven heads (as we have shown in Obs. 5), which far exceeds ?>\ 
years, especially since it is only to the last head or king that a short 
space (xvii. 10) of continuance is attributed. 

Obs. 17. That individual is the seventh head of the beast ; or the 
other king after the five and the one ; he himself the eighth, and also 
of the seven (xvii. 10, 11). — He is of the seven heads or kings, in so 
far as he is the Pope : but he himself is the eighth, or the beast it- 
self, and not merely a head, not in so far as he is the Pope, but in 
so far as he introduces from the bottomless pit wickedness of a new 
and altogether peculiar character. A similitude will explain the 
matter : A tree of seven branches, of which six are somewhat slender 
and the seventh very thick, still continues a tree, if the six are cut 
off, and the seventh remains. Comp. Erkl. Offenb. p. 885. But he 
is said to be the eighth, before he is said to be of the seven ; because 
he will not enact the part of the Pope — sooner than he will the Man 
of Sin. My German Exegesis, together with the parentheses of D. 


Lange, is tliis. " The beast, with reference to the last head, or 
rather (the commentator himself is not certain) at that time, when the- 
last head, and strictly speaking the beast itself, as the eighth, rages, 
Is an individual person (which however will not be any Pope)," etc.: 
Epicr. p. 387. I reply : The expression, or rather, does not imply 
doubt respecting the fact, but it only subjoins to an inadequate ex- 
pression one which is adequate, the comparison of which two may 
not be useless to the reader. There is no reason why the last Pope, 
by far the worst of all, should not have that destruction, which is 
mentioned, Apoc. xix. 20, and which follows the desolation of 

Ohs. 18. He is the Impious One, the Man of Sin, the Son of Per- 
dition, who Opposeth and Exalteth himself — the Wicked One. — Thus 
the Scripture terms him, and especially Paul, 2 Thess. ii. 3. And 
I should wish that my Annotations on that passage may be referred 
to here. 

Obs. 19. The same is called hy a word very commonly used. Anti- 
christ. — The term. Antichrist, where the Epistles of John are not in 
question, and beyond these it does not occur in the Scripture, is 
most conveniently set aside in this discussion, on account of the 
riomonymia [Append.]. For it is spoken either with reference to 
A ntichristianity, which arose about the time of the apostles, in which 
sense John himself wrote, that even then there had already been 
not one, but many antichrists, 1 Ep. ii. 18 : or with reference to the 
Papacy, which had now borne rule for many ages, in which sense 
most of the Protestants take it : or with reference to the Man of Sin 
in an individual, as the Divine of Halle especially takes it. I do 
not employ a word which has become so ambiguous, except when I 
either treat of the Epistles of John, or whenT quote the sentiments 
of others, who employ the word : and if I should make use of it in 
discTlssing the Apocalypse (although that Wicked One will call him- 
self God, and not Christ), I should use it in the same sense in which 
the Divine of Halle does ; and yet he denies, that I have a right 
idea of Antichrist : Epicr. pp. 375, 389. He would not deny it, if he 
had leisure for an attentive perusal at least of my Preface. 

Obs. 20. The ten horns or kings, together with the beast, receive 
pmoer as kings for one hour. — That is openly stated, Apoc. xvii. 12. 
The individual beast is meant : and the one hour is the time of their 
carrying on the kingdom ; since the ten horns shortly afterwards 
give it to the beast. The beast was lately said not to be : wherefore 
he receives power afresh, and with him the kings, who after the in- 


ten'al of an hour give their power also, so recently acquired, to the 

Ohs. 21. The whole strength of the Roman monarchy, tvhich ts 
divided into ten kingdoms, shall be bestowed upon the beast. — This is 
stated, ch. xvii. 13, 16, 17. There shall be not only ten kingdoms, 
but ten kings ; and those kings altogether devoted to the beast witli 
a wonderful agreement. 

Obs. 22. The ten horns, and the beast, shall mdke the whore desolate. 
— This is said, ch. xvii. 16. The most important particle, xal, and, 
which is commonly omitted, is defended at the proper place. 

Obs. 23. At last the beast, ivith the ten horns, and the other kings 
of the earth, shall rush into that jgreat destruction. — This is written, 
Apoc. xix. 19 ; and that the ten horns ai'e there contained under the 
kings of the earth, is plain from ch. xvii. 14, 17, at the end. 

Obs. 24. The prophecy of Daniel, in whatever way you explain it, 
presents no obstacle to this consideration. — The things which we have 
hitherto learned from the Apocalypse, lead us to the very close of 
the beast and of the ten horns, and are plain of themselves : nor are 
they weakened by Daniel, whether Lange's interpretation of it or 
any other be true. Grant that the fourth beast in Daniel is the 
Grceco-Syriaa kingdom ; or that the little horn is Mahomet (which . 
opinion the Epicrisis certainly refutes by a rather inadequate 
method, pp. 404, 405) ; or that the ten horns have one meaning in 
Daniel and another in John (for in the former, after the ten horns 
there rises a horn, ch. vii. 24, in the Chaldee ; whereas, in the latter, 
the ten horns receive the kingdom, together with the beast : ch. xvii. 
12) : none of these things is opposed to my interpretation. For in- 
asmuch as the beast of the Apocalypse has a kind of resemblance 
also to the third, the second, and the first of Daniel, as we saw in 
Proposition 5, Obs. 2, and yet is not the same with any of them : so 
the resemblance which the beast of the Apocalypse bears to the 
fourth beast of Daniel, does not prove that it is the same beast. I 
wish to say this for the sake of those who interpret Daniel in a dif- 
ferent manner from our interpretation of the Apocalypse, or who at 
any rate are in doubt respecting the interpretation of Daniel. But 
let us proceed. 

Obs. 25. The fourth beast of Daniel is the Soman monarchy.— 
The Grseco-Syriac kingdom is contained under the four wings or 
heads of the third beast ; nor by itself does it attain to the vastness 
of the whole beast, much less of the fourth, which is so widely dis- 
tinct from the former. The successive series of the ten horns can 


with difficulty be shown in it, much less that of one time, as the text 
requires. In short, that kingdom expired much more quickly than 
either the fourth beast perished, or the Stone was cut out. Nothing 
remains, except the Roman empire, as Abbadie on Apoc. T. iv. pp. 
446-537, besides others, proves on good grounds ; and Janus on the 
Four Monarchies. If the Roman empire had been omitted, there 
would have been one hiatus, and that a great one, between the beasts 
of Daniel and that of the Apocalypse. But both Daniel, ch. ii. and 
vii., and the Apocalypse, ch. xiii.-xix., from different beginnings of 
the kingdoms which they describe, arrive, by a continuous thread, 
at one and the same goal, at Christ and His universal kingdom. 

Obs. 26. The same beast is something continuous, from the begin- 
ning of the Roman monarchy until the thrones are set : and comprises 
in itself the beast of the Apocalypse and the woman, and many other 
different subjects. — It is of no great consequence what victory in par- 
ticular it was which gave a beginning to the Roman monarchy. 
Whatever that beginning was,, from it even to the goal the fourth 
of the four monarchies is like a river, which has but one channel 
from its fountain, but sometimes imbibes certain streams, — some- 
times is itself divided into several streams, and yet remains one con- 
tinuous river. First of all the Roman power was undivided, then 
certain commencements of a division arose, and the division itself 
into the East and West, which has had many vicissitudes. Then the 
kings of the Heruli, the Goths, and the Lombards, claimed to them- 
selves a part of the Roman power ; as did the Exarchs, the Romans 
themselves, the Carlovingian and German emperors, without exclud- 
ing other kings. Whatever power either the Pope also or the city 
had before Gregory VII., that the beast of Daniel directly comprises: 
whatever power the Papacy from Gregory VII. (who is distant a 
period \_Chronus'\ from Augustus), even under a spiritual form, exer- 
cises over the city, over the Patrimony of Peter, over its vassals, 
over kings, over peoples, that the beastof the Apocalypse represents. 
But again, the beast of the Apocalypse itself, and also Rome, toge- 
ther with its last power — and moreover that which withholdeth or 
letteth (2 Thess. ii. 6, 7), and he who is withheld, are comprehended 
under the beast of Daniel ; which, on account of the Papacy, is dif- 
ferent from all the former beasts : ch. vii. 7. In Daniel the series 
of princes is much longer than it is in the Apocalypse. The very 
variety of the parts, of which the fourth beast in Daniel is made up, 
exhibits the principal difference between it and the three former 
beasts : and the third beast indeed, after the death of Alexander the 

APOCAL-XPSE Xm. 1. 801 

Great, comprised many different elements, and yet was one ; but the 
fourth has a much greater variety of parts, in such a manner, how- 
ever, that both conjointly they differ from the third, and, coherincr 
with one another, they exhibit one beast. 

Obs. 27. T'he things ivJiich Daniel saiv respecting the ten horns, 
thus also agree with our interpretation of the Apocalypse. — In Daniel 
three of the ten' horns are plucked up, on the coming up of the little 
horn ; but in the Apocalypse the ten horns in their full number join 
themselves to the beast, at his last time. The ten, therefore, are 
earlier in Daniel than in the Apocalypse. You may say that the 
form is different, but the material the same ; and therefore that John, 
with reference to Daniel, in the text makes mention of the horns be- 
fore all things, in ver. 1, but that afterwards he continually places 
them after the heads. Long ago, especially in the later ages, there 
were various lineaments and preparations iovthe denary oihvags : the 
denary itself was not yet clearly apparent : nor the ternary of those 
who are represented as torn up. But the ten will arise ; and, as far 
as can be supposed from a comparison of the two prophecies of the 
ten kings, another little horn (Dan. vii. 8), a prince of no great 
power, will subdue three who are neighbours to himself : and he also, 
to the wonder of the inhabitants of the earth, having been increased 
with fresh malice from the bottomless pit, will himself receive the 
kingdom, and with' him ten kings, according to a new division ; and 
he will also be both the eighth, and of the seven ; and the ten kings, 
after a reign of one hour, will bestow their power upon him. Daniel 
himself, ch. vii., in one verse, the 20th, with reference to the ten 
horns, and the three, mentions another : and afterwards, much more 
plainly, that horn which had eyes, and a mouth speaking great 

Obs. 28. JVor are the things which Daniel saw respecting the little 
horn at variance with this. — The little horn, which differs from the 
fourth beast, as a part does from the whole (for in ver. 11 it is not 
used for the beast himself), is the beast of the Apocalypse, either 
with seven heads, or the individual beast. If it is the beast with 
seven heads, it is well ; if the individual (so that, as Christ is the 
Horn of salvation, so the Adversary may be the Horn of destruction), 
yet that horn appears to have had a much more rapid rise in Daniel, 
so that three of the ten kings are cast down before that the beast 
with the ten kings receives the kingdom. However it is, the things 
which in Daniel are applied to the horn, are spoken ni the Apoca- 
l}q)se respecting the beast with seven heads, as a mouth speaking 


great things and blasphemmg, war with the saints, and^ victory over 
them : nor is that opposed to us. For the actions which the beast 
wickedly performs in the first period of his duration, he with heinous 
vehemence persists in carrying on during the third : on which very 
account the action of the individual beast is more sparingly described 
in ch. xvii. and xix ; because in point of fact many things are to be 
repeated from ch. xiii. See Erkl. Offenb. p. 893. There is in this 
fact the fuller intimation that the subject, though regarded in dif- 
ferent points of view, has the same predicates. 

Ohs. 29. The times of the beast in Daniel and in the Apocalypse 
have a sweet mutual agreement. — The 3^ times, while the horn bears 
rule, Dan. vii. 25, and the 42 months of the beast raging, Apoc. xiii. 
5, and the ixiyov, the short space of his continuing, ch. xvii. 10 (not 
to add the other passages which we have touched upon above, at ch. 
vi. 2), the Epicrisis, pp. 390, 399, with great positiveness takes for 
3^ years, and those ordinary years ; and so also the Comm. Ap. f. 
203. With obvious facility the month of 30 days has long ago com- 
mended itself to many, so that 1260 days, 42 months, and 3^ years 
should be equivalent to each other : but this very facility is proved 
to be deceitful by a comparison of the computations of natural days, 
months, and years, which present difficulties in their mutual propor- 
tions. Neither in the age of John, nor in that of Daniel, are there 
found single years, which contained 360 days, without intercalated 
days; much less are there 3^ years, which contained 1260 days, as 
even the years of Nabonassar prove, which are more ancient than 
the time of Daniel. Time has different significations in different 
places : see Erkl. Offenb. pp. 130, 131, 148 : and a time (xaiphg) in 
the Apocalypse is longer than a year, even than a prophetic year : 
and 3^ years, or 42 months, are longer than 1260 days, whether 
you regard them as prophetic or ordinary years, months, and days. 
See Erkl. Offenb. p. 136, etc. Whence the arguments brought for- 
ward by D. Lange in his Comm. Apoc, in favour of a period of 3^ 
years, will be done away. Seizins, with many others, rested on the 
year-day : the Divine of Halle is the chief maintainer of an ordinary 
day. After an examination of the systems of the one and the other, 
the true analysis of the times, leading me between the two (see 18, 
note), is wonderfully confirmed, which is not to be undone by any 
sudden or deliberate assault. I have considered the chronology of 
Daniel, as far as relates to the last times, in the order of the times, 
p. 371, etc. [Ed. ii. p. 319, etc.']. The secret of the times is laid open 
in the Apocalypse, and by means of it in Daniel : and most sacred 


adjurations in both prophecies have reference to that very point. 
The interpretation which reduces long periods of time in them to a 
short space, cannot fail to cause great confusion. There is a paral 
lelism of the times in Daniel and in the Apocalypse, but it is of a 
hidden character, and, when you have once found it, well put to- 
gether, far bejrond the agreement of the 1260 days, the 42 months, 
and 3^ times. See Ord. Temp., as cited above, and pp. 322, 323. 
[_Ed. ii. pp. 274, 275.] As far as relates to the three passages quoted, 
the parallelism sought in them destroys itself. We will hereafter 
compare the first passage with the third, at ch. xvii. 10; but the 
second differs widely from the third, and therefore also from the first. 
The 42 months precede the vials, and almost exhaust the first portion 
(division) of the beast, Obs. 9, 13; but after the vials there is oXiyov, 
a short space, and 3^ times, in the third portion. The period is not 
equal, much less the same. Jlie variety of prophetic periods is much 
too elegant and skilfully contrived, for us to suppose that so many 
things should come to be thrown together into one mass. 

Obs. 30. It is only by this method that those things which are 
written in each prophecy respecting the destruction of the beast are 
reconciled with one another. — The Epicrisis in this part also notices 
the resemblance only, p. 400. Daniel, he says, attributes fire to the 
beast: and John confirms this. Comp. p. 373. The dissimilarity 
is not less remarkable. / beheld, says Daniel, ver. 11, until the 
beast was slain, and his body was destroyed : and he was given to the 
burning flame. That last expression, and was given, is separated 
from the body of the beast, both by the accent and the feminine 
gender in the Chaldee also, and is joined with the beast himself. 
Both John and Daniel speak in consideration of one and the same 
time of the beast, namely, the last ; but Daniel means the beast in 
all that it comprises (comp. Obs. 26) ; that is, the ten horns, or kings 
on his head, and the single horn amidst the ten horns, and the body. 
John separates the ten horns from the beast. Therefore the latter 
says, — 1) That the beast, together with the false prophet, was cast 
alive into the lake of fire ; 2) That the other enemies, and in their 
immber those ten, and the rest of the kings of the earth, were slain : 
but the former writes, — 1) That the beast himself, as far as relates to 
the ten horns of the head, as distinguished from the body, was slain ; 
2) That the body, that is, the resources and power of the beast, 
perished; and again, 3) That the beast, as far as relates to the single 
horn, was thrown into the burning fire. While the first and the third 
division are here separated, a Simultaneum [see Append. Techn. 


Terms] of both with the second is indicated. The destruction of 
the fourth beast in Daniel is connected with the destruction of the 
former beasts, ch. vii. 12, ii. 35, 45, and with the destruction of the 
Apocalyptic beast which afterwards arose. 

Thus far concerning the ten Propositions. Whatever I have 
spoken concerning these, I had already spoken in my German 
Exegesis : but because many judge, while but few read, it was 
right that the subject should again be submitted to the eyes, com- 
prised as it is here in one collection. Then next the Divine of Halle, 
being about to examine my annotations on the verses of ch. xiii. 
separately, considers by what means I shall show that the beast is 
the Papacy. But in the annotations I presuppose this, as already 
demonstrated, and I proceed in the handling of the text, as each 
portion demands. He who shall duly have made himself acquainted 
with the former parts, will easily reply for me : yet I will make 
some remarks in a summary way. He denies that any application 
of this verse, and of those which follow, to the Papacy, is given by 
me. Epicr. p. 386, etc. I have not given it in pp. 690-695, 
which he quotes ; for there I laid down the resemblance and also 
the dissimilitude between the beast of Daniel and that of the Apo- 
calypse, as was befitting. I gave the application in order, pp. 658, 
678, 696, etc. ; and in p. 663 I referred the reader to ch. xvii., 
where I distinctly and fully treated of the heads and horns, p. 853, 
etc. On the subject of the leopard, the hear, and the lion, I was 
able to be the more concise, because a fuller explanation is given by 
those who in great numbers interpret this passage of the Papacy. 
Nor have the interpreters of Daniel failed to accomplish something. 
I do not readily write that which has been before written by others. 
He denies that the name of Pope (Erasmus restores hofi^a, in the 
singular, from an ancient reading of Andreas of Caisarea^) is blas- 
phemous, p. 388. Since the Pope has taken this name to himself 
alone, he has no name greater, and therefore none more blasphemous. 
See ErU. Offenh. p. 697, and add Forhes on Ap. p. 118. 

3. Ka/ /i/av) Thus all the most ancient remains : two or three 
copies insert iliov? I agree with Wolf, that /i/av, when you destroy 
sr^oi/, does not refer to the verb 'ibuxi, which immediately precedes it, 
although there appears to be a gloss, as noticed in the Apparatus, 

■ A reads yifcourtt ouof/.a.-za, ; Rec. Text, yifiou ouofiaraa. Tisch. lias yifiov to. 
ivofictra.; h and Vulg. have "plenam nominibus: " xvii. 3. E. 

" ABCA Vulg. (Amiat.) Iren. omit erSoi-. Eec. Text inserts it, with no very 
old authority except Fuld. MS. of Vulg. (inferior to Amiat.)— E. 


which refers iiiav to it. But if ilbov is to be understood, it ought to 
be repeated from ver. 1, just as PHny uses the verb of seeing by 
Hyperbaton, H. N. Book VIII. c. 6 : Italy first saw elephants in the 
war with king Pyrrhus, and called them Lucanian oxen ; but (it saw 
them) at Rome^ in a triumph, etc. But the connection of the dis- 
course is equally good, 'i-xpv jj^im, x.r.'k. : comp. ver. 14 : and the 
Latin translator, whereas long ago he did not read I saw, seems thus 
to have construed the passage : and I saw a beast having seven heads 
— and (having) one of his [suis, not ejus'] heads as it were slain to 
death. There is here, ver. 1, 2, 3, that mixture of cases, which we 
have seen more than once, and shall see somewhat below : and the 
connection is easy between the seven heads and one of the heads. 
One head is mentioned for the first : for eJc, one, even without the 
article, means the first, ch. vi. 1, twice; Ezek. xxxii. 1, especially in 
the Lxx., etc. The accusative /jilav, which, as we lately noticed, 
depends by Hyperbaton on 'ix^v, ver. 1, most closely connects toge- 
ther the ascent of the beast out of the sea and the wound. Where- 
forealso he says, x,s<paXriii eecpayij/ivinv, not afarrofjjhru, as aaripa ViVTu- 
xora, in the preterite, ch. ix. 1. The first head of the beast is the 
Pope in the Lateran, on the Ccelian Mount, from Gregory VII. to 
Innocent III., or beyond him. During that space of time many 
adversities befel the Pope, through his contention with the Em- 
peror ; but he recovered from all. — ug k<pay/ji,iv?}v — Uipanrih^n, as it 
loere slain [" wounded to death"] — was healed) You may see pa- 
roxysms both of the wound and of the healing in the history of 
Gregory VII., Paschal II., Calixtus II., Alexander III., and others. 
Whatever adversity then happened, belongs to the wound : whatever 
prosperity, belongs to the healing. — -/.al Hahfiasiv SXtj ri yn i-aiea roD 
6ripiou, and all the earth wondered after the beast) that is, went after 
the beast with admiration. An abbreviated expression, as Acts xv. 
23, ivriting and sending by their hands. All followed the beast with 
their feet, or eyes, or inclination ; for instance, in the Crusades. 

4. Ka; •jrpocmwnsci.v rSi dpdnotTi — xai -irposixuvrieav to Sriplov) The verb 
vpoexuvin, when it treats of the worship of God, everywhere takes 
the Dative ; and thus it is used of the worship of the angel, ch. xix. 
10 : but when used of devils and idols, the Accusative, ch. ix. 20. 
Hence •Trposzmeri, with the Dative, seems to mean something more 
than with the Accusative, especially when the two cases are used in 
one passage, as here and ch. xiv. 9, 11, xx. 4. From this worship 
I have in my German Exegesis incidentally confirmed Proposition 2, 
' "Romse autem (scil. vidit), etc." 

VOL. V. U 


which has been before reviewed on ver. 1. D. Lange says, that he 
does not regard the beast as a purely political power : Epicr. 
p. 389. But I have here refuted those, who in other respects agree 
with him, and who determine it to be a political power, although in 
different senses. See the same, p. 383. — rig Swarhi, who able) that 
if!, iarl; Thus the Septuagint, dwarbg seo/j,ai ; Num. xxiii. 1 (xxii. 38). 
Comp. the LXX. also. Num. xiii. 31 ; Gen. xxxii. 28 ; Dan. iii. 17. 
The worshippers of the beast challenge others : who {is) like the 
beast ? who (is) able to make war with him ? Car. Sigonius, Book 
XIV., concerning the kingdom of Italy, at the year 1176, says : 
Great men easily impelled (Frederic), tvho, by repeatedly reminding 
him that this war was not carried on with man, but with God, pre- 
vailed upon him to send ambassadors to A lexander respecting peace. 
The same writer shortly afterwards represents Alexander himself as 
saying, Tliat the cause of God is at stake in this war, lohich cause 
Frederic has opposed, by opposing the lawful Pontiff. Horatius 
Tursellinus, in his Epitome of History, says, At length Frederic, 
perceiving that he was carrying on war, not with men, but with GoD, 
finally made peace with Alexander. Matthew of Paris thus speaks 
concerning the same matter: — " The Emperor Frederic came to 
THE FEET OF ALEXANDER THE PoPE : for he heard and was 
assured of this, that when he was fleeing from the persecution of 
the Emperor, and there was no safe passage for him over land, or 
indeed over the sea, when a tempest had arisen, he put on all his 
papal attire on board the ship, as if about to celebrate [mass], and 
stood and commanded the sea and the winds in the place of Jesus 
Christ, whose vicar he was, as he said, and immediately there was 
a great calm. On hearing of this, the Emperor was astonished, 
and humbly submitted to him in all things, fearing God how- 
ever MORE than MEN."— Hist. Angl. at the year 1577. Great 
indeed and blasphemous are the things which his worshippers say of 
the beast, and the beast of himself, ver. 5, 6. See Eome's Final 
Downfall, pp. 7-18, I. F. Mayer in Diss. c. Grot., whether it be 
a dogma of the Papists, that the Roman Pontiff is a god. 

5. Ka; sh66n airffl Igouif/a /i^ra? TigsapaxovTot, diio) This ancient, short, 
middle reading is the genuine one :^ so that the accusative /j,9jvag, 
months, answers to the question, how long. Others have supplied 
■jToinaai : more, itoXiiLm mitjmi. Both of them from ver. 7. One im- 

' So Iren. But ACA Vulg. Syr. read mmai after i^ovai'a ; and B prefixes 
TToTie/iov before mmtr, which, however, Tisch. and Lachm. with the weightier 
authorities omit. — E. 


portant point is marked out in ver. 5; another, the calamity increas- 
ing, ver. 7. A fuller consideration of these months will follow at 
ver. 18 : by the use of which, there will be no doubt as to the 
meaning of the close of the power of the beast. Many persons, when 
they hear anything of this kind for the first time, wonder at it, as 
news of future events, instead of reverencing it as the word of God: 
they say, in short, that the matter is worthy of consideration, and yet 
they do not consider it in such a manner, as to lay aside for a little 
time lighter subjects (and what subject is not light in comparison 
with these of such great magnitude'?), and examine into the truth : 
and then, when they have once or twice heard and related it, having 
lost the taste of novelty, they loathe it ; and with the character 
which they always had, they rush into the Divine judgments, whether 
known or unknown, regarding neither things past, nor things pre- 
sent, nor things future. Let them take care what they are about. 
We do not write for them : we will not be silent out of regard for 
them. See ch. xxii. 10, 11. The close of the power of the beast is 
therefore approaching nearer and nearer : and matters of the greatest 
importance will precede that close, which matters remain fi-om ch. 
xiii. and xiv., and which are contained in ch. xv. and xvi. But the 
Non-being of the beast will follow the same close, and so will many 
other things, which are described in ch. xvii. and those which follow. 

6. Toi)s) Without a connecting particle, as Job xlii. 9. 

7. JloXf/ioi/ "jroiriaai (Lira tuv ayim, to make war with the saints) Dan. 
vii. 21, fE'np DJ? T\\> SnajJ, LXX., ewoln 'ToAifi.ov f^sra ruv ayiav. Thus 

ToXsfLov miiTv, Ap. xii. 17, xix. 19, and the lxx. often for ncn^D JIB'S?. 
1. C. Becman, in his Dissertation respecting the justice of the arms 
of Cevennes, p. 33, rightly refers this war with the saints to the 
Crusades against the Waldenses. — -Trasav, every) The law of the 
Roman Pontiffs prevailed over a greater portion of the earth, than 
that of the Emperors : Grreg. vii. lib. 2, Ep. 75. 

8. UpoeTimneoMeiv, shall worship) The verb in ordinary use, when 
the ceremonies about the Pope are treated of, is adoration {worship) ; 
and connected with this by derivation is a kiss, that is, of his feet, 
just as •KposTimiTv, nmsiii, xvidi, is to kiss ; whence pEJ'J, Lxx. 1 Kings 
xix. 18, and Symmachus, Ps. ii. 12, 'irposxmiTv. — aTo) awh is here 
equivalent to before, as Matt. xxv. 34, note, and is plainly construed 
with oO yBypa'TTTai [not as Engl, with iefay/jisvoti], and that so easily, 
that it is not even to be called an instance of Hyperbaton (See 
Append.). All doubt is removed by a passage strictly parallel, ch. 
Xvii. 8. The Apocalypse often makes mention of the Lamb slain : 

808 APOCALYPSE XIII. 10, 11. 

it never adds, from the foundation of the ivorld; nor indeed was Ha 
slain from tlie foundation of the world : Heb. ix. 26. They who 
allege that He was thus slain in the Divine decree, in a like sense 
will say that He was born, raised from the dead, and ascended into 
heaven, from the foundation of the world. 

10. A'lYjJjaKiiKSiav gDvay^i) The LXX. have SuyxXfhiv a/%/^a?.W(i/av, 
ilgdysiv a'i-/jjM\a«'iav, a.ym aiyjjuokaeiav, respecting the vanquished who 
are led away into captivity : but in 1 Maccab. xiv. 7, it is said, emi\- 
yajii alyjjjoKueiav itoWrir that is, Simon freed and brought together 
many, ivho had been captives. Also 1 Maccab. iii. 9, 13, emriyayiti 
a.'ffo'kXu/j.ivoui, )iSpoi(fiv SJpoie/ji,a. And this notion agrees with this pas- 
sage, in this sense : if any one supplies and equips captives, he loill 
be taken captive. — ways/, goes away) being easily led away. — a^o- 
xrivii) The present, as iwdyn. Krha, nrhvca, and -/.rihu, are the same. 

11. Kal, and) The description of the two beasts most strictly co- 
heres, as does the description of more joyful circumstances in the 
following chapter. — «XXo 6ripwv, another beast) This is afterwards 
more frequently called the false prophet: and here his very action is 
described, as that of the false prophet. That bewitched power and 
wisdom, which independent of the Word of God, without a Redeemer 
and a Comforter, is reverenced hy many individually and collectively, 
having no dread of Deism, Socinianism, and Pelagianism, abusing the 
dogma respecting the internal Word, which ivould without scruple re- 
concile Christianity tvith Mahometanism itself, and moreover the per- 
verse interpretation of the Apocalypse itself, and of the whole of the 
Sacred Scripture, will be favourable to the beast. D. Lange, in 
Epicr. p. 391, etc., entertains a different opinion from me respecting 
this beast also. I will here also notice some points cursorily. Now 
I nowhere say, that from the times of Hildebrand the second beast 
was subservient to the former one (on account of the common ad- 
vantage of both, but rather on account of his own, as is the practice 
of the wicked). Nor do I say, that the 42 months of the former 
beast are common to the two; but I imitate the expression of the 
text, which is explained in its proper place. The former beast has 
an origin much more ancient than the other ; but when this also 
has arisen, it exists together with the former one. Gregory VII. 
has long ceased to live ; but that his cause has not yet expired, his 
Legenda testify. I never thought, that his image flourished at the 
same time with the former beast. I had treated incidentally of the 
destruction of the beast and the false prophet at p. 733, but more 
plainly, in its place, p. 935. If the venerable man had perceived 

APOCALYPSE XIII. 12-15. 309 

the idea of the beast, presented by the Apocalypse and held by me, 
he would not have blended -with one another so many important 
points. We have replied above to the argument, which he subjoins 
at p. 393.— I;c rrig y7\i, out of the earth) The earth [land], as opposed 
to the sea, comp. ver. 1, is Asia ; which contains Palestine, Persia, 

12. UoiiT — I'TTohi) There is a mixture of tenses, as ver. 15, and eh. 
xi. 9, 10, with Annot. in the Apparatus, p. 818 [Ed. ii. p. 541]. — 
Triv yriv xal rovg b aiirri xaroixouvTag, the earth and them which dwell 
therein) A remarkable expression; for in ver. 14, and in other places, 
it is said, 7-01)5 xaroixoiJvTag ht) Trig /??, those that dwell on the earth. 
I see no difference of meaning, except that here in ver. 12, a sudden 
universality of worship is implied, perhaps to be promulgated by some 

13. "Ira, so that) The particle 'im is frequently employed by John. 
In all his books, he has used usn only once, cli. iii. of his Gospel, 
ver. 16, where ha in fact follows. — humov) Construe with mfi, or 
rather with woieT. 

14. Tijs fiay^^alpag, of the sword) It had been strictly speaking a 
wound by the sword. For Henry V., in his transaction with Cal- 
lixto II., calls the contention which had preceded war [GuerraJ. 

15. "Ira Xakridri ij iixtljv rou iripiou) that the image of the beast should 
speak. " That images should speak, is a wonderful thing, and yet 
not incredible. You find it mentioned in Eoman stories, and in 
Valerius Maximus, respecting the images of Juno Moneta, of Fortuna 
Mulielnis, and of Silvanus. And Moses Maimonides, in Part iii. 
ch. 24 of the Guide of those in dqub t, says, that two books have 
been read by himself respecting Images which spake." — Grotius on 
this passage. Add the things which Peter Crugotius and Nic. 
Mulerius cite on this passage also. The things which Freinshemius 
has collected on Florus, who treats, Book ii. c. 8, respecting the 
sweat of Apollo of Cumse, are not dissimilar. " All these things 
were so customary two or three centuries ago, in the case of images 
belonging to our country, that they wept, laughed, and even spoke 
and walked, almost oftener than men ; and performed other actions, 
which the men of our time can scarcely believe." — i'ra a-noxrav^Siei, 
that they should he hilled) Eupertus says with weight on this passage: 
" Christ did not do this; nor have His prophets nor apostles taught, 
nor have kings now become Christian understood this, that they 
should kill, and think that the service of Christ is to be advanced by 
bloodshed. For the true God does not wish compulsory, but willing 

810 APOCALYPSE XITl. 17, 18. 

service. Therefore also in this, nay, even especially in this, he will 
show to those who have understanding, and who are strong in rea- 
son, that he is in truth Antichrist, that he is in truth not Christ; but 
that, in accordance with his name, he is opposed to Christ. It is 
Christ who shed His own blood. It is Antichrist who shed the 
blood of others." After the Keformation, illustrious interpreters 
from time to time laid it down that a most violent persecution was 
even then impending from the beast : as Phil. Nicolai, Book ii. con- 
cerning the kingdom of Christ, p. 305 ; Hoe on Ap. XI., num. 78; 
Doelincjius de Antichr. p. 298, and every where. Add Matthew Hof- 
mam-LS Chronology Apoc. p. 116. 

17. "Iva) Others, xa! ha. Wolf approves of this, remarking, how- 
ever, that xa/ is omitted even by the Coiytic Version. In truth the 
shorter reading is supported by the most ancient authorities. Add 
to the Latins, Ajoringius, Ansbert, Etheriu3.'^ See above, on ch. vi. 
4. The construction is this, iuei ■)(apayijM, ha, x.r.X. We have 
shown, on ver. 1 , that there are three Periods of duration. In the 
last part of the first period arises the most grievous calamity, the 
length of which can scarcely be defined, unless it be the number of 
days agreeing by analogy with the number of the beast, of which we 
shall speak presently. 

18. 'O eyuv vouv, -^rifnndTCij, Let him that hath understanding, count) 
It is not said, lie ivho readeth, voilria, let him consider, understand, as 
Matt. xxiv. 15, but voC?, mind, understanding, is presupposed ; and 
he who has mind already, is aroused also to computing the number 
of the beast, and to make a calculation. Nous, the understanding, is 
contradistinguished from the spirit, 1 Cor. xiv. 14 ; but here it is con- 
tradistinguished from wisdom. We must calcidate : therefore it is 
befitting that the numbers should be precisely taken which enter 
into the calculation, and those which answer to the numbers enter- 
ing into the calculation. He who has vovv, understanding, is ordered 
to calculate ; he ought therefore to bear with calmness another who 
does not comprehend calculations : only let him not despise and 
trample upon calculations, especially Sidi here, where such a remedy 
[against the delusions of the beast] is necessary for us. Look to the 
passage, Dan. xii. 4, 10. What kind of persons are they to whom, 
in this business, cither diligence and understanding, or negligence, is 
attributed? — apdiilg ycip, x.r.X., for the number, etc.) Each noun is 
without an article, in this sense, o dpi6/j.hc roij Onpiov sstiv dpiS/j^hc avSpumu. 
'ApiSf/M, without the article, is the predicate : and avSpiLmu denotes a 

1 AB Vulg. support »«/ . Ch Iren. 316, Memph. Syr. omit it.— E. 


number relating to a man. Thus fUTpov, not rJ fnirfiov, cli. xxi. 17. 
The particle yap, for, stimulates us, affording hope, nay, even the 
key, for solving the number. For immediately afterwards both the 
qualitij of the number reckoned is indicated, namely, that it is the 
number of a man ; and the quantity of the number reckoning, namely 
DCLXVI. I have professedly given the more laborious calculation of 
this number in my d'crui/in ICxeijei^is of the Apocalypse, and indeed 
especially in the Introduction, § 43. I will here give some scattered 
fi'agments, by means of certain aphorisms, accompanied by their own 
illustrations : but I should wish the severer demonstration itself to be 
sought from that exegesis. 

\1. It is correctly read in Greek i^uxieia i^r}-/.ovra 'i^,in the neuter 
gender;^ -but in Latin it is also ttmly read, sexcenti sexaginta sex, in 
the masculine gender. — Many copies have the numeral letters x^^- 
Tills in Latin is DC. LX. VI. There is no vestige of any proof 
to show, that, in expressing numbers, the prophets and apostles, and 
first copyists, made use of numeral letters. On the contrary, there 
is reason to suppose that they did not make use of them : for these 
numerals would have been a hindrance in the public reading of the 
lessons. Undoubtedly, whether John denoted the number by x^^j 
or wrote it out in full, it was necessary for the reader, who was sent 
from Patmos into Asia, to know, whether it was to be pronounced 
in the masculine or the neuter gender. It will be worth while to 
refer to and consider IreiKviix, Book v. ch. 21) and 30. From thence 
you may collect, that even then the number of the beast had been 
described in Greek and Latin by numeral letters, and yet not by 
all writers. I have shown in the Apparatus, p. 826, that Irena3us 
wrote his works in Greek, but with this intention, that they might 
immediately after be translated by othei's into Latin ; and therefore 
that he had rei'erenee alike to the Latin and Greek MSS. of the 
New Testament. Wherefore he treated of the number of the beast 
in such a manner, as that it should agree at once with the Greek and 
Latin reading. The Alavandrian Copy in Greek, and the Latin 
translator, as in other places, so in this, agree with one another : for 
in the former tlioro are sS^axoaioi sgijxoi/ra Sj , and in the latter, sexcenti 
se.raginta sex. The translator, as 1 conceive, did not trouble him- 
self as to the sense, in which he either read it masculine in Greek, 
or renderetl it so in Latin : but the Greek copyist seems to have 

1 Ah Viils'. Imve l^axoaioi ei^tiKovra. s? ; so Laclim. B lias xS*"' '• so Tisch. 
Orig. :i,414a lias x*'. C has lf«xo'o/« Ssk« sJ. Iren. 326 writes, sexceiitos sexa- 
ginta sex. Ill 328 also he expressly opposes 5sx«, and upholds i^iixona.. — E. 


preferred this form, because in the books of the Old Testament he 
had for the most part been accustomed to the expression of numbers 
in the masculine gender ; for instance, Ezra ii. 13, where the same 
number is used, as applied to men. Thence Irenseus more than 
once says, sexcentos sexaginta sex. The same writer again, when he 
writes that the same number had been sought for in the Greek 

names, ETAN0A2, AATEIN02, TEITAN, shows that tla-Mdia, i^rj- 

xovra. 'iS,, in the neuter gender, was read in the Greek: for the 
numerical value of 666, in the abstract, could not have been sought, 
by means of names of this kind, in the masculine gender, but only 
in the neuter. In a census of men, for instance in the fourth book 
of Moses, which from this circumstance has the title, 'ApiSfiuiv, of 
Numbers, and in the book of Ezra, the numbers are put in the mas- 
culine gender : but when any number is put absolutely, no other 
gender than the neuter is conveniently employed. Arias Montanus 
expresses the Greek number in the masculine gender, after the ex- 
ample of the Complutensians ; the Complutensians thus expressed it 
on the authority of the Vulgate : for in the Greek MS. which was 
used by them in other places, and which closely resembles the Codex 
Seidelianus, it was %g5-, as is plain from the extracts of the Codex 
Seidelianus, with which a friend supplied me. Many MSS., as I 
think, retain the neuter gender ; and collators may have judged it 
superfluous to note down their difference from the notation x^?-. 
For it was not until the close of his labour that Mill himself quoted 
the Codex Covelianus as an authority for the reading, i^ayJeia i^r}- 
xovTu 'it,, to which my Apparatus added two others, widely removed 
from each other, and on that account of sufficient weight. 

§ 2. The number 666 is a certain [fixed] one, and is not put for 
an uncertain one. — We drew this inference a little while ago, in a 
summary manner, from the very command to calculate. We will 
hear Joh. March on the same subject. " Carolus Gallus," he says, 
" thinks that he has made some important discovery, in believing 
that the word ' man' is put collectively for men, and then, that a 
number of men signifies a very numerous midtitude. But the He- 
brew phrase, which he adduces by way of proof, is altogether op- 
posed to his hypothesis. For they (the Hebrews) use the phrase, 
' men of number' [Marg. and Hebr. Ezek. xii. 16], for a few, etc. 
But that opinion appears to be one which ought above all others 
to be rejected by us, which will have it, that a definite number is 
here put for an indefinite one, as when 144,000 are given to the 
Lamb ; and that a great number is then denoted, either of bias- 


phemies and errors of Antichrist, which errors make up a body so 
compact and bound together, that the members depend mutually 
upon one another ; or [as others say] a great number of Papists, 
folloioers of Antichrist, in which the Romish beast prides himself, 
and far surpasses other holy and reformed churches. Gallus pre- 
fers this latter sense ; but Durham the former, who contends at great 
length, that the name ought to denote the doctrines by which 
those devoted to the beast are distingaished, even by reason of the 
contradistinction to the elect, who have the name of the Father 
on their forehead ; moreover, that the phrase, to number, is some- 
times used for, to weigh together with judgment ; comp. Dan. v. 27 ; 
and that theological wisdom deduces inferences from doctrines and 
facts, rather than from letters. In reply to these things, it will suf- 
fice to have remarked in few words, that when a fixed character is 
assigned to the beast in the designated number of the name, and 
when the computation of that number is enjoined upon men, it 
ought altogether to be understood in a definite sense ; and the more 
so even on this account, because this is not a round number, nor is 
there in it any allusion to any other calculation of men or opinions, 
which is elsewhere celebrated. I add, that if it were only a multi- 
tude indefinitely that is intended, whether it were of errors, or of 
persons in error, there would here be need of no such great under- 
standing and attention as that which John requires. I still wonder 
by what means the number 6G6 can be taken for a great multitude, 
and that, too, by comparing it with the elect 144,000, since the 
latter greatly exceed the former. Gallus acknowledges this, and 
boldly changes the 666 men into so many myriads of men," etc. — 
Comm. on Ap. p. 589, etc. Another interpretation takes the 666 
for 6666, the 6666 for a legion, and the legion for a multitude of 
enemies of the Church. Contrary to this is the opinion of Zeger, 
who in his Epanorthotes thus comments : " There appears to be an 
allusion and reference to that name of the legion, which comprises 
6666 : and while this first number \Jigure] is taken away, it seems 
to be insinuated, that very great resources, both of strength and of 
subjects, have been subtracted from the devil by Christ, so that he 
cannot now boast and say^ as he formerly did. My name is Legion." 
Meyer, on Ap. fol. 55, is not at variance with both interpretations ; 
and many things may be advantageously observed, either with re- 
ference to both or with reference to either of them. 1) Hesyehius, in 
his Lexicon, is the only one who affirms that the legion consists of 
6666 men, unless the copyist intentionally added the lesser sixes 


3U .\VOO.\I.Y1\<E Xltl. 1?. 

[nuraliiM-s of six]. AYoiolity wriioi-s ot" milit:»rv atV:iiis spoiik otlior- 
wise, as A'oi^^Mius. 1. li. o. :?, t>. It is oortain thnt tlio logioii iwunot 
lie inailo to consist ot' t>(i(ii> iiion, so as to tall in Avitli the tinio of 
John or tho time of fho boast. 2) Tho tlunisaiultli mimbov in an 

poclu anil in tho nnnibors of voavs iVoni tlto oivation ot" tlio worltl, is 
not oxjirossod amonjv tho llolnvws: and wo o\on now want }iiMof 
tliat tl\is oustom piwailod amoni!; thoni in tho tinio of .Tolin. An 
anonvnions writor, indeed, Avho is said to have boon 'Johios IMtk- 
^c ;;. in tlio time of Qnoon Vlli.abotli, and who wnite Tbif Htial 
JhiruAill of l^o)»(\ whioli was published at Ijondon A. h!,"i,">. and 
wished to pei'snado tho luiijlish who wore livino' at Ivonio tliat tlie 
downfall of tliat eity would tal^o plaee in tho (ititith year after the 
thousandth, was mistaken. Anion;;- tho Konians, whom no one has 
referred to this point, in a laree amount tho sestertinm [a thousand 
sostoroos] is not oxiuvssed. In all other eomputatious, in every 
nation, it is not the hu-i;;est. hut tb.e smallest j^art, which is os|>eoialiy 
aeonstoniod to he omitted. TO Tlie Hebrews wore eomiiollod to 
use this abbreviation, throujvh want of letters by which tlioy miglit 
express thousands ; but Jo]\n had at liand tlio well-known iireok 
letters, by wliioh lie might exjU'ess the wliole, rx'd^-, tilUili. -fl 
Tiie Hebrews supply tlie detect by a formula expressed by ilL\"' 
OID?, to whicli tho formula of'oiu" ancestors, itach drr miniUrn Zahl, 
sometimes answers. Uut .lohn puts the umnber absohitely. ,")) 
AVitliout having recourse to the number ot' a thotisand and iis 
ellipsis, withotit liaving reconrso to the legion and its metalepsis. a 
tenth )iart of the legion, the cohort, and tlius (!(U! or (ilHt (just as 
six JiitnJivJ is proverbially used [for any largo number]), or 5,">.') or 
."iOO (see ^'egetins, as quoted aboxo), might moi'o easily have been 
put or taken lor an iniK-tinife multitude, (i) Rut neitiier does one 
legion nor one cohort always promiscuously represent a great mul- 
titude, but according to the given eireumstances ; for instance, with 
rel'crence to tlio ono posscssoil, Mark v. Sh At other times many 
legions are rather used to expri>ss a nudtitndo ; for instance, of 
angels, !Matt. .xxvi. J)o. 1) A nuillitndo would com]irise, tmder 
the number of tho beast, eitlier the seducers only, or tho seduced 
also. But it cannot comprise the seduced, for they are much more 
numerous, ver. 8 : nor the seducers, ibr they either have no govern- 
ment at all, or that of a denioeracy, or an arislocracv, (^r a monarchy ; 
and any ono of these will rcjud the imtiim o\' a nudtitnde. Hut 
tlicy have, in my opinion, a government, and tluit monarchical ; 

id as in a moiiarcliy the dcnomiiuition is wont to bo derived, not 

a I 

fr.-::! manv. modi I;ss fexn -^ery manT, c-; fr:™ -:::?. ti.!.: irliiiji 
:< e5T'?'-i^7 e;£ i; i in tfie case or" the lieast is. :~3.:; th»<e n?.v be a 
T lace where the se^rn heais and the tcii hrrti? riij be isi^i. 5 
No one who siill have ■wet^fced ::ie rrfrem cf ie namb^s et" this 
book, :le whole jMCtme :r the 'reisr. and ; — ;;:;^> the er :Hi 
thirteenth cliarrer ox die A-'>?3ljpse, will sav a i:iTi.::;:^ie. 
wb.e-:2er —ea: or lesjt-i-.l. is inielmiirely dertrr-^^i. The scine i:::er- 
pre-ra.r::ii of -l~e cxzi'ber vc rke Ireas': by a reference :: rd? E.:~^rL 
legion, is redi^c-i bv ^de Ar:i Badleaisia. e:o_ pabiisi:;-! A. ITcC*. 

Z.-!:\:'':':i -irr.Tjj at :h? 5,ir::e dinc-ssion by a ■Jiiderenr o:T:rse ::" 
ar.r2z:r-r. whea he tiins wrires : — •- Tiie ^i- nirnis ani li ; .^ iajs. 
iCs: i :ir^?. tides, and half j. tiise. are j^ r.r ?H:Z-i?z^ rdie:: Cr>3i 
P^eL wRix whea te «npJo'v? that dree ot —'^ 7.V"- ~. '.ies-r-rircs :Ji? 
ra^-e of Antirchti?. ani tie tramplir^ tmder f;':: :f Eelijir-a. ■s-dijii 
was abo-t ::- list during the space •:* tdre-e years ari six — rr.riis, 
D-r;. TiL £5. and sn. 7. II. in which certain tizies ::' aiversi— and 
aliicti(Hi in i XO'X isx defestte period) se^en to be lOdrk^ :r.t. 
Tiiis — i-irir^:: rf exrressirns cf thfe Mnd rr^vaiiei e-rery^-iiere 
id:~i: the Je ' ;sa "STrirers." — Ci^rr'n. X. T. en A?, xi. Tde t"."" 
ejoanples whica he ti;ere sab': ins are tbr^i^n tj tiie -pti— ose : and 
sirijie tic ninnbers in the same, ani the very ntmitens nsei by 
P.— h-. haTB a precise meaning, the ntnnrer? used in the Af■;•^a- 
Iyt*e ocght nai, as tn-turn tney m^ely (fcsliJA^ti cm alhaidt t^.i 
those of Daniel, t: be --eahenei ctit t.j "be taken with etnal Tre^h- 
s;:n. Otharwisej in tart, the ntimher of the ixs. — eehs, which 
Li^hn ;t tahes rre-cisely. would stih. heoanse it is a roomd nnniber. 
haTe to be takea is a cerrain mnnba'&r an un':-ertam iKte, by ;:~e 
allnsHHi or other < an errrr. whkh Gjd fjrbii that any :&I1 into !> 

In shtrt. the Iniennite intarpretad.n is as thrn^h he ^tonld sav : 
A. mnltitade is desiiijied in c^.'i^r'.rf t^r-^.f : tnere is n: need ef an 
aritliaietical comptttadcn. by which the nnnihers are solved in a 
sretih; sense. Bnt flie text says. Ce^-rt. And sin;e that is n:t 
sail at raniom. bat tj r^rht :nt the h*^ of Snding, we now tr:- 
ceed ti> make the compntadtm. 

i 3. Aaedter nic:-J:fr -zLrci^d to ife ^^tmiai&m €_' t.v nz:r:'--^ €/ 
il:i :-f-.:-7 ;v ■^■zL" ami r.'.aj- 'j^:r::ir.^ prsi'-r' J^zc'liiy [ib-r o-:nnt- 
ing_. i'jiA o'ijAr tj be &::c.j.\i m tld t/jrf. aaid is yox-".;f. viz. tdat of 
XLU. nKnths. — The pr.-phecy. 1) bias xb t? compnte ; £. names 
Ag ixstmler cf ike t'Tizit: -3> naiHes the iitnn.h>er cf a wtem; 4) and 
siy^ tkai !- ii f : c. AH thes-e thin^ are p^ertinent ta the snhjeet ; 


and we will lo&k to them in the order of the Apocalypse, that is, in 
retrograde order. 

1) The number is said to be 666, the adjective alone being ex- 
pressed. A number expressed both by an adjective and a substantive 
(for instance, ten months, a hundred drachmse, a thousand soldiers), 
the one of which we call the reckoning number, the other the number 
reckoned, needs no explanation. But when a number is presented 
to us which requires solution, then either the substantive is expressed, 
as, for instance, pieces of money ; and the adjective is to be sought 
for and inferred, for instance, five myriads : Acts xix. 19 ; also Luke 
xiv. 28: or the adjective is given, as 666, and so the substantive is to 
be sought for which is to be joined to it ; a mode which, except in 
enigmas, and undoubtedly here, in a prophetical enigma, scarcely 
comes into use. The adjective, 666, I say, is given, and that so 
plainly, that it needs no further solution. It remains, that there 
should be traced out, and made up by calculation, not indeed another 
mere numeral adjective, by which no progress would be made, but 
a noun substantive, and that of a specific meaning, for which a 
general term of number is substituted. Be that of whatever kind it 
may, its ellipsis (the readers being now prepared by the ellipsis of 
the noun tongue and horsemen, in the first and second woe, to sub- 
mit more readily to that in the third woe, ch. ix. 11, 16, note), — the 
ellipsis, I saj', is certainly that of a substantive : the only question is, 
whether the 666 are as it were points, such as are accustomed to be 
sought in systems of years ; or men, or times, or anything else which 
occurs to the mind. In the meantime there appears to be a great dif- 
ference between the two computations ; for in the former case the 
subject of inquiry is the reckoning number, which is easily to be 
explained by arithmetic ; but in the other, such as is the matter 
now under consideration, the subject of inquiry is the reckoned 
number, requiring a greater amount of the power of interpretation. 

Wherefore 2) There occurs the mention of "the number of o 
wiaw," which is undoubtedly the cause of a difference : whence it is 
more fully evident, that the reckoned number is that which we 
are commanded to search out ; for no reckoning number is found 
in the universe different from " that of a man." ^ It is of no use to 
pursue this subject further. 

1 Beiigel is wishing to prove that the noun to be understood to the adjective 666 
is years, and these common years : for it is expressly said, "it is the number of a 
man.'' 666 is a human number in contradistinction to the much longer prophetical 
year, ix. 15; not angelic-human, as the 144 measuring reeds, xxi. 17. — E 

APOCALYPSE Xin. 18. Sir 

3) It is to be observed, that the number is said to be that of one 
beast, not of many beasts : and that it is the number of the beast it- 
self, and not that of the name of the beast, which is proposed for 
computation. A number indeed is both assigned to the name of the 
beast repeatedly, and in ver. 18, only to Uie beast itse]£: and Mupertus 
Tuitiensis on Ap. p. 380, that I may not appear too minute in my 
inquiries, has seriously remarked, that the number of the beast is one 
thing, and the number of his name another ; and Potter, in his In- 
terpretation of the number 666, ch. 1, where he quotes manv who 
agree with him, and this is proved by the veiy peculiarity of the 
expression. For there occurs, I. The beast ; II. His name ; III. 
The number of Ms name ; IV. The number of the beast : and the 
fourth ought no more to be confounded with the others, than the 
others ought to be confounded with one another. Since however 
no number of the name of the beast is indicated apart from the 
number of the beast, I wiU readily acknowledge, that the latter is to 
be investigated by means of the former. In tlie meantime the pro- 
phetic phraseology is to be precisely adhered to, and the peculiarity 
of the well-weighed expression is to be followed. It is not said that 
the number of tlie name of the beast is to be computed, but the 
number of f/te beiut. IMorjover the number both of the beast /i(';7i- 
«.;//■ and of one beast only, is a proof, that there is a number or mul- 
titude of accidents : for a number indeed of beasts would denote a 
number which was made up of the substances of many beasts taken 
together ; but the number of tJie beast is that which is made up of 
certain accidents of one beast taken together. And since this is the 
number of the accidents, those accidents are inherent in the beast 
himself : For as, if die days of the beast were spoken of, I should 
take those days for a certain duration of the beast himself: so the 
number of accidents of the beast ought to be looked for in the beast 
itself, and not outside of him. 

4) Here we are commanded not only to number, but to compute. 
The word is -^r^fisx-rx, not apii/iriedTto, comp. ch. vii. 9. "The pe- 
culiar number of the beast," says Cassiodorus, in his Complexiones 
on this passage, *• is explained under a certain method of CAixr- 
LATiox."' Xow calculation and computation cannot be carried on 
in such a matter, except by taking in another number. Potter 
savs, in accordance with reason, " Neither addition, nor subtraction, 
nor multiphcation, nor division, can be carried on, unless two num- 
bers at least are given, so that a tliird number may be sought out, 
which must be either their sum, or the remainder, or the product, 


or the quotient." Whence the same writer, without noticing an- 
other number, which was expressed in a twofold manner, looked to 
the number 666 itself, endeavouring to extract its square root. See 
by all means the treatise quoted, ch. 10. "What if there should be 
in the context another number expressed (as Potter required), and 
that too a more easy one, from which we may elicit a noun adapted 
to this adjective? Shall we imagine that it is accidentally pre- 
sented to us ? Lo ! here are at hand 42 months, ver. 5. Receive 
that which is produced with a soul desirous of truth, and take it. 
The 42 months are times : therefore the 666 are also times. For 
what accidents except times, can one suppose, are possibly contained 
beneath the number 666 ? 

§ 4. ^ nimiber is elegantly used for the number of times, for times, 
years, etc. — This sentiment, the beast-has 666 days, years, etc., when 
it has now been found out, may be suitably expressed in the follow- 
ing words : the number of days, of years, etc., of the beast are 666. 
But it is a much more suitable expression, compute the number 666, 
whereby a problem in particular is proposed for solution, so that 
the sense may be, compute 666, that you may ascertain whether they 
are days, years, eta. : nor will you be able to devise an easier formula 
of proposing this problem. What ? not even in a categorical enun- 
ciation is it foolish to express times either by ellipsis or by trope. 
For thus the Septuagint, Job xxxvi. 26, 6 'is^upo; nOATS, God is 
great, that is, eternal ; for it adds, apiSfih; stuv aurou, xai a-repoiwos. 
So 2 Chron. xxx. 5, D"i7, according to the meaning given by some 
interpreters, denotes often, much, for many years. In the commence- 
ment of his eighth book on the Republic, Plato, describing the period 
of states with the well-known obscureness of his numbers, uses the 
words rpiag mfiTag, x.t.X., and the very word api6iMog, absolutely, 
meaning times : and among all writers, wevrac, Ssko,;, ilxag, rpiaxa;, 
hebdomas, are used for a number of days. Caius says of Cerinthus, 
according to Eusebius, 1. iii. Hist. Eccl. c. 25, apiSfibv ^iXiovrairiai 
X'eyei y'ms^ai. Hesychius, edpog, apil^fj^og rig '^ap& BajSuXmioig. It is a 
number of years, on which the Ordo Temp, treats, p. 323. Pliny, 
Hist. Natur. lib. viii. c. 6, says, Seven years being added to the former 
NUMBER (the 472d year of the city). Orosius, in his Apol. pro 
Lib. Arb., calls that the number of the world, which he had a little 
while hefore called the fulness of the appointed times, p. 753. The 
phraseology is very similar : The number of the beast, the number of 
the world. The Latin prologue to Mark : a fast of number, that is, 
of 40 days. Ticonius, on Ap. xi. 3, says, lie spoke of the numbek 


of the last persecution, and of future peace, and of the wJiole time from 
the Passion of the Lord, etc. Time and place have maBv points of 
resemblance. It is a resemblance, that Xenophon in his Cyropoedia 
says, dpiSfi.(iv oSou, the number of a journey, for length. Add Enrip. 
ed. Gr. p. 290, r. 3, ed. Lat. Part II. p. 232 ; Eus. Praep. Ev. f. 228, 
ex Afric. 

§ 5. The 42 months and the number 666 are equal. — The duration 
of the locusts, under the first woe, is twice expressed by five months : 
to the angels of the Euphrates, under the second woe, there is given 
an hour, and a day, and a month, and a year ; and that body of horse- 
men, two myriads of myriads (200,000,000), is equalled to this 
space. Thus, under the third woe, 42 months of the power which 
the beast has, and the number 666 of the same beast, are equal. 

§ 6. The form, of expression respecting " the number of a m-ari^ im- 
plies 666 ordinary years, and by way of contradistinction to this, 42 
prophetical months. — The number of the beast is said to be the 
number of a man. This expression, of a man, either denotes a man 
definitely or indefinitely. If definitely, it has reference either to 
the beast with ten horns, or to the man computing. There is no 
need of either of these in a matter which is of itself obvious ; and 
neither would tend to aid the calculation. Therefore it must be 
used indefinitely, whence the article is not added in the Greek : 
therefore the genitive singular, of a man, is used for human, as o<rra 
a,v6j>ii':Tov, 1 Kings xiii. 2 (that is, isra. afSpti'^Tiva, K^um. xis. 16) ; aurrr 
pia avSpu-ou, Ps. Ix. 11 [see mai'g. of Engl. Version] ; /j,dy^aipa 
avSpJi-ov, Isa. xxxi. 8. ]\Ioreover it is either a human number of 
times, or a number of human times. It is not the former : for it 
would then have to be a human number, either of years, or months, 
or days : but 666 yeai-s very far exceed the age of man : but 666 
days or months are far too short to express the duration of the beast ; 
and such an ellipsis of days or months is unusual : finally, the 
word, months, is already preoccupied by the opposite 42 months. 
Therefore it is a number of times, human, or belonging to man. But 
the expression, the number of a man, is used for this very conveni- 
ently. For as in Gal. vi. 11, the greatness [of size] which belongs 
to the whole epistle is assigned to the letters ; and as the curtailing, 
by which a longer interval is curtailed, is assigned to days, Ps. cii. 
24, 25 ; and the middle, which belongs to greater times of the world, 
is assigned to years, Hab. iii. 2 : so. on the other hand, there is 
sometimes given to a collective noun a predicate, adapted to the in- 
di\-idual things separately : Prov. xxx. 2Q, o) yjipoypvX'k.oi ihog oux 


Is-)nip6'j : also, the days of My people are as the days of a tree, Isa. 
Ixv. 22, — of the people, that is of the individuals among the people. 
Among the Romans, Gallia Togata. And this metalepsis was espe- 
cially befitting in a prophetical enigma, until the units of the times 
being found out, might themselves support the epithet, human, 
■which was meanwhile sustained by the number, but was properly 
designed for themselves. Now since it is settled that the epithet, 
human, is taken indefinitely, and has reference to the individual 
times, it is evident of itself that such times are even passed by the 
beast, and, which falls in elegantly with the sense, by the computer 
of the number. Thus it is also in the case of the measures of the 
new Jerusalem, which are said, not universally, but each severally, 
to be the measure of a man, that is, of the angel, ch. xxi. 17; and 
likewise the angel who measures partakes of the measure of a man, 
which is indefinitely that of an angel. 

We have seen in § 5, that the number 666 and 42 months are 
equal to each other. Therefore the 666 times of man are 666 ordi- 
nary years of men ; and, on the contrary, the 42 months, inasmuch 
as in the text they are not said to be the months of a man, are truly 
prophetical months. Q. E. D. 

Thus at length (I use an ad hominem argument) justice is done 
to the Vulgate translator, who writes, as we have remarked, § 1, 
sexcenti sexaginta sex. If DIoCLes aVgVstVs, as Bossuet says, or 
any other name of this kind, would fill up the number of the beast 
by its 666 points, the Suppositio Materialis [see Append. Techn. | 
would require sexcenta, etc., the neuter absolute having the force 
of a substantive ; wherefore even Eupertus Tuitiensis, in resolving 
the word diclux, which was invented by Ambrose Ansbert out of 
UCLXVI, was not able to retain sexcentos, etc., but says that it made 
sexcenta sexaginta sex : Comm. on Ap. p. 379 : which very neuter 
gender, you may see on this passage, is used by many interpreters 
willingly, and by Eomanists sometimes against their will. Now they 
ought to bring forward some who read sexcentos sexaginta sex ; other- 
wise they will not be able to absolve the Translator, so highly ex- 
tolled at Trent, from an error, and that of a serious character (for 
the subject is both a most weighty one, and the reading in the Latin 
copies is most unvarying). Those sexcenti sexaginta sex are so many 
years. Innocent III long ago interpreted it by years in his Epistle 
to ALL the faithful of Christ, in aid of the Holy Land, A. 1213, and, 
to omit others of the intermediate ages, F. Louis S. Francisci, in his 
Cycle of Secrets, p. 917, edit. Rom This stricture of Innocent, 


if t.iere be added to it the parallelism of the 42 months, the length 
of the first and second woes, which is analogous to these, the inter- 
vals after the first and the second woe, the union of the beast and 
the woman, must persuade even those who depend on pontifical 
authority, of the true interpretation of the whole prophecy. 

We return to the subject itself. The ellipsis of a " year" is of 
frequent occurrence. Xenophon, oJ bl-Ao. atp' njSnc, who are passing 
the tenth year from their puberty. Plato, lib. vi. de legib., Ttar hiav- 
riii &s ihai xal fj^ri jj^aitpoTiiiov -^prj rnv iipuguvriv sicairrw. 'iti &i fj,ri 'iXarrov 
i^rjxovra fi//,Tv i'ln ysyovu; 6 [/.iXKoiv %aS hpoig v6/j,ou; •^ripl ra OeTa ixavug 
ayidTiuiiv. Polybius, oxTcaxaldiyM yiyovtijt;, of eighteen years. But 
Dio Cass, appropriately to this passage, roaa yiyom, as though he 
should say, this is my number, that is, of years. The two last in- 
stances are contained in the Greek ellipses of Bos : and, from all 
the instances which he has collected of substantives that are usually 
omitted, you may perceive that nothing but sVos is suitable to this 
passage. In Daniel mention is made of LXX. weeks, the word, 
yearly times, being understood. Therefore 6 apd/hog tou Sripku is 
equivalent to 6 apiS/ihg tuv IrSiv rau Stjpiou, just as apiSfihg ■ysvri/j.dTaiv 
is equivalent to apiS/j,og hiauruv yivrnjATon, Lev. xxv. 15, 16. 

This ellipsis of years is not without advantage. If they had been 
expressly mentioned by name, the reader would have been liable to 
confound together times strictly and figuratively denoted, with an 
error which would create tnany disturbances ; whereas now ordi- 
nary years conceal their own title, in sight of the prophetic months. 
So much the less ought the human times to cause us any difficulty 
in this book, since they are so sparingly and providently attempered 
with so many prophetical times, and so therefore without any 
danger of their being confounded with one another. For we do not 
pass by a leap, but we are gradually led fi-om the prophetic times to 
the ordinary years which are here indicated by the ellipsis, and then 
in succession to the ordinary years, which are expressly mentioned 
as such in ch. xx. But the ellipsis even contributes to the season- 
ableness of the enigma, not only with reference to the beast, to 
whom, in the same mysterious manner as to the king of Babylon of 
old, the number and consummation of his kingdom is written before 
his eyes, Dan. v. 26, but also with reference to the saints, who 
would have been disheartened by the long duration of those most 
sorrowful times, if they had known it, both on their own account 
and on account of their friends ; for they did not imagine that so 
many vears remained, even to the world itself. But it is evident 

VOL. v. x 


that they, both before the Keformation and afterwards, were long 
supported by that hope, that the war against the saints would 
quickly come to an end. It was plainly to their own great advan- 
tage that they did not comprehend the age of the beast (for it was 
not then at hand). At onetime the beast was acquainted with tlie 
times, and not with himself ; the saints were acquainted with the 
beast more than with his times : now both the beast and his num- 
ber, or, in other words, his times, will together become more and 
more known. 

As to what remains, it is a question whether the number of 666 
years in the Greek text is to be taken in the masculine or neuter 
gender. If the former, the reading is i^axoawi s^rjxovTa sg hmuTol ; 
if the latter, it is i^axSeia Egjjxoira 'iS, 'irri. But in truth the neuter 
gender, to which we gave the preference, § 1, is far superior to the 
masculine, as we shall presently, § 7, more fully ascertain. 

§ 7. These 666 years have an appendage. — The 666 and the 1000 
years, or sV>), are properly opposed to each other. The beast rages 
666 years : they who had not worshipped the beast reign 1000 
years. Moreover 666 are to 1000 years as nearly as possible in 
the same ratio as 2 to 3 ; but precisely as 3 are to 2, so are 1000 ex- 
pressed years to 666 -||| -§, and this fractional number agrees with 
the ellipsis, leaving the word year to be understood : for each 
unit of the number of the beast is a figurative year, but is so with 
the addition of a few hours ; which addition does not take away the 
truth of the ordinary year, but yet makes the title of year in some 
degree inappropriate. Thus the number 666 and the 1000 years 
mutually confirm and explain one another. It has occurred to 
some, doubtless from that hypothesis of the Apocalyptic year which 
contains 360 days, that is, the same number of years, — that 1000 
years may be taken for 360 thousands of ordinary years. And al- 
though this thought is very absurd, yet it may have no slight influ- 
ence with him who has been struck with the accurate analogy of 
the Apocalyptic times. Now, it is not only in this one place, but 
also previously in the number 666, that ordinary years and those 
" of a man" are employed. On the other hand, because the thou- 
sand years are said to be 'irn, the number of 666 years is furnished 
with the most appropriate word to be supplied, viz. 'kog, and the 
confusion between ordinary and prophetical times is thereby the 
more avoided ; for a prophetical year in this t)ook is called mavrbg, 
ch. ix. 15, but here they are stti, which are partly expressed and 
partlj understood. Indeed^ JwaurJj. has something more of a general 


meaning than 'iro;. Whence the comic writer said, kSiv sviavroug, 
and Plato in his Cratj'lus does not vary much from him. It has a 
closer reference to this, that the noun hiaur),; is used for denoting 
any positive year, so to speak, while eVos is only used to denote the 
natural year. Apollodorus, lib. iii., speaking of Cadmus, atdm 
hiauriv s^rjTsvasv apir ^v d'e himrhg Hn 'ixrai 'irrj. And the LXX., 
Deut. XXXI. 10, fiSTiSi, l-!TTa £TJ), Jv xaipS) Iwaurou rris atpiaag : and thus 
continually. Lev. xxv. 10, 10, 52, xxvii. 18 ; Judg. x. 8. Whence 
it comes to pass, that in innumerable places the noun eV-zj is con- 
strued with any cardinal number whatever, and often a large num- 
ber ; whereas swaurJ; is never so used, but for the most part indefi- 
nitely, or in the singular number : Gen. xlvii. 28 ; 2 Sam. xxi. 1 : 
compared with 1 Kings xiv. 21 ; 2 Kings xxiv. 18 ; 2 Chron. xxii. 
2. And this difference between the words ought not to be ne- 
glected, because it is peculiar to the Greeks, and not customary 
with us. 

We have thus far discussed the subjects which we proposed, § 3. 
For the subject, viewed in this light, plainly, 1) consists of ■^h'poi, 
elements of calculation, and contains division, multiplication, sub- 
traction, and addition ; and by means of those elements of calcula- 
tion, first, its noun, years., is connected with the adjective itself, 
666 ; and then many other computations also are made from thesei 
2) It squares with the number of the beast, properly so called. 3) 
It introduces the number of the times of a man ; 4) and the 666 
years. i 

§ 8. Hence several lesser periods of times are resolved. — After the 
analogy of 42 months, other periods, for instance, the five months 
of the first woe, the hour and day and month and year of th^ 
second woe, are easily resolved ; and the history corresponds, as we 
have shown at the proper places. But the question respecting the 
precise length of the Apocalyptic hour itself separately, of the day, 
the month, and the year, might be omitted. If, however, it is in^ 
quired into, it is easily deduced from those things which we have 
said. A month is the twelfth part of a year ; a year has Mb^^^jy. 
days ; a day has 24 hours : and with this natural division the pro- 
phetical corresponds. Moreover, since the 42 prophetical months are 
666§ ordinary years, the length of the prophetical times readily pre- 
sents itself. In short, each measure of ordinary time is with refer- 
ence to prophetical time, as 190^ j- to 1, or as 4000 to 21. m 

§ 9. In the same manner greater periods also of time are resolvedi 
— We propose this progressive system: — - I ■ 



A Half-time contains of ordinary years, HI J 

A Time (xaipoi), 


The Number of the beast, 


Time 1, 2, and ^, 

• 777| 

A Short Time, . 


A Millennium, . 


A Chronus (period), 

• 1111* 

An Age, 

2222f, etc 

The connection of the prophecy and the series of events confirm 
this as approximating to the length of periods thus increasing : but 
this exact length is recommended first of all by the analogy of the 
number 666 and of 1000 years ; and in the next place it is con- 
firmed by the system of septenaries resulting from it. For if, with 
astronomical strictness, you should resolve all the steps of this pro- 
gression into days, the second step will give pure weeks of days, 
whilst the first will give as many half weeks (and this is the peculiar 
reason why the first is called ritMia-j xaipov, half a time, and not until 
the second is there said to be -/.uiphi, a time) : then, as is the ratio 
either of the first or of the second step, so is that of the others, which 
are multiplied out of the first or even out of the second. Thus the 
System of sevens, which Moses and the Prophets so frequently employ 
in times, and the Apocalypse in actions, unexpectedly displays itself 
also from the times of the Apocalypse affording thus a remarkable 
test of true analysis. But the proper place for this demonstration is 
in the Order of Times, c. 11 and 12. 

§ 10. This analysis of times, though intermediate, ought not to be 
thought foreign to the subject. — The prophetic day of about six months, 
for instance, ought not to be thought to be inconsistent with the 
sense of a day of the heavens, or an ordinary day. The Apocalypse 
itself suggests half times : eh. viii. 1, xi. 9, xii. 14; and other inter- 
preters, proceeding from different ways, have long ago arrived at 
half forms of times. Seb. Meyer calls the 42 months, the 1260 days; 
and the 1, 2, and i times, the half of a week of years ; but without . 
any further explanation. John Napeir endeavours to resolve the 
seven periods of time which he lays down from the destruction of 
Jerusalem to the end of the world, from the fact, that there are seven 
great Jubilees ; not entire, of 490 years : therefore the halves con- 
sist of 245 years. See Expl. Apoc. Part i. Prop. 5. Molinceus 
thinks, that the 1260 years of the beast in the exercise of his power 
are a week ; so that the half week of the two slain witnesses denotes 
a persecution of 630 years, which are the hale of 1260 years. See 


Accompliss. des Proph. p. 357. Nor are these influenced so much 
by the truth of the reasons, as by the probable appearance of the 
fact alone. Aretius on this passage proceeds more speciously, mutu- 
ally comparing the 1335 days of Daniel and the number 666. A 
space of six months is not only a part of a time, but it is also a time: 
and as the Indians, according to Curtius, had their month divided 
into 15 days (whence the Malabars at the present time account the 
14 semicircles of the 7 planets for fourteen worlds) ; and the Chinese 
fix 24 semi-solar months in the year : so some of the ancients not un- 
skilfully marked out one year hy summer, and another hy winter, as 
Pliny remarks, 1. vii. c. 48. And Plutarch, Censorinus, and others, 
remark that the year was also terminated in six months among the 
Egyptians, and from them among the Greeks, and undoubtedly so 
among tlie Carians and Acarnanians, between whom Patmos was 
situated, and indeed it was very near to Caria. See Jo. Hiskise Car- 
dilucii T. I. Evang. Naturwissenschaft in Prsef., and Fabricii lib. de 
Mensibus, pp. 7, 8, and 153. The history of Thucydides is arranged 
by winters and summers. The ancient Saxons divided the year into 
two Malinas, autumnal and vernal, as Martinius remarks from 
Scaliger in his Lexicon Etym. col. 1438. And in all the inter- 
course of civil life a space of time consisting of six months was of 
very frequent occurrence. There were many magistracies of six 
months' duration, as, for instance, tlie tribuneship mentioned by Pliny, 
Ep. 4, 1. 4. The fasces of the consuls were formerly given for six 
months : and at the present day. Academic oiEcers and others. The 
Romans had rings for summer and winter : whence the six months' 
gold, in Juven. Sat. vii. Those skilled in civil law cite six-monthly 
counsels of princes. See P. Fabri Pr«f. to his Semestria ; for by 
this title he and other civil lawyers, and Dorscheus of divines, inscribed 
some of their writings : and at the present day Semestria are in ex- 
istence among the French in forensic practice. James Cappellus 
suspects that the patriarchal years before Abraham were held by the 
Alexandrians to be of six months, when he is comparing the Alex- 
andrian era of the creation of the world with the Jewish. Disp. 
Sedan. T. I. p. 1048. Comp. the things related by Calvis. upon 
A.M. 3185, taken from John George Herbart of Hohenburg. With 
astrologers sometimes, when they conjecture future things from 
celestial phenomena, a day by a mystic calculation denotes six 
months. See Zimmermann's Tr. on the Comet of the year 1680, p. 
101. With this especially agrees that solemnly observed division 
of the year into two equal parts among the Israelites, that is, into 


two periods of six months, one of which parts was reckoned from the 
beginning of the months, the other from the beginning of the year, 
viz. in spring and in autumn. See Ord. Temp. pp. 19, 27 [Ed. ii. pp. 
16, 23]. Nor is it in the first month that the Jews increase the age 
by the addition of the year ; but it is in the beginning of the seventh 
month, for instance, that they would begin to write a.m. 5500, in- 
stead of 5499, with the approlDation of Moses : Ex. xxiii. 16, xxxiv. 
22. At any rate, from the time of Moses a period of six months 
was always very remarkable among the Israelites in life and its 
vicissitudes : and the courses of the priests divided the year into 
two periods of about six months.' Moreover there was an interval 
of six months between the forerunner John and Christ Jesus Him- 
self : Luke i. 36. E. Ase had his disciples with him six months in 
every year ; he ordered them to be at home six months. We have 
not collected these things to demonstrate the precise length of the 
prophetical day, but only for the purpose of showing that that 
length ought not to appear so strange to us. We have derived the 
demonstration itself from a different source. 

§ 11. Nay, it is only thus that interpretations branching off into 
intricate and extreme points are avoided. — The j/ear-day, which 
many Protestants have long defended, is longer, and much longer, 
than truth permits ; the ordinary day, which is maintained by Ro- 
manists and some of our more recent writers, is shorter, ^nd much 
shorter, than truth permits. I have demonstrated both these points 
in my German Introduction, § 38, etc. It is evident that these are 
the tioo chief sources from which so many false interpretations have 
flowed. The truth lies between the two. Whoever is able to en- 
trust himself to this will be in safety. See on ver. 1, Prop. 10, 
Obs. 29. 

§ 12. Therefore both the months of the beast and his number, and 
the number of his name, have a system free from difficulty. — The 666| 
years, which equal the months of the beast and the number of the 
beast (see Erkl. Offenb. p. 133), had their commencement, when 
the event was proceeding from the beginning of ch. xiii. to the 
middle of ver. 5, at the commencement of the pontificate of Coeles- 
tine II. on Septernber 25th A. 1143. Gregory VII. began to be 
independent of the Roman Emperor, Coelestine II. of JRome itself, 
during the flourishing period of which the beast is not. At that 
time, therefore, power was given absolutely to the beast. The 
number of the name of the beast began from Gregory VII., who 
claimed for the Eoman Pontiff alone the name of Pope, in the most 


exalted sense. They have that name who emhrace and approve of 
the most disgraceful novelty of Gregory as something divine. Thus 
the number of the name of the beast is known from the number of 
the beast, and somewhat exceeds it. This method is easy and 
simple, by which the number of the name of the beast is explained. 
But there are some who think that it may possibly be the case that, 
as the name IH20T2, that is, Jesus, is equivalent to 888 (see 
Estius on this passage), so the name of His adversary has the num- 
ber 666 according to the numeral value of letters. " Nor is that 
to be passed over in this place," says Neuhusius, " which historians 
have remarked, that the Number of the name assumed by the Pope 
is generally ominous of the duration of his life and reign. Cer- 
tainly Alexander II. departed this mortal life in the second year of 
his pontificate, Clement III. in the third year, Victor IV. in the 
fourth, Pius V. in the fifth, Leo X. in the tenth, Gregory XIII. in 
the thirteenth, Sixtus V. in the fifth. By a like fatality, Benedict 
II., Sixtus II., Anastasius II., John II., Martin II., Nicholas II., 
died in the second year of their reign. Stephen III., Martin III., 
Clement III., Nicholas III., in the third year of their supreme 
power. Felix IV., Martin IV., Nicholas IV., Paul IV., Benedict 
IV., Clement IV., in the fourth ; Boniface V. in the fifth ; Inno- 
cent Vin., in the eighth, ceased to be among the living." — Lib. 
ii. Fatid. Sacror. c. 31. G. Burius, in Notitia Pontificum, sect, 
xvi., has noticed similar instances, not only in years, but also in 
months. It was with this feeling that many have long since sought 
for the number 666 in many names. We have before brought for- 
ward some things from Irenseus ; and of these, who has not spoken 
of AATEIN02 ? And we may conjecture how this might, even at 
that time, have occurred to any one. In the Sibylline books, 
which the ancients greatly regarded, it is said, lib. viii., Xmg alrh 
iXsTrai. Now in many sovereignties, the first and the last sovereigns 
are found to have been distinguished by the same name ; and the 
first Bishop of Home was not Peter, but Linus : and therefore, 
although an ancient error speaks of a second Peter, as the last, a 
more ancient opinion seems to have fastened upon a second Linus 
(with what amount of truth, does not afi^ect the argument). In 
Latin, LInVs seCVnDVs might perhaps be equivalent to 666 : but 
such signatures are accustomed to be noticed among their subjects 
at the first time, whence some regard them as omens, and not at 
the last. However that is, AiN02 is equivalent to 360. There is 
therefore wanting the number 306, that is, TEA. By a combination 


of the letters TEA and AIN02, the well-known word AATEINOS 
was formed. Or else they had heard that the name of the beast 
would be Latin, as about to occur in the Latin language, and not 
in Hebrew or Greek ; and by a " Suppositio Materialis" [See Ap- 
pend. Techn. Terms], they interpreted that of the name Aanm^ 
itself. Whether the former or the latter was the case, AaTuvog. 
ought not to have been put with E ; for the Greek EI, with a con- 
sonant following, is expressed in Latin by I, as i'lxuv, icon : but the 
Latin I does not pass into EI in Greek, nor is Aarsmg borne out by 
analogy : for it is not written 'Ax\jXemg, x.t.X., but 'AxvXmc, ' AX^mg, 

' AxpayavrTvog, ' AXeS,oi.vdpiiog, ' AvTomvog, ' Apxr/iog, ' Ap^Tmg, Bpovrr/og, Ka- 
Xovmg, Kapmg, KoXXarmg, Kpariiiog, Kpiarrmg, Kouaprhog, Kuvaravrmg, 
AiO'iTriog, Aivrjog, Ai^sprTvoc, AoyyTvog, Mazpmg, Ma^i/j,7itog, Mapivog, NipuX- 
Xmg, T^iypmg, Bi<piXhog, Hiemg, 2a/3/Vof, 'S.aropnng, Iraamg, Tapaiirmg, 
Tr/iXXTvog, ^iXTvog, ^Xupivrmg. It would be tedious to collect more 
instances. In Irenseus himself, 'loucr™oc, OiaXevrTnog, 'Tynog, •iXoipmg, 
are uniformly written with the simple I : and thus also Aarmg, 
which very word is used in the Sibylline books with I, at one time 
long, and at another time short. And thus in one MS. of Andreas, 
Aarmg is replaced by the copyist, correcting the text, contrary to 
the design of Andreas : in a second, at the word AanTmg there is 
added bia di<pS6yyou, with an open acknowledgment of the license 
which is frequently used by the Greeks in Greek chronologies, as it 
is by the Germans in German. For on account of the same num- 
ber 666, they made Tinav out of Tirav, Xla'SiTeyiog out of Ilacr/ffxof, 
'Afi/oD/iE out of ' Apn\ But there ought to be no place for a 
license of this kind in a matter of such great importance. Andreas 
of Csesareia, or they who have enlarged upon his works, have added 
other names, for the sake of exercise, after the example of Hippoly- 
tus. Among these, Benedictus is especially remarkable, not 
only in the Augustan Codex, which superadds one name upon 
another, but even in the Sylbui-gian edition : nor however does that 
Benedict of Nursia, of whom Andreas might have heard, and whom 
Nic. Mulerius brings forward on this place, appear to have been the 
person intended by any Greek copyist : for the Menologia of the 
Greeks also preserves his memory on the 14th of March ; but the 
person meant was Benedict IX., Pontiff of Rome. sILVester 
seCVnDVs, who occurs to Caspar Heunischius, is not a dissimilar 
instance : for Silvester was on the Papal throne, when the 1000th 
year from the birth of Christ was reckoned ; Benedict, when the 
1000th year from His death ; and at one or the other of these 


thousandth years, as though the thousand years mentioned in ch. 
XX. had elapsed, the ancients expected the kingdota of the beast 
(as it is plainly seen from Andreas, for the name BENEAIKT02, 
as it appears, furnished some ingenious reader of his with the 
number 666) : nor has the fame of that Benedict the support of 
such authorities at the present day, as that of Silvester. We have, 
as I think, bestowed sufficient labour upon the consideration of the 
opinions of the ancients. Scherzer, above others, in Syst,, p. 865, 
has thought it worth while to recount even more recent inventions, 
or rather trifles ; and Wolf., in vol. iv. Curar., p. 545. Therefore 
we may pass them by : that however may be added, which Chris- 
topher Seebach, in his Germ. Key to Ap., p. 309, i'lrappTiaiaaaTo : 
but the name LUDoVIGVs has been certainly less forced [to yield 
the 666], Avhich a treatise, published in Belgic and German, with 
the title. The Faith and Patience of the Saints, ch. 23, has applied 
to this, although even that disastrous persecution of the Reformers 
in the kingdom of the Gauls did not attain to the great force im- 
plied in this number ; and evidently the name to which this number 
is given ought to be found, if anywhere, in the series of the Pppes. 
Some, with Vitringa, who, on Ap. p. 629, quotes that writer who is 
in other places unnamed, and his book, question the numeral power 
of the Latin letters : but Baudius, Ep. 79, cent. 1, proves that they 
all have that power, except D ; Scaliger, following Priscian, in his 
book respecting causes, L. L., ch. xli., proves that they all without 
exception have it. We think that these subtleties may be omitted. 
The number, even of the name of the beast, has, as we have seen, 
another meaning. 


1. 'Exarov, %.r.X.) They are the same CXLIV, thousands which are 
mentioned ch. vii., but now in a much more splendid condition ; 
wherefore they are mentioned without the article ai : just as in ch. 
xvii. 3, 6npiov,the beast, without the article rh, is the same beast 
as that which is mentioned in ch. xiii. 1, but which afterwards 
became very unlike its former self. — rh ovofia avrov -/.ai) This was 
wanting to the Codex Reuchlinianus,^ although it does not seem 

' These -nrnrds (His name and) are omitted by Rec. Text ; but ABCh Vulg. 
Orig. 4,2a, Cypr. 294 support them. Orig. 4,26? has to5 apviov for «,inov. — E. 


to have been wanting to the more ancient MS., from which it 
was copied. For, instead of the subsequent participle ysypa.a/Aerav, 
Erasmus, in his 1st, 2d, and 3d Editions, put ;ta;o>£vov. And this 
appears to have been inserted in an improper place from the 
margin, which in smaller [fainter] character, frequently used in 
margins, reminded [the reader], that the words ho[t,a were to be 
supplied ; just as shortly afterwards, in ver. 6, at roi); xaSrifimvg 
the same Codex Reuchlinianus introduced from other places the 
marginal gloss roi; xanixouvTag. It is more probable, in Wolf's 
opinion, that zaw/j^Bvov ought to be attributed to a gloss. For it is 
well known, he says, thai marks of this kind were accustomed to be 
burnt in either on the forehead or hand. And some one wishing to 
point out this custom, thought fit to explain the vjord yiy^ay^yimi by 
7tai6(M\iov. I reply : If a name, which is being burnt in, can be ex- 
pressed by yiaio/jjivov, that which has been burnt in cannot thus be 
expressed. It is a matter of Httle consequence : it is admitted to 
be a gloss on both sides ; the only question is as to its origin. My 
own view serves towards vindicating the reading respecting the 
name of the Lamb. Some one, relying on the reading of Erasmus, 
which does not contain the name of the Lamb, ventured to hope 
that the name of the Father, and not that of the Lamb, would here- 
after come into favour. That enemy of the Nicene faith, and of 
the glory of Christ, was deceived. Nay, indeed both the name of 
the Larab and the name of His Father are written on the foreheads 
of the cxLiv. thousands. 

2. Ka; '/j (pmn h nnouea wg') Thus Comp. Copt, and almost all 
the copies. But the reading of Erasmus, na! tpmri' nxovea, without 
ws (which particle is however found even in And. i), is scarcely 
supported by one or two ancient authorities. I wish the reader to 
observe my Edition, connected by Wolf more distinctly than by 
the printer with the Complutensian, and not with the Graeco- 
Anglican. John by degrees more articulately describes the voice 
which he heard ; and the article ri has the force of a relative, by 
which the meaning is conveyed, that the same voice was heard 
first as of many waters and of great thundering, and next as of 

' So ABC/t Orig. ; but Rec. Text, 0m'/isi '/ixovaa. Vulg. " vocem quam 
audivi." — E. 

^ 4. Tifi ©£M — T? dpiilu, to God — the Lamh) Hence they sing a hymn before the 
throne of the Former, and they think it an honour to afford themselves as fol- 
lowers of the Latter. — V. g. 

APOCALYPSE XIV. 5, 6. 331 

5. YeuSo?) SoXo?,' the text according to Andreas in Cod. EeucJiL, 
which Erasmus follows, and in the Augustan, But the text in 
Andreas himself, as edited by Sylburgius, and Copt, (according to 
Wolf, who however defends the word SoXos), together with all the 
copies, is -J^tvdo;. That expression of Peter, oun ebpeSri bo'Mi h ra 
ffro>ar; auroD, plainly refers to Isa. liii. 9. But the phrase of the 
Apocalypse, although it supports itself, has something parallel in 
Malachi ii. 6, respecting the priest : No>os aXrihiai ?i/ ev riji eroij^an 
aurou, %a,} aSixla ou^ ebpiSri h ■yiiXiSn avrov. The word ■4'EuSof, with 
its derivatives and compounds, is of very frequent occurrence in all 
the writings of John. — a/iw^o; elgh) imiTiov roD 6p6]iou rou &£ou^ was 
first added by the more recent Latin editions. See App. Crit. Ed. 
ii. on this passage. This interpolation is unsuitable to the passage. 
For the description of these first-fruits is beautifully fashioned like a 
canticle ; and so these two clauses have a kind of rhythm,- 'irdpkvai 
yap ilm- afMu/j^oi elfflr where, as we remark in passing, the particle 
yap appears to be extended fi^om the preceding to the latter clause. 
Moreover, they are vi7^gms, with reference to their following tlie 
Ziamb ; they are a/jLu/Mi, not with reference to their being before the 
throne of God, but with reference to the fact, that they are redeemed, 
as first-fruits to God and the Lamb. Why should I enlarge on 
this ■? No one in Grreece, Asia, Syria, or Africa, nor do I hesitate 
to add Italy and ancient Armenia, has in this passage read the clause, 
before the throne of God. They had not the editions •which are 
in common use at the present day ; they had the genuine reading. 

6. " Ayyikoy, an angel) Under the name of angels the preachers 
of the heavenly doctrine come, in ver. 6, 8, 9. [They are O2oposedto 
him who published the threefold woe, ch. viii. 13. — V. g.] But as 
to that which G. G. Zeltner has in his Diss, de Chiliasmo prsesenti, 
§ 13, p. 22 : Nor shall we be opposed to it, if any one should affirm that 
the aid of Angels, or of one in particular, was employed here (Ap. 
xxi. 1) in animating the Confessors of the Gospel, in the same sense 
in which an angel is said also to have stood beside Paul, Acts 
xxvii. 23, comp. ivith Dan. x. throughout the whole chapter ; and we 
admit that this explanation is most of all approved by us : we think 
that is more suitable to the three heralds (preachers) here mentioned. 
— aiiiviov, existing through eternal ages) alav, an age, is attributed to the 

' ABC Vulg. Orig. read ^eihs • Rec- Text, without good authority, So'Xoj. 
— E. 

^ ABC Orig. omit these words. Rec. Text has them, with Vulg. Amiat. MS. 
alone of the oldest authorities. — E. 


Gospel, or to the office of publishing it, which the angel here has. 
It is therefore a definite age,^ which, in accordance with the analogy 
of the other times, consists of two periods (chroni), and extends from 
the publishing of this Gospel to the judgment day itself. This length 
of the age in particular, besides many other things, affords an occasion 
for considering whether this angel be Amdt. We are not so certain 
that the second angel is already come ; if he is already come, it must 
be understood of Spener. The third precedes the close of the 42 
months by a shorter interval : although the worship of the beast 
himself, and not only the worship of the image, which is subsequent, 
is forbidden by him. — suayyiXlaai) There is a similarity of expression 
in '!riipag//jOu—'jriif>dsai, ch. iii. 10, and vjayyiXiov — ixiayyiXlirai, in this 
passage. — roug xaSrii^hovg) Several copies read touq ■/,^ accord- 
ing to the more usual phraseology of the Apocalypse. The Keuch- 
linian Manuscript has joined both readings: the better part of the 
copies, together with Lat. Orig. To sit on the earth is something 
more innocent tlian to dwell on the earth : the latter is the part of 
citizens, the former of persons less closely connected with it. They 
whom the three woes strike are spoken of as dwelling upon the earth : 
they to whom the everlasting Gospel is preached, as sitting on the 
earth. The difference between the words plainly appears from Isa. 
xviii. 3, pS ''JStJ'l bn ''3C5''' b. 

7. 'KpUioig, of judgment) D. Lange, Epicr. p. 402, refers this 
preaching to the last times : but this however ought not to be 

' But tJiat the notion of a definite age contributes in no slight degree to con- 
firm the harmony of the rest of the chronology of Scripture, the sainted Author 
appears to me to have proved in his Ord. temp. Ed. I. p. 410, Ed. II. p. 352, 
n. 20, sat/ing, Paul makes repeated mention rZn aliimti, of the ages, especially in 
the Epistles which were written when the close of the fourth space of a thousand 
years was now drawing near. Rom. xvi. 25 ; Eph. ii. 7, iii. 9 ; Col. i. 26 ; 
1 Tim. i. 17 : 2 Tim. i. 9 ; Tit. i. 2 ; especially 1 Cor. x. 11, where he says that 
ra, riy^yi rm aluiiati, the ends of the ages, have arrived. The duration of the 
world contains 35 times, or 7 periods (chroni), or 3i ages altogether : and when 
Paul wrote thus, 18 times were just on the close, and 17 times still remained. 
These are in the ratio of 1^^ to 1^^^, and are in the total 3^ ages. We do not 
know how distinct a knowledge the apostles had respecting the past and future 
times of the world, before the Apocalypse was given to John, but undoubtedly 
they were so governed by God, that their expressions admirably agreed with the 
discovery about hereafter to take place. Comp. D. Burscher, in dem Versuch 
einer kurzen Erlauterung des Propheten Jeremire Leips. 17S6, pp. 255, 256 — 
E. B. 

=> BO Orig. Vulg. Oypr. 312 read x.a,hfihous. Rec. Text has x.»rotx.avvTa.s, 
with A Memph. Syr. — E. 


fixed too late. The passage from Matt. xxiv. 14, which he com- 
pares, has been considered above, on ch. vi. 2. — -rjiyaf, fountains) 
The article is not added : for fountains are now in some measure 
contained under the sea ; although these, in themselves, also are 
something great in the universe. See Becmann's Hist. Geogr. 
cap. iii. part 4. 

8. "EvrsffEi' eVscte) See on ch. xviii. 2. — Tia^uXiiv >) ij^iydXn) Thus all 
the MSS. ; thus also Copt. Thus ch. xvi. 19, xvii. 5, xviii. 2, and 
LXX., Dan. iv. 27. But ii toX/s^' is inserted between by Erasmus, 
from ch. xviii. 10, 21. An epithet is often added to a proper name, 
without an appellative substantive. Babylon the great, put abso- 
lutely, has a somewhat grander sound, than Babylon the great city. — 
sx, of) Asyndeton. — roS o'm\)) This is the reading of a few, but 
ancient witnesses, of the Greek and Latins, to whom is added Cas- 
siodorus. Because in those passages, where the wrath of God is 
treated of, o ohag tov 6vfiou is usually said ; for that reason here, and 
in ch. xviii. 3, where the fornication of Babylon is treated of, i oT/og 
Tou Ou/jfoij has also been inserted by the copyists.^ But see App. Grit. 
Ed. ii. on this passage. Under the figure of a draught is often 
described the anger of God, and often the impurity of [spiritual] 
whoredom. It is in the former draught, and not the latter, that the 
word TOU ^u^ou is used. — 'jn'jrorr/.i, hath made to drink) Luther says 
in the preface to Robert Barns' Lives of the Pontiffs, " I indeed at 
first, who am not greatly versed or skilled in histories, attacked the 
Papacy, a priori, as the saying is, that is, from the Sacred Scrip- 
tures. Now I wonderfully rejoice, that others do the same a pos- 
teriori, that is, from histories. And I seem to myself altogether to 
triumph, when, as the light appears, I understand that histories are 
in agreement with the Scriptures." And thus the history of the 
affairs of Kome, which is more and more brought forward into the 
light, serves to confirm the preaching of this second angel. But, 
laying aside party zeal, it is right that we should here especially 
weigh the things which were carried on in the East at the beginning 
of this century, by missions sent from Borne, rather than the Pontiff; 
and, on the other hand, the things which began to be carried on by 
evangelical missions. The impure draught given to the nations is 
followed by a purer draught. 

' ABC/i Vulg. reject n mXis, which Rec. Text has without good authority. 
— E. 

' Lachm. and Tisch., with the oldest authorities, retain Svfiov. Fuld. MS. of 
Vulg. omits it ; but better MSS. retain it. — E. 

334 APOCALYPSE XIV. 9-11. 

9. ' AX>.oc, another) The preaching of the angel with the ever- 
lasting Gospel is a good, that of the second and third is also a good : 
but yet the second and the third angel are distinct from each other. 
Spener, for instance, properly confined himself within his own 
limits ; see Canstein, in his Life, § 32. But if any one should 
suppose that the investigation and testimony to the truth of pro- 
phecy is to be confined within the same limits on the part of pos- 
terity, he would commit an error. There is a variety both in gifts 
and times. See Erkl. Ojfenb. pp. 145, 158, 159, 166, 167, 176, etc., 
1041, 1042, 1117. — si' r/j, ■A.r.'k.) If any man shall worship the beast 
and his image, and shall receive his mark in his forehead, or in his 
hand, he also shall drink of the ivine of the wrath of God, which is 
poured out tvithout mixture in the cup of His indignation; and he 
shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the angels, 
and before the presence of the Lamb. And the sir.oke of their tor- 
ments shall ascend up for ever and ever ; and they have no rest day 
and night, who have worshipped the beast, and whosoever shall have 
received the mark of his name. This threatening stands by itself, and 
is the most dreadful of all contained in the whole of the Scripture. 
The fear of Him, who is able to destroy both soul and body, 
banishes the fear of those who slay the body : Luke xii. 4, 5. 

10. 'Ex, Tou 0/1/ou rou 6u/jj0tj — h tCj itorriplifi s-Sjj opyi^c, of the wine of 
torath — in the cup of indignation) As the wine is to the cup, so is 
wrath to indignation. A designed difference of words : ch. xvi. 19, 
xix. 15. !) opyri leads rh Sv/^bv into action. Comp. Eom. ii. 8, note, 
non is 6uf/yhg, pn opyfi, in the LXX. — rou xixipaafiivou axpuTOU, which is 
poured in without mixture) -/.ipdwufii, I mix, is used generally for 
I pour in, even of unmixed wine.-^ — Axparov is unmixed, with which 
nought of grace or hope is blended. Such an unmixed potion is 
already mingled and prepared for the worshippers of the beast. 
There is at hand both a salvation, which awaits the saints, and a 
punishment, which overhangs the wicked. Ps. Ixxv. (Ixxiv.) 9, 
■Ti'OTfipiov b ^iipi Kvpiou ohov axpdrou, <!rXripei -/iepas/iaTog. 

11. E/j alum aitLmv^) Thus also ch. xix. 3, xx. 10. We have 
noticed in the Apparatus traces of this reading, which requires most 
studious investigation. In other places it is written, e/s tovs aluvag 
Toiv a'lmm. Each expression isj as it were, squared : as a myriad' of 
myriads, the heaven o/ heavens. The article is emphatic, especially 
where the discourse is on the subject of the Eternity of God. In 

• A Vulg. Cypr. Ill, 264, 322, have ilg aiuuag ctli>yaii : so Lachm. and Tisch. 
But C, si( aloiua u,iipot. — E. 


these expressions, either the use or the omission of the Greek article 
is very opportune. — am^ahii, ascendeth) The present, after a future, 
has the force of a future, but with emphasis. 

12.' 0/ rripovvTH, that keep) Either the abstract and the concrete, 
patience and the;!/ that keep, are here joined together ; or rather the 
nominative is used for the genitive, tuv ayim, o'l rripobVTis, of the saints 
who keep : comp. ch. i. 5, 'iriaou XpiSrou, o fidprjg o mffroj. 

13.^ 'A'jrdpri, X'syei rJ HveZfjiia) That voice which said, Write, 
Blessed are the dead, who die in the Lord, that they may rest, etc., 
was uttered by one of the inhabitants of heaven, with whose 
person and condition it particularly agrees to call Jesus Lord. 
The Spiric Himself, as it were by a parenthesis, interrupts that 
voice, and at once approves and amplifies it, by the word aitdpri, 
from, now ; just as after the words, Write, Blessed, there follows, 
in ch. xix. 9, an asseveration. Frorn, now, that is, they are 
blessed, saith the Spirit. From now, from this very point of 
time, when this voice speaks in the series of prophecy. A saying 
of the Spirit occurs also, ch. xxii. 17, ii. 7, etc. Moreover the 
Spirit speaks in the saints, especially those who are afflicted, 1 Pet. 
iv. 14 ; and seeking their home, 2 Cor. v. 5. "Iva, depends upon 
the word iua.%a.pim, as ch. xvi. 15, xxii. 14. Na/^ appears first to 
have occurred in the margin, as in ch. xxii. 20, the second va/ : 
whence some have made it vai Xsyu, others, Xsys; va;. The sense is 
plain without this word.** The Latin did not contain this reading, 
but expressed it in a twofold way, aii apn, a modo jam, as in Gal. 
i. 6, sie tarn. [Comp. App. Grit. Ed. IL P. IV. N. IX. § cxvi. 
cxviii.l — ha, ava.'rrahamza.i) A future, as ha ssrai, ch. xxii. 14. 

°14. Kal, and) The harvest and the vintage, which are here de- 
scribed, precede the last judgment, as Cluver fully demonstrates. 
Each of them is described also in Joel iii. 18, and throughout that 
passage, as Lange teaches. — ■/,ai)fi/j,ivov ofi,om') Some read xaSri/^ivog 
of/,oioi ; others difllerently, for vepiXij Xi-jxri, nuhem candidam ; so that 

1 Zh, here) These words also belong to the proclamation of the third angel, 
■which also contains a kind of antithesis to the threefold woe. — V. g. 

' a.voh'/iax.ooris, dying) either by a violent or a natural death. — V. g. 

3 B has «7r' oifri "Ktyu uai ; Vulg. " A modo jam." The other oldest author- 
ities have aTT oipTi. c«i) T^iyei. — E. 

* But still the margin of Ed. 2 Ji3:es a higher value upon it than the larger 
Edition.— E. B. 

° T« 'ipya, ainae, their worTcs) their gratuitous reward being at the same time 
included in the meaning. — V. g. 

" So ABC/i Vulg. Memph. : but Ree. Text, «,oc.6niiivoi ofcoios. — E. 

336 APOCALYPSE XIV. 15-19. 

there might be the same cases. The middle reading [the original 
starting-point of the other readings] mixes the cases (nor does the 
word £%wv, which follows, make any difficulty. Comp. App. p. 778, 
Ed. II. p. 488). See above on ch. iv. 4, vii. 9, xiii. 3, No one is 
ignorant of the ordinary rules of construction ; but it is not with- 
out reason that the best manuscripts in so many places agree in so 
extraordinary a figure of speech. As, after long consideration, I do. 
not think that I shall easily withdraw from the instances of this 
construction, so I do not obtrude them upon the notice of any one. 
The sense remains the same in all respects. By means of the harvest 
a great multitude of the righteous, and by means of the vintage a 
great multitude of the ungodly, is removed from the world. 

'15. Irii yng, of the earth) Thus also ver. 18, in the vintage. 
The earth is not here used in contradistinction to the sea : but yet 
the amplitude of this word is restricted in ver 20 by the city. 

18. Ka/ aWog ayyiXog ix tou 6vSiaSTriploUj o^ ix'^" ^foi'S'O'v i'jrl nu 
irupoQ, i(pca\irjSi, jc.r.X.) See the general remark respecting the Latin 
Translator in App. Crit. Ed. ii., on this passage. 'Et; rei) mphg is 
said in the singular number ; but it appears to be the singular for 
the plural, since the word <!rup, here used, has no plural. Comp. 
rm hiarm, ch. xvi. 5. — ro;)e jSoTpvoig — a'l eraipv\al) 6 I36rpvg -/.at r) 
era^nXri are often synonymous, but they sometimes differ, in the 
Lxx.: Num. xiii. 23, D^jy ^13B'«, Lxx., /SoV^ui- crrapuX^s; Gen. xl. 10, 
irlreipoi o'l jSorpuig cTa<p\j\ni- Therefore ^orpug, the whole, a cluster : 
araipuXa!, the parts, a grape. — r^s d/j,TsXou, of the vine) The plural 
is not wanting, D"'3SJ, LXX., a) a/i'jiXoi ; and yet in this place it is 
singular : all the wicked are like one vine ; they all cohere in one 

^19. "EjSaXiv, cast) By the instrumentality of this angel, there- 
fore, the grapes will be brought from the most ample vine of the 
earth into one wine-press. — rrjv Xrjuhv rhv //,iyav) Even with the 

1 eS,v]piivSn, is dried) having attained to ripeness, in a good sense, for reaping. 
Matters at the present day reach very close to this point ; and the things which 
remain scarcely admit of further increase. — V. g. 

2 So AC ; but Rec. Text omits 6 with B. A Vulg. omit Igijx^sv: and A omits 
the following xai before e(pmt,t!£i,, which Vulg. retains; so Lachm. But BC 
support e^iiTihii — xki ; so Tisch. — E. 

» ij»fea.(r»ii, are ripe) for punishment. The wickedness, — displayed by men of 
every condition, who live in our age, with respect to all things which are con- 
trary to faith, hope, and love,— can scarcely be thought capable of attaining to a 
greater increase. The appearance of the world is most abandoned, and alto- 
gether desperate. — V. g. 

APOCALYPSE XIV. 20.-XV. 2. 337 

Hebrews nj, ^ Xniog, is feminine ; but to rnv Knvht there is added a 
masculine adjective, after the Hebrew custom (see Buxtorf. Thes. 
pp. 338, 399, 423) : and this certainly here tends to an amphfication 
of the sense : as also among the Greeks.^ See Budsei Comm. L. Gr. 
col. 1500, 1501. Formerly some thus interpreted it, without per- 
ceiving the Hebraism, He cast the great, that is, the haughty, an- 
cient enemy, into the wine-press of the wrath of God. Thus Primasius 
has it, and Ansbert. 

20. Af/Aa, blood) the blood of clusters of grapes, red wine, that is, 
the blood of the wicked. The Figure Metalepsis. The slaughter 
of the wicked is intimated, not their eternal torture. Other enemies 
also afterwards fall into the wine-press : ch. xix. 15. — a%p/ tZv x"'^'- 
vuv Tuv iVTrciiv, anrh aTadlinv yjk'iut i^axosioiv, unto the bridles of the 
horses, by the space of a thousand and six hundred furlongs) Each 
phrase denotes a deep and long torrent of blood. Comp. ch. xi. 
'AwJ erahim, x.r.X., is also used of an interval of space, John xi. 18. 
Some followers of the Rabbinical school refer this to the circuit or 
to the length of Palestine. But its length, even if you include the 
districts which are lofty and secure from inundation, is much less ; 
its circuit is much greater. What if the valley Kidron, which lies 
between the city Jerusalem and the Mount of Olives (Acts i. 12), 
be meant ? For the torrent in that valley, together with its wind- 
ings, and in the sea itself, as far as it shall be stained with blood, 
may have a length of 1600 furlongs. Let us take the expression 
literally. [Comp. Ezek. xxxii. 6. — V. g.j 


^2. N/xSiras ex) A phrase of rare occurrence ; but that of Lycur- 
gus, contra Leocr., is similar, ri voiuv av v'r/.nv XdjBoi -jrapa rm woXt- 
lii'm. As to the preposition, the Lxx. have, 'koiuv Ixdlxrisiv Ix rut 
lydpuv, x.T.K. — xal ix roij apiS/j^ou rou ovof/jarog ahroZ) After xat there 
is added by Erasmus, Ix tou '/apdyiMarog avrou.^ And this is the 
reading of about two or three MSS., which are so intimately related 

' Rec. Text reads tviv fnya.'hriu : but ABCA Vulg. read to* ft.iymu. — E. 
^ Ver. 1. irthiaSti, is consummated) After this consummation there are at 
hand better things. — "V. g. 

» These words are retained in Rec. Text in opposition to ABC Vulg. — E. 

538 APOCALYPSE XV. 3-8. 

to one another, that they are, as it were, hut one , and even these 
of themselves discover the gloss, by introducing various readings 
into the text. See App. on this passage. In fact there are not 
three things spoken of : but the name of the beast, OR the number of 
his name (disjunctively), is the mark itself. The mark (" character") 
is the genus : there are two species, the name of the beast, and the 
number of his name. Hence it is that the mark (" character," charac- 
terism) of the beast is spoken of for the most part indefinitely : ch. 
xiv. 9, xvi. 2, xix. 20, xx. 4 ; but when used definitely, it is either 
the mark (" charagma," characteristic) of his name separately, as ch. 
xiv. 11, or the number o/his name separately, as here. For the one 
of these is included in the notion of the other : or at one time it is 
the name of the beast, at another, the number of his name, that 
more prevails. The preposition, h, is here used several times, as 
ch. xviii. 20. — isTarag et/' rjjv daXaaaav rfjv iaXhrji, standing at the 
sea of glass) M with an accusative, and with this very verb of 
standing, denotes either above, on, ch. vii. 1, xi. 11, xii. 18 [Engl. 
V^ers. xiii. 1], xiv. 1, or near, at, ch. iii. 20. 

' 3. ' O l3agiXiui Tuv Umv, King of nations) An august and befit- 
ting title : comp. ver. 4, and Jer. x. 7; and yet it has been variously 
changed by the copyists.^ 

4. Uavra t6i, 'ihrt, all nations) Here is declared both the conv^er- 
sion of all nations (comp. Jer. xvi. 19), and the moving cause, to- 
gether with the time of the conversion. 

7. <I>;aXa;, vials) (pidXtj d'l (poidiv, ayyiTov Xs^riroiidig Ti's^Xaruff/J/'ivov 
amSiv. — Eustathius. The breadth of the vials at the upper part 
contributes to the vastness of the sudden outpouring. Many think, 
that the vials bring in the third woe. But see Erkl. Offenb. p. 808. 

8. KaTvoD, smoke) The covering of the Divine majesty.^ 

' T^» ^3i)i/ Tou dpviov, the song of the Lamb) The Lamb sings that song in 
honour of His Father in the great congregation ; Ps. xxii. 23-26. — V. g. 

2 C Vulg. Syr. read t2» aianav. A3h Memph. Cypr. read rcJu Uum : so 
Lachm. and Tisch. But Rec. Text, without good authority, rati ayim. — E. 

' ovhtli, no one) not even the angels themselves, who were furnished with the 
vials.' — V. g. 

— sif TOK vxoii, into the temple) although it was opened, ver. 5. When the 
plagues are finished, approach to the temple is permitted. — V. g. 



1. Tag i'TTTa pidXag, the seven vials) The Epistles to the VII. 
Churches are distributed into III. and IV. The VII. Seals are 
divided into IV. and HI., and likewise the VII. Trumpets, as we 
have seen : and now also the VII. Vials. The Trumpets have 
shaken the kingdom of the world in a long circuit ; the vials with 
swift and sharp violence break to pieces the beast in particular, which 
had clothed himself with the kingdom of the world, and his followers 
and resources. Therefore the trumpets and the vials advance in the 
same order. The former set of four touch the earth, the sea, the rivers, 
and the sun : the remaining set of three fall in other quarters, and 
are much more violent. 

2. 'O vpurog, the firsi) Thus, the second, the third, the fourth, the 
fifth, the sixth, the seventh, without the noun angel} The style ex- 
presses a very quick outpouring of the vials, of which quickness this 
also is a proof, that the vials have no periods of times expressed. 
These bear a great resemblance to the plagues of Egypt, which the 
Hebrews generally suppose to have been inflicted at intervals of 
months. See Meyer ad Seder 01am, p. 287. What if the same 
thing should be about to happen in the case of the vials ? Their 
whole outpouring indeed is as yet among the things to come. — 
eAxos nvripiv, a grievous sore) Deut. xxviii. 35, J?T pnt^a, in the lxx. 
h 'ixxei -jrovnpa. [This, I believe, will be a new and hitherto unheard 
of plague. — V. g.] 

^5. 'O uv xai riv, which art and which wast) See on ch. xi. 17, and 
comp. D. Lang. Comm. Apoc. f. 188. — o oir/os) Others put aal be- 
fore 0, or for 6, or omit xal o.^ Sound exegesis often distinguishes 
the pearls of a genuine reading from the filth of various readings : 
and "Wolf excellently compares with this the passage, ch. i. 8, Kvpiog 
&iog, (2ii xa} 6 v' xai 6 ipyoihiwc, o nravTo-x-paTup. It will also be pro- 

' Eec. Text adds cLyytho; in ver. 3, with B : AC/i Vulg. oppose it. In ver. 
4 also: ABCA Vulg. opposing it. In ver. 8, 10, 12 also, with h: ABC "Vulg. 
opposing it. In ver. 17 also, with h ; AB Vulg. and Syr. opposing it.— E. 

^ ToS enpiov, of the least) Therefore the vial of the first angel will be the first 
mark [" character," characterism] of the beast. — V. g. 

* Engl. Vers, has " which art, and wast, and shalt be " (omitting omoi, and 
substituting xai 6 imfteuo; or ipx^fitvo;). ABC Vulg. support oaio;. h has et 
qui es pius. Rec. Text has xxl 6 oaio;. — E. 


fitable to have brought forward another, ch. iv. 8 : "Ayiog, dyioe, ayioi, 
Kipiog Qthg 6 vavnxpdruip, o rit xal 6 uv xul o IpyojJjitog. There is a veiy 
great resemblance between those two passages and this passage, which 
is thus : bUaiog iT, 6 uv xal it riv, o Smog. The subject there is, Kvpiog 6 
&iog 6 u\i %al o ^v Tf-al o ipy^o/jjing- here, in the vocative case, o eSi/ xal o riv. 
The epithet belonging to the subject is there, 6 'ffavToxpa.Tiaf here, in the 
same case, b osiog- in both places without the particle xa.!. The predicate 
there, ch. iv. 8, is ayiog- here dlxaiog. For the sentence is not to be thus 
construed, dlxaiog xal osiog- since there are many intervening words in 
the text. At the commencement and at the close of the Apocalypse 
the Lord is called o -rravToxparoip, the A Imighty ; here, where judg- 
ments show themselves. He is called 6 omog, the Holy. First of all 
He is praised on account of His Might, lest in the time of His 
patience He should appear to have no strength, whereas in the end 
He is about to display enough of Might ; afterwards He is praised for 
His Grace, when retribution commences. Might and Grace are 
alike assigned to the Lord in Ps. Ixii. 11, 12. The epithet oeiog 
answers to the Hebrew T'DH, and signifies gracious, m an active or a 
passive sense. Grod exhibits His own grace in all His works, and 
He receives gratitude [the attribution of grace] from all saints. 

6. "A^/o; t'lel, are worthy) An abrupt sentence, with great force. 
So ch. xiv. 5, aiLdifLoi i'lsh. Ps. xcix. 5, Xin Wi\>. 

7. "HxoLiffa Tou Sveiaarriplou X'syovrog, I heard the altar saying) John 
heard the altar, where the cry arises and vengeance descends, or 
those who served at it, here not seen by John, so that the altar it- 
self appeared to speak. Compare the phraseology, ch. i. 12, ix. 13, 
xi. 1. Such is the expression, %fOK)5 esrho XaXuv, Job xxxii. 7. 

9. 'E;8Xa(rp^/A?)ffav, they blasphemed) A dreadful sin, blasphemy : 
but yet even against the will of the wicked it turns out to the honour 
of God : for they confess, that they succumb. 

10. 'EytuTo laxoTu/Mhii) This has much greater emphasis, than if it 
were said kxoruSri or ienoTledri, ch. ix. 2, or, JcrXjjy?) rh rplrov, ch. viii. 12. 
There is a similar expression, ch. xvii. IG, riprifiui/jbhriv 'Troiridovgiv: ch. i. 
18, Jysvo^jjv vixphg: Ps. XXX. 8, iyivfiSriv riTapayf/j'svog. The Arabic 
translates, ceased : but that is too strong. — roD mnu) 3!(0, LXX. to'tos, 

12. 'e*;) We render mt upon, rather than in, because on account of 
the drying up of the waters no^ mixture is here made, as in the case of 
the sea and the rivers, where the preposition ilg was used. Marck. — 
it,npan, dried up) Thus Alex. Lat. It coheres with £§£%", and with 

' "Nulla " seems to be required by the sense here, in Bengel's Latin. — E. 

APOCAITPSE XVI. 13-16. 341 

ffuv^yayjv, ver. 16. Most editioi^s read, s^npaiSj], either from the 
rhythm iToiu,aeSrj, or from h^lMt.^ For i^i^pdnSri often occm-s in the 
New Testament, and here also it has been readily caught at by the 
copyists. — airoj, of it) and so of those rivers also, which flow into 
the Euplu-ates. The Turks at the present day live near that river. 
Or if Mahometanism, as some think, is shortly about to receive some 
injury, it may however possibly happen, that the sixth angel will 
pour out his vial somewhat later. 

13. 'ng ^arpayoi^) See App. on this passage. The nominative case 
has the same meaning, as Ex. sxxiv. 4, Suo •rXaxag >.;^/va;, xaid-sf> a} 

14. 'Ex-rropsvesSai) Many varieties of reading occur here, and 
among them, a h.crofiiiirtti ' is a specious one : but if this were the 
original reading, it would not have been altered in such a variety of 
ways, as the iniinitive, h/.-ofi-jisSai, which was not equally compre- 
hended by the copyists on account of the parenthesis. But the sen- 
tence would be abrupt without the infinitive, ilbov <:r«i\iiJ.ara, ir. s-oS ffro- 
fiaros. For the mode of expression is not the beast out of the sea, out 
of the earth, out of the bottomless pit, but ascending out of the sea, etc. 
Nor does the other infinitive, euvayayiTv, subjoined without any con 
junction, cause any difficulty, as alleged by Wolf. For there is often 
an accumulation of infinitives: Luke i. 74^79; Eph. iii. 16, 17; 1 
Thess. iv. 3, 4, 6 : and the sense is plain in this passage : / saw them 
go forth, that they might gather. There is a Simultaneum [See Append. 
Techn. Terms], concerning which see JErkl. Offenb. p. 84. More- 
over two events are marked as occurring at the same time, either by 
a repetition of the same words, 2 Eangs ii. 14, or by an interruption 
of the construction, as here. 

15. T?iv oLeyjiiLoewrtv) ni"ij?, the Lxx. generally render deyjiiuoewTi. 

16. Ka/ ffui'jjyayEv, and he gathered them together) We cannot here 
suppose that a singular verb is used for a plural (as the Syrian 
Version expresses it), because the neuter noun ^sv/iara precedes by 
so long an inters-al, ver. 13, 14; and in ver. 14 itself, the plural verb 

' The margin of the laiger Edition assigns no value to the reading l|io«>£ ; 
Edit. 2nd gives it a moderate value; the Vers. Germ., agreeing with the 
Gnomon, a sure value. — E. B. 

Vulg. has "siccavit aquam (other MSS. aqua) ejus.'' But Lachm. and 
Tisch., with the greatest number of oldest authorities, read l^npinin. — E. 

2 So AB . A Vulg. " in modnm ranarum." But Rec. Text, with inferior 
authorities, Sfioiit pa-rpi^oi;. — E. 

' Stephens' Rec. Text has sx.'n-oiifu-aBa.i : A has Ix'roofWToi/ : B, Ixs-cos^syTnf 
Vulg. has "precedent," or, as other MSS. read, "procedunt." — E. 

3*2 APOCALYPSE XVI. 21-XVII. 1-5. 

I'di is used. Who was it therefore that gathered together the kings ? 
The sixth angel. Throughout the whole of this chapter, the noun 
angel is often understood. Without inconvenience this verse is con- 
nected by a leap with ver. 12. See Franc. Junius and E. Schmid. 
— ' Ap/iayidiiv) Thus many MSS. ;^ but some few, Mayidijv, which is 
also the reading of the Aleai. MS. in 2 Chron. xxxv. 22, h rSi wtdlu 
Mayiduiv. Magedon or Megiddo was a city, of which there is frequent 
mention in the books of the Old Testament. The copyists, as it 
appears, had reference to these passages, who took away the first 
syllable from the word ' Ap/^ayibijv in the Apocalypse : but on account 
of this very syllable, in particular, the word ''E^pa'iorl appears to be 
used. Annagedon signifies either 1J?, the city Megiddo, as Hiller 
teaches in Syntagmatis, p. 229, or "in, the mountain Megiddo . for 
where there is DVpa, a valley, as the valley of Megiddo, 2 Chron. 
XXXV. 22, there is also a mountain. We do not equally inquire, 
whence Megiddo itself is derived ; for it is used as the proper name 
of a place in Palestine, very well known, on account of the great 
occurrences which had there taken place in ancient times. Nor, in 
a word, is it mentioned with this allusion on account of the mournful 
slaughter of Josiah, but on account of the slaughter of the Canaanite 
kings : Judg. v. 19. 

^21. 'ilj TaXavTiaia, as it were of the weight of a talent) Of many 
pounds singly. I take it in its proper sense, at the beginning of the 
Non-being of the beast. 


1. TJ api/Mo) DSK^, the account [reckoning], ver. 16. — xal rng 
-ropvrig, of the whore) Comp. Gloss, pp. 1195, 1440. 

2. Mif rjc, with whom) Tyre committed fornication with the king- 
doms of the earth : Isa. xxiii. 17, 18. Comp. Ap. xviii. 23. 

3. "'Epriiiov, wilderness) Europe, in particular Italy. — ^jj^/on mkxivov, 
a scarlet-coloured beast) as the dragon was red. The Eoman Cere- 
mon. teaches this. The text speaks respecting the time of the woman 
sitting on the beast. 

5. 'h fiiyaXn, ii [iriTrie, x.t.x., the great, the m.other, etc.) Benedict 

1 Eec. Text, with B, Syr. h read ' ApfixyeUuu. A Vulg. Memph. read 
Apuwyiiiiii. Fuld. (inferior to Amiat.) MS. of Vulg. has Magedon. — E. 
^ Ver. 19. i ro'A/f i fceyxT^ti, the groat city) Jerusalem ; ch. xi. 8. — V. g. 


XIU., above others, magnificently embellished the boastful name of 
Eome, in his Indietion for a universal jubilee, a. 1725. " To this 
holy city, illustrious with the memory of so many holy martyrs, and 
especially instructed in the doctrine of the blessed apostles, the 
princes of the Church, and hallowed with their glorious blood, flock 
together with religious eagerness of mind. Hasten to the place 
which the Lord hath chosen ; ascend to this New Jerusalem, 
whence from the very beginning of the infant Church the law of 
the Lord and the light of evangehcal truth has flowed forth to all 
nations. [Hasten to] a city honoured with so many and so great 
benefits, loaded with so many gifts, that it is most deservedly called 
the city of priests and kings, built for the pride of ages, the city of 
the Lord, the Sion of the Holy One of Israel. Here in truth make 
confession unto God in the great assembly, praise Him among 
much people. Liasmuch as this very Catholic and Apostolic Roman 
Church, constituted the head of the world by the sacred seat of the 
blessed Peter, is the mother of all believers, the faithful interpreter of 
the Divinity, and the mistress of all churches. Here the unsuUied 
deposit of the faith, here the fountain of sacerdotal unity, here the 
keys of the kingdom of heaven, and the supreme power of binding 
and loosing, here, finally, that inexhaustible treasiure of the sacred 
indulgences of the Church, of which the Roman Pontifi^ is the dis- 
penser, is guarded." But John, in accordance with truth, •s-a^'a- 
ffdZii and explains this boastful title : Babylon, etc. 

6. MeSvoueav) mMu, I become intoxicated, or, / am, intoxicated. 

7. Tr,; yunaixog — roD 6rif>iov, of the woman — of the beast) There fol- 
lows, by Chiasmus, a discussion concerning tJie beast, ver. 8-14; and, 
with a repetition of the short preface, and he saith to me, a discussion 
concerning the woman, ver. 15—18. 

8. ^Uv, x.T.X., was, etc.) There are three periods of the duration of 
the beast : the times of which are by conjecture related in the book, 
Erkl. Offenb. p. 1147, etc. But, (1.) To the problem there given 
there may be added a certain secondary course of the number of the 
beast, from the completion of his rising out of the sea, in the time 
of Alexander HI., A. 1169, to A. 1836. (2.) That which I said 
above, on ch. xiii. 1, Proposition 10, Observ. 29, may be compared. 
(3.) The whole of that 10th Proposition may be reviewed to explain 
many parts of this 17th chapter. — ^^Xiirmrm^) The Genitive by it- 

' ir, Tiii a/3i/i7iroi/, out of the bottomless pit) The beast ascends out of the sea, 
when he begins to be : at last he mil ascend out of the bottomless pit. — V. g. 
' Vnlg. h and Rpc Text read /ixi-z-ouTt;. AB read jiKimurm. — E. 


self, put absolutely, as Luke viii. 20, Xiywrm. — on, that) The point 
of view, by reason of which the inhabitants of the earth wonder at 
the beast : thus altogether, on, John ix. 8. — y<.ai 'Trap'ssrai^) The 
ancient authorities, with the greatest agreement, have this reading : 
some, xoti mpseriv. It is not so clear respecting M. and Pet. 3 only. 
See App. Crit. Ed. ii. on this passage. Erasmus himself, if he were 
aHve, would, as I think, yield the victory to so many MSS., whicli 
are now accessible, and would wonder at his followers, who so super- 
stitiously preserve the readings formerly established by him with 
difficulty. When I deny, that the particle'Xip is anywhere used by 
John, Wolf retorts, that not even the word 'jrapsarai is used by John.^ 
But the two cases are dissimilar. For no idiomatic usage excludes 
the verb -rrapiaTai. The Hebrew usage, which John greatly follows, 
almost everywhere renders the particle although, by 1 or za;', ac- 
cording to Noldii Concord, pp. 292, 293, not by -Miirip. Another 
argument is to be added, which plainly refutes the construction of 
Erasmus,'jnp iaTiv. For all the passages of the New Testament 
teach, that xxulmp is not construed with a verb, but with a parti- 
ciple : 2 Pet. i. 12 ; Heb. v. 8, vii. 5, xii. 17 ; and especially Phil, 
iii. 4. And thus o; gf w. Demosth., Tavra fivrifioveuiTs ptiShra, xamip 
'ivreg ou deivol roxii ahixovvTag f/,if/,vria6a.i. The same, "Exaffroi' vf/,Zv, xaivep 
dxpijSag ilSora, o/Mcag i'jro/ji^vTiSai /SoiXo/ia;. The same, AiT fie, xa'mip ou 
(piXoXo'ihopov ovrot, <phaii, alira ra moi,y%ai6ra,Ta i'mini inpi aurou. Aris- 
totle, ' AW& xal'TTsp ovTog roioiirov rou 'japovTOi Xoyoti, inipariov ^orjhTv. 
Euripides, Kayw <? Ixvou/jjai, xai ymfi irsp ova S/Jioig, To/J hio/xivoiCiv upiXiTi, 
oTog re S if. Sophocles, Vivusxa coi,<pS!>g, Kam^p axoriivhg (that is, cSn) rriy 
yi grit a,udrjv o/J,oig. Diotl, To, tou Ti^splou 'ipya,, xai-Ttsp (Xiphilinus, xai) 
■/oXi'TtijiraTa, fio'^avra yiyonvai, itap^ ra Taiov — 'Kapr/Viyxav. Zosimus, 
Kaiirip h Tuuroig ovti rip erpaTo-Ttidtfi, wipt ipiKlag ofjitag tVo/oDiro Xoyovg o'l 
Tlipsai. Julian, Kal-!r£p ravra <!roXti'!rpay/j,ovZv, riiiTro rh fiiyiSog avroy Tr,g 
apsT^c. But if any one affirms that xal'?np is construed also with a 
verb, let him prove it by examples, and those too in which ■jrep is 
not -irapiXxov, as in ApoUonius Rhodius, but signifies although. The 
nature of the particle does not permit it : for even the simple words, 
of which xaimp is compounded, namely xal (for although) less ire- 
quently, and mp (in Devarius), never take a verb joined with them. 

^ AB^ read ical vaoiuTai. Rec. Text, without old authority, reads xalxii) 
iariv. Vulg. omits the words. — B. 

, ^ Since the remarks which here follow belong not only to Criticism, hut also to 
sacred Philology, / was unwilling to reject them, although they are inserted in 
the Apparatus. — E. B. 


A more weighty argument is, that the conjecture %amip takes away- 
much from the sentiment : for the wonder of them that dwell on the 
earth is excited not so much by that, that the beast was and is not, 
as by this, that the beast lapstfra;, will he present. Enough of 
criticism : but not however to no purpose. The passage is momen- 
tous. That tetragrammaton, nini, lord, has a magnificent peri- 
phrasis, c3v xa.1 Yiv xal o ip^of^evog, who is, and who was, and who is 
to come. But the dwellers on the earth wonder at the beast, as 
though a kind of antitetragrammaton ; for he loas, and is not, and 
will be present. The Lord is described as o Ipxo/J'iiiog, coming : the 
beast 'ffapierai, will be present, when that other king comes, ver. 10 ; 
and that 'Trapovela (comp. altogether 2 Thess. ii.) is by far the most 
destructive. To the Hebrew word, KU, both 'ipxo/J'ai and vapu/M 
correspond in the Lxx. ; and in this place, xa; irapierai most appro- 
priately accords with tiv xai ovx 'ien, and it conveys a meaning some- 
thing less, than if it were said, Ipyi'^a.], or %a\ igrai. 

9. "Oprj — jSagi'kiTg, mountains — kings) The seven mountains of 
Rome were formerly defended and adorfled with seven citadels. 
Pacatus in Pabeg. : " These things thou didst survey, O Rome, 
from thy hills ; and, elevated with seven citadels, thou wast lifted 
up to a greater height through joy :" ch. 46. " These hills," says 
G. Fabricius, in ch. 3 of his Rome, " Virgil in his Georgics, and 
Ausonius in his Epithalamium, on account of the royal dwellings 
which were at one time situated on them, called the seven Cita- 
dels'' Those seven mountains were the Palatine, the Capitoline, the 
Ccelian, the Esguiline, the Viminal, the Quirinal, and the Aventine. 
But the prophecy regards the seven mountains according to the 
time of the beast, in which the Palatine is deserted, and the Vatican 
flourishes. The others are the same as they were of old. Nor 
indeed have the seven heads of the beast a double signification, — the 
one of the mountains separately, in a confused manner ; the other of 
the kings separately, in a distinct manner ; but they have one signi- 
fication only, in such a way, however, that the thing signified is 
something compound, consisting of a mountain and a king. Some 
seek for the seven mountains at Jerusalem ; but, as Wolf forcibly 
teaches, they do not make out their point. See Isa. x. 32. But 
grant that there were formerly seven mountains there ; there were 
never seven kings there also, much less were seven mountains joined 
with seven kings individually : the city itself was destroyed before 
Jolm wrote ; Jerusalem is never called Babylon, even when it is 
most blajned ; and the order of the grophecy thrusts Babylon into 


much later times. All these things are in agreement with the city 
Eome. And the first head of the beast is the Cselian Mount, and 
on it the Lateran, with Gregory VH. and his successors : the 
second, the Vatican Mount, with the temple of St Peter, built by 
Boniface "VUi. : the third, the Quirinal Mount, with the temple of 
St Mark, and with the Quirinal Palace, built by Paul II. : the 
fourth, the Esquiline Mount, with the temple of St Maria Maggiore, 
built by Paul V. Thus far the dwelling and the action of the 
Pontiffs perambulate these mountains ; and that in such a manner, 
that to the first head there is added a second, but not so that the 
first immediately falls to decay ; to these two a third ; to the three 
a fourth ; and afterwards to the four a fifth, until the five kings, 
and all things that have been established by them on the five moun- 
tains, fall. Turn over the Bullarium in order : you will observe 
four times from Gregory VII., in the first of which almost all the 
BiJls, given in the city, are dated from the Lateran ; in the second, 
at St Peter^s ; in the third, at St MarKs and from the Quirinal ; in 
the fourth, at St Maria' Maggiore. No fifi;h, and undoubtedly no 
sixth or seventh mount, is seen to have been thus honoured by the 
Popes : and this very fact tends to prove the truth of this interpre- 
tation. The seven mountains will be distinctly seen, when the 
seventh is honoured. — otou — s-jt avruv) for ip' m. Hebr. on'hv ICX. 
10. O; 'J7SVTI, ili, aXkci) The Article has a force relative to those 
seven, who are distributed into five, and one, and the other.— oKiym, 
a short space) This extends as far as the hour, in which not the other 
by himself, but the ten kings reign with the beast, ver. 12. The 
German Exegesis of the Apocalypse, and the Order of the times, 
contain a particular consideration of the times, but I wished to omit 
it in the Gnomon : and yet that theory so recurs that it even becomes 
wearisome. But if mathematicians, musicians, painters, and all 
artists, bestow pains upon the smallest subjects, and seek elegance 
in the smallest matters in particular, why should we not comply 
with prophecy showing itself most admirable in the smallest calcu- 
lations? With respect to this also the works of the Lord are 
exquisite [" sought out," Engl. Vers.] DW"i"l, Ps. cxi. 2. But no 
/ji.r/.poXoyia and curiosity of man can exceed or come up to their 
minute nicety. In JErM. Offenh. p. 1072, we made a kind of 
experiment in attempting to arrange the times of ike woman with 
wings and of the beast ; and those times are now much more plainly 
consolidated, reference being repeatedly made to Paniel. Wherefon' 
to those things which I have said in reply to D. Lange, on ch. xiii. 



1, Proposition 10, Observ. 29, I wish the following remarks to be 
added, without infringing that modesty and sobriety which 1 have 
often premised, until the event itself shaU explain things which are 
still future. 

Table : 

The Termini. 
A. Anno 1058. d. 2 Sept. far. 4, The Woman obtains wings. 
1077. d. 1 Sept. fer. 6, The Beast out of the sea. 




1143. d. 25 Sept. fer. 7, Commencement of the XLii. 

1810. d. 21 Mai. (new style 1 Jun.) fer. 7, End of the 

XLll. months. 
1832. d. 14 Oct. fer. 2, Beast out of the bottomless pit ; 

one hour. 
1832. d. 22 Oct. fer. 3, Beast increased with the kingdom 

of the ten horns. 
1836. d. 18 Jun. fer. 1, Beast vanquished. 


The terminus, from which the particulars begin, being included 
and that which is subsequent being excluded : 


Days and hours ; or weeks and days : 









993 7 







1 full. 



1 nearly. 


There are, altogether, 284,077^ days : there are 40,582^ weeks : 
there are 5797^ square weeks : there are 777| years : there 
are precisely 686 monads of Daniel (of which we shall speak 

First we will explain the Intervals, in the abstract ; and afterwards 
the Termini, in the concrete. 

Explanation of the Intervals. 

The Interval A comprises 19 years, wanting 1 day. 
B 665%% years, precisely. 


The Interval C comprises 666||f years, precisely. 
D 22^- years, fully. 

E -^^-g of a year, as nearly as possible. 

F _ 3fjf years, ftiUy. 

ADEF conjointly 45^'^ years, precisely. 
ABDEF lll| precisely. 

ABCDEF 777| precisely. 

The seventy weeks of Daniel contain 490 monads, which con- 
jointly are 555f years, as we have shown in the Order of the Times, 
ch. 10. The same Intervals are in a remarkable manner transfused 
into monads and weeks of the same kind. 

The Interval C contains precisely 588 monads of the same kind, 
which are 12 square weeks. 

B and D, conjointly, contain 78 monads, without the excess of a 

BCD are 666 monads (or 275,795]^ days, which do not run out 
17 hours beyond the appendices of the days of the interval BCD), 
by a wonderful harmony. For the number of the beast is said to be 
666, in that mode of expression, by which that number is taken not 
in one way only. See ErM. Offenb. p. 742. Thus the number 666 
comprises the first and the second Portion of the duration of the 

AEF, conjointly, are 20 monads, without the defect of a day. 

ABDEF are 98 monads, which are two square weeks. 

ABCDEF, conjointly, are precisely 686 monads, or two cube 


The numbers, and periods, which are equal under the enigma of 
different numbers, in Daniel and in the Apocalypse, are wonderfully 
ductile and versatile, so that they are interchanged with one another 
in the most connected and easy manner, which is a strong argument 
of the truth. 

Explanation of the Termini. 

A. The woman becomes possessed of wings : the beginning of the 
3J times. See Erkl. Offenb. p. 646. 

B. Of the ascent of the beast out of the sea, and of the very day, 
Sept. 1, we have treated at ch. xiii. 1, especially in Proposition 9. 
From that day is the previous flowing of the 6